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Intended Learning Outcomes & Planned Learning Experience for Technically Developed Curriculum * Dr. A. Asgari
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Intended Learning Outcomes & Planned Learning Experience for Technically Developed Curriculum * Dr. A. Asgari



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  • 1. INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES & PLANNED LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR TECHNICALLY DEVELOPED CURRICULUM Azadeh Asgari (Corresponding author) C-3-22, Selatan Perdana, Taman Serdang perdana, Seri Kembangan Serdang, PO box 43300, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: 6-017-350-7194 E-mail: Azia.Asgari@gmail.comAbstract Learning outcomes result from students’ experiences with the curriculumcontent selected by developers and noted in their content statement .Curriculumdevelopers plan intended learning outcomes, but students achieve actual learningoutcomes. Learning outcomes are what result from a learning process. They arespecific measurable achievements and are stated as achievements of the student.Learning outcomes should specify the minimum acceptable standard for a student tobe able to pass a module or course.Keywords: Learning outcomes, curriculum content, planned learningIntroduction Intended learning outcomes represent what learners are expected to be able todo with curriculum content as a result of participating in planned learningexperiences involving one or more teaching agents. An intended learning outcome isa concise description of what a student will have learnt at the end of some learningprocess. One of the main advantages to stating the intended learning outcomes froma course of study is the way in which this allows one explicitly to consider the waysin which the goals for student learning are constructively aligned with both themethods used for teaching and supporting learning and the assessment on theprogram (Carroll et. al., 2003). Intended learning outcomes represent achievement attained by students insteadof topics to be covered, the latter being typically the purpose of a syllabus. Learningoutcomes are goals that describe how a student will be different because of a learningexperience. More specifically, learning outcomes are the knowledge, skills,attitudes, and habits of mind that students take with them from a learning experience
  • 2. (Suskie, 2009). Learning outcomes, however, offer a significant advantage over asyllabus by providing an explicit indication of the abilities that student actuallyshould be learning. A learning outcome typically consists of sentence that beginswith a phrase such as "at the end of this program it is expected that you will be ableto", which is then followed by three elements: 1. an active verb (often with an associated adverb); 2. an object of the verb (indicating on what the learner is acting); 3. a phrase that indicates the context or provides a condition. Verb Object Context new technical, regulatory & especially in relation to notions Critically evaluate policy developments in law of justice that may be involved in the Recognize any risks or safety aspects operation of computing equipment within a given contextExamples of the Three Elements of a Learning OutcomeWhat Are the Benefits of Learning Outcomes? 1. Help to explain more clearly to students what is expected of them and thus help to guide them in their studies. 2. Help teachers to focus more clearly on what exactly they want students to achieve in terms of knowledge and skills. 3. Help teachers to define the assessment criteria more effectively. 4. Help to provide guidance to employers about the knowledge and understanding possessed by graduates of programs.Potential Problems With Learning Outcomes: 1. They could limit learning if learning outcomes written within a very narrow framework, lack of intellectual challenge to learners. 2. Danger assessment--driven curriculum if learning outcomes too confined. 3. They could give rise to confusion among students and staff if guidelines not adhered to when drawing up learning outcomes. 2
  • 3. Writing Learning Outcomes Leads To: 1. Student learning becomes central when the focus is on what the student should be able to achieve by the end of a course. 2. It is not the instructors and their teaching, but student learning that is of primary interest. 3. The vital task for instructors is to facilitate and support this learning. 