Curriculum – the Latin word “currere” means to run or to run the course
Traditional definition – the course of study
“ The curriculum must consist essentially of disciplined study in five great areas (1) command of mother tongue and the systematic study of grammar, literature, and writing (2) mathematics (3) sciences (4) history (5) foreign language
“ The curriculum may be defined in two ways (1) it is the range of experiences, both indirect and direct, concerned unfolding the abilities of the individual or (2) it is a series of consciously directed training experiences that the schools use for completing and perfecting the individual”.
Curriculum – is composed of all of the experiences children have under the guidance of the school.
Curriculum as an experience rather than product
“ Curriculum is all of the experiences that individual learners have in program of education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives, which is planned in terms of framework of theory and research or past or present professional practices”
Hollis Caswell and Doak Campbell
Defining Curriculum Mid-1950s
Schools influenced students’ lives.
“ The curriculum is all of the learning of students which is planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational goals”
Defining Curriculum 1960s-1990s
Focus on “accountability” in schools
Emphasized on end or outcomes.
“ Curriculum is concerned not with what students will do in the learning situation, but with what they will learn as a consequence of what they do. Curriculum is concerned with results ”
Defining Curriculum Mid 1990s
“ Postmodern”- an evolving and non planned set of experiences for children
Curriculum as desired goal or set of values.
“ In closed societies, the elite’s values are superimposed on the people. Education, as a practice of freedom , rejects the notion that knowledge is extended or transferred to students if they were objects”
Curriculum developers set goals, plan experiences, select content, and assess outcomes of school programs through analysis design, implementation and evaluation.
Emerging Structure In Curriculum Development
The focus of most curricular principles is specific rather than global.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, most curriculum development was oriented toward producing content packages.
By 1945, three general concerns were the finding found in most curriculum literature (1) the study of society (2)studies of learners (3) studies of subject matter content.
Mid-1950s and early 1960s the “ study of learning ” accepted as a fourth important planning base for curriculum.
These four major areas of concern for curriculum planners, known as the foundations or “ bases ” of planning.
7 Steps of Curriculum Development
1. Diagnosis of needs
2. Formulation of objectives
3. Selection of content
4. Organization of content
5. Selection of learning experiences
6. Organization of learning experiences
7. Determination of what to evaluate and
means of doing it. (Taba : 1962)
Selection of Learning Experiences
1. Validity and significance of content
2. Consistency with social reality
3. Balance of breadth and depth of experiences
4. Provision for a wide range of objectives
5. Learn ability - adaptability of the experience to life of student