Type of Research Methodology * Dr. A. Asgari


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Type of Research Methodology * Dr. A. Asgari

  1. 1. TYPE OF RESEARCH Dr. Azadeh Asgari Research Methodology
  2. 2. Typical Stages in Research <ul><li>Selecting a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the literature on the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the research </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting the data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting findings and stating conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting results </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Design <ul><li>The complete plan of attack on the central research problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the overall structure for the procedures that the researcher follows, the data that the researcher collects, and the data analyses that the researcher conducts, thus involves planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan with the central goal of solving the research problem in mind. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Research Design <ul><li>Basic research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimed at obtaining empirical data used to formulate and expand theories, and the frontiers of knowledge without regard to practical application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designed towards the solution of practical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to solve an immediate practical problem at appropriate level of complexity (t-l situation) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Applied Research <ul><li>Quantitative = involves objective measurements and statistical data analysis to understand and explain A phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative = focuses on understanding a social phenomenon from the perspective of those involved as participants in the research. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applied Research <ul><li>Aims at utilizing the previously attained principles to solve existing problems. </li></ul><ul><li>May result in a new technology or new strategy, which is better, more effective or more cost effective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G.: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research to improve learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research to reduce accidents on the highway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research to increase the production of food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Applied Research <ul><li>Clasified according to research methodology used : </li></ul><ul><li>QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlational Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex Post Facto Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exsperimental Research (Pre, True & Quasi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QUALITATIVE RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Research </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of Descriptive Research <ul><li>Principals’ perceptions towards teacher graduates from UPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems encountered during national TOEFL. </li></ul><ul><li>Current status of the teaching of science and mathematics in English: teachers’ perceptions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Descriptive Research <ul><li>To obtain information on current status of phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide information on the situation during the time of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually performed when a problem developed in current practices and the researcher wants to find out the status quo. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Involves numerous variables to be studied </li></ul><ul><li>Does not involve the implementation and control of treatments like in an experimental research </li></ul>
  11. 11. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Are of different types based on how data are collected: </li></ul><ul><li>Through self report </li></ul><ul><li>Through observations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Descriptive Research (Self Report) <ul><li>Information are obtained from individuals using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard scales. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Through observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data are collected through direct observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: sometimes both methods are used in the same research </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Descriptive Research (Self Report) <ul><li>SURVEY STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>FOLLOW-UP STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>TREND ANALISES </li></ul>
  15. 15. Purpose of Survey <ul><li>To collect detail information in order to explain current phenomena . </li></ul><ul><li>To identify problems or to justify current situation and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare situations or to evaluate current situations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Data Collection For Survey <ul><li>Survey Of Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Through Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Follow-Up Studies <ul><li>Done after a program has been conducted </li></ul><ul><li>May not necessarily be an evaluation of the program </li></ul>
  18. 18. Developmental Studies <ul><li>Concerned primarily with variables that differentiate children at different levels of age, growth, or maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate progression along a number of dimensions, e.g. Physical, emotional, or social development </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional or longitudinal </li></ul>
  19. 19. Trend Studies <ul><li>Conducted based on accumulated longitudinal data – observe what happened previously, then observe the current pattern, and based on available data, predict what would happen in the future </li></ul>