4. It becomes clear to students what is expected of them. 5. New instructors can more easily see what their responsibilities are. 6. The fact that goals are centered on the essential aim of teaching, that is student learning, also makes it possible for evaluation to focus on learning.Technical Approach to DevelopmentCurriculum Development: The term "curriculum" is generally understood as the courses or programs ofstudy offered by an educational institution. The concept of "curriculum" is bestunderstood, however, from the Latin root of the word which is "currere", or "to run"as in to run a race course. To use an analogy, curriculum means the course (or path)that students have to run to finish the "race" or put another way, all the activitieswhich students need do if they are to finish a program of study and achieve theintended learning goals. Curriculum is more than just a body of knowledge, a list ofsubjects to be studied, or a syllabus (Print, 1988). The aims and objectives of the curriculum are set by professionals and expertswho believe that they have sufficient technical knowledge to produce the desiredproduct (Hart, 2002). It assumes that there is agreement by all interested groups(teachers, students, communities, employers) on common educational goals and,therefore, dialogue and consensus building among groups are not required. Curriculum Development can be defined as the systematic planning of what istaught and learned in schools as reflected in courses of study and school programs.These curricula are embodied in official documents (typically curriculum "guides"for teachers) and made mandatory by provincial and territorial departments ofeducation (Clair, 2000). The most appropriate approach to curriculum development, 3
  • 4. according to the traditional literature, is the technical approach, the goal of which isto teach more content more efficiently with the greatest possible amount of studentachievement (Suskie, 2009). The technical approach focuses on a product in a teacher-centered classroom.Students listen to lectures, memorize facts, master skills, and take tests. Thisapproach involves teaching students expert ways to do household tasks; it does notaddress questions of meaning or questions of value (Bloom, 1981).Deductive approach: The term "deductive approach" represents a more traditional style of teachingin that the grammatical structures or rules are dictated to the students first. Thus, thestudents learn the rule and apply it only after they have been introduced to the rule(Kahn, 2003). A deductive approach based TESOL session is highly effectivebecause it helps a learner arrive at the language through the rule. It gives a student acomprehensive sense and understanding of the English language. It also presentsample opportunities for TESOL instructors to plan the lessons properly, to rightlypredict the problems students might face in the teaching session and prepare self withclarifications (Suskie, 2009).Aims, Goals & Objectives:Aims Aims refer to the widest level. They are general statements that providedirection or intent to educational action. They are usually written in amorphous termsusing words like: learn, know, understand, appreciate, and these are not directlymeasurable. They often are not measurable (Bloom, 1981). In context, aims are defined as the outline of educational policy of the countryand this policy aims to chart the future of education in a range of systems and valuesthat education policy seeks to consolidate in the individuals’ personality. Aims areusually written in amorphous terms using words like: learn, know, understand,appreciate, and these are not directly measurable. Aims may serve as organizingprinciples of educational direction for more than one grade. Indeed these organizingprinciples may encompass the continuum of educational direction for entireprograms, subject areas or the district (Kahn, 2003). 4
  • 5. Aims refer to general guidelines for the teachers that describe expected lifeoutcomes based on some values. Aims are stated in broader terms. They cannot beachieved completely. They are broadly phrased statements borrowed fromphilosophy. They can be applied to the educational system rather than an individualschool and classroom (MacKenzie, 2002a). For example aims can be state as: 1) toinculcate the Islamic values among the learners, 2) to cultivate the personal talentand interest among the learners and 3) to create a desire for learning among thelearners.Goals Goals are more narrows and often specific. Goals are statements of educationalintention which are more specific than aims. Goals too may encompass an entireprogram, subject area, or multiple grade levels (Bloom, 1981). Goals are statements of educational intention which are more specific thanaims. Goals may encompass an entire program, subject area, or multiple grade levels.They may be in either amorphous language or in more specific behavioral terms(Richards, 1998). In content , goals are less comprehensive than the aims and theyonly interested in the field of study in various stages of education and they arederived from the aims, but they seem to be like general aims and cannot beimplemented as they are. So, goals refer to school outcomes which can be achievedthrough certain programs. They are more explicit as compare to aims (Morrow,2004).Objectives Objectives refer to specific gains/behaviors. Objectives are usually specificstatements of educational intention which delineate either general or specificoutcomes (Print, 1988). Objectives provide great assistance to the teachers in planning process ofteaching. A well planned teaching is based on well stated objectives. Many teachersresist using objectives in their teaching and they think that it will make their teachinglimited (Print, 1988). But without objectives there is no evaluation and withoutevaluation there is no teaching. Objectives provide a focus of teaching for theteachers. Through these the students can be given feedback and the result can also be 5
  • 6. communicated with the parents easily. There are two types of objectives (Hart,2002). They are instructional objectives and behavioral objectives. Instructional Objectives:These objectives provide a road map to the teacher to select appropriate content,strategies, resources and assessment (Hart, 2002). Behavioral Objectives:These objectives are classroom objectives based on the observable behavior. Theycan be observed by the teachers while the learners perform. Objectives are useful tothe student when they state the level of understanding required rather than simply listtopics to be covered (Hart, 2002).Learning Experiences: The term "Planned Learning Experience" is first defined as any activity thatprovides a practicing administrator with knowledge or skills, or that changesattitudes, and is deliberately planned and presented as a learning event. Each learningexperience should contribute to the development of at least one learning outcomes.The student’s learning experience is key to helping students find their full potentialand enhance the quality of their learning (Richards, 2001). Learning experience is asequential set of activities, tasks, experiences, under the direction of a learningmanager, through which learning outcomes are delivered for a defined learningcohort (Clair, 2000). The primary function of learning experiences is to communicateinformation, to provide a structure and a map of the subject, to help students to copewith competing (and sometimes confusing) views, to help students make good notes,to stimulate and guide students private study, to stimulate and guide students privatestudy, and to prepare students for an assessment (Hart, 2001). There are few stepsto develop the learning experiences in order to achieve the desired objectives; a)determine purpose, b) determine outcomes to realize purpose, c) determineassessment criteria, d) determine learning content, e) select and develop learningexperiences and f) select resources. So, decision making includes categories ofmaterials and resources, activities and teaching strategies, grouping, time andspace. Decisions in these categories are legitimately involved in the creation 6
  • 7. of learning experiences. Analysis of the learning outcomes by levels of decisionmaking shows that students who satisfy the requirement of the learning outcomes arelikely to satisfy this purpose (Jankin, 2004). Most learning outcomes are cognitive as well as they should be for this purposeof education. Nevertheless, more emphasis on affective outcomes would bebeneficial, especially in the case of meeting the program outcome on “becoming amore successful, productive worried citizen". This curriculum uses both lower (L) and high-than-lower (HL) cognitiveobjectives. The learning out comes appear to emphasize content and the process.This dual emphasis is appropriate for the purpose of education. If students engagedin these learning experiences, they would be likely to develop attitudes, interested,and appreciation whether or not affective outcomes were stated (kahn, 2003).Creation of Plans for Learning Outcomes & Learning Experiences: Creating plans for learning outcomes and learning experiences is usuallyconsidered the major thrust of technical curriculum development. As a result,planners spend long hours in these tasks. Well-articulated views of education andcontent statement provide foundations on which developers build well-chosenlearning outcomes and experiences. This section concludes the development of thehealth curriculum (Richards, 1998).Health Curriculum The discussion in this section will focus on one small piece of the healthcurriculum. The health education curriculum provides all students with the skills andknowledge to promote responsible lifetime decision making and contribute to ahealthy and safe society. Keep in mind, however, that in a real world situation bothdistrict and school committee on the complete curriculum (Barfield and Nix, 2003).District level District committees have specific roles and responsibilities, carrying outfunctions that contribute to a wide variety of goals. The principle of the elementaryschool continues service on a district-based curriculum committee charged withplanning an elementary school health curriculum. Actually the aims were stated ashelping students "acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that promote sensible, 7
  • 8. lifelong health habits" (Barfield and Nix, 2003). The group also drafted a contentstatement that district evaluators used in a need assessment. The sets of outcomes extend and make more specific the aim of thiscurriculum, but they respect the differences in maturity and general ability levels ofchildren who are to meet them. The learning outcomes for the older students followlogically from those for the younger students (Hart, 2002).School level The principle must work with teachers and staff in the school to develop andimplement a revised curriculum. What the principle does know is that children in theschool and their parents/ guardians need the information in this curriculum. As theinitial step in meeting this challenge, the principle rethinks the changes processes forinitiating curriculum project. A few teachers will be ready to start, but others willwonder “why do we have to change the curriculum” (Carroll et. al., 2003).Conclusion Following the development of the classroom outcomes and learningexperiences, school curriculum developers should review the project to be sure theyadhered to content organization consideration. Because this is a subject-basedcurriculum, the developers should also check on sequence to see that the repeatedideas and skills require greater depths than those that proceeded. Finally, curriculumdevelopers should strive for integration, making sure that affective and cognitivelearning work together. If any organizational consideration is faulty, the outcomesleaning experiences should be corrected before the curriculum is implemented. The learning experiences clarify the means by which students are to achievethe cognitive objectives in the lesson. Also, teachers and students are able to carryout the participatory roles intended by the views statement. Taking part in thecommonly associated with this purpose of education especially; if the activities arecarried out over a longer period of time than the limited number of class periodssuggested in the lessons. In this paper tried to describe intended learning outcomes as occupying acontinuum of broadness narrowness from aims to goals to objectives. And then thetechnical approach of curriculum development which suggests stating the purpose of 8
  • 9. education as aims, then making the aims operational as goals, and converting goals toobjectives. Planned learning experiences provide the means to satisfy objectives. Learningexperiences indicate with different degrees of specificity how teachers and studentsare to interact with content.REFERENCESApple, M., & King, J. (1983). Humanistic education. Berkeley, CA: McCutchon. Baltzell, E. D. (1979). Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia: Protestant ethics and the spirit of class authority and leadership. New York: Macmillan.Barfield, A. and Nix, M (2003). Autonomy You Ask Tokyo: JALT LD SIG.Bloom, B. (1981). All our children learning. New York: McGraw Hill.Carroll and Head (2003). Institutional Pressure and Learner Autonomy In Barfield and Nix; (pp. 69-84).Clair, N. and Adger, C. (2000). Sustainable strategies for professional development in educational reform. In Johnson, (pp.29-49).Gibbons, J. (1989). The issue of the language of instruction in the lower forms of the secondary school. In Chris Kennedy.Hart, C. (2001). Examining relations of power in a process of curriculum change: the case of VCE physics. Research in Science Education, 31(4), 525-551.Hart, P. (2002). Environment in the science curriculum: the politics of change in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum development process. International Journal of Science Education, 24(11), 1239-1254.Hodson, D. (1993). Re-thinking old ways: towards a more critical approach to practical work in school science. Studies in Science Education, 22, 85-142.Hood, S. (1996). From Curriculum to Courses: why do teachers do what they do? In Anne Burns and Sue Hood (1995).James, E., Eijkelhof, H., Gaskell, J., Olson, J., Raizen, S., & Saez, M. (1997). Innovations in science, mathematics and technology. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29(4), 471-483.Jenkins, E. (2004). Science. In J. White (Ed.), Rethinking the school curriculum. (pp.1234-1245).Kahn, P. (2003). Teaching and Learning Support Unit, Office of the Academic Registrar, University of Manchester. 9
  • 10. Kennedy, C. (1989) Language Planning and Language Teaching. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall UK.Kraybill, D. (1991). Passing on the faith: The study of a Mennonite school. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.Lemish, Peter S. (2008). The Technical Approach and the Praxis Orientation to Curriculum Development. New York: Macmillan.MacDonald B and Walker R. (1980). Changing the Curriculum. London: Open Books.MacKenzie, A. (2002a). Changing Contexts: connecting teacher autonomy and institutional development. In A. Mackenzie 2002.Mackenzie, A. (2002b). Developing Autonomy. Proceedings of the JALT CUE SIG conference.Markee, F. (1997). Managing Curricula Innovation Cambridge: CUP.Morrow, K. (2004). Insights from the Common European Framework. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Print, M. (1988). Curriculum Development and Design. St Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin.Richards, J. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. 10