CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION Dr. Azadeh Asgari Foundations of Curriculum
What is Curriculum? Any document or plan that exists in a school or school system that defines the work of teachers, at least to the extent of identifying the content to be taught student and the methods to be used in the process (English, 2000). The educative experiences learners have in an educational program. The purpose of which is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives that have been developed within a framework of theory and research, past and present professional practice, and the changing needs of society (Parkay, 2006).
A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study;
A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field;
A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify him for a trade or a profession.
Provide general guidelines for determining the learning experiences to be included in the curriculum.
-Equal Educational Opportunity
Bloom’s Taxonomy Remembering: Student can recall or remember information (define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state) Understanding: Student can explain ideas or concepts (classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase) Applying : Student can use the information in a new way (choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write) Analyzing : Student can distinguish between the different parts (appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test) Evaluating : Student can justify a stand or decision (appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate) Creating : Student can create new product or point of view (assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write)
What abilities the students possess on entry into the course?
What abilities they will acquire on leaving the course? (as indicated by the job analysis)
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (a) and (b) IS THE GAP THAT MUST BE BRIDGED WHEN DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM
Formulation of the OBJECTIVES of the curriculum Job analysis Identification of knowledge and skill requirements Formulation of programme objectives Specification of entering behavior Curriculum Design Phase
Figure 2: Learning as a change in behavior Educational Process Student Input Entering Behavior Student Output Terminal Behavior
Educational Objectives PREREQUISITES OBJECTIVE What the learner has to know before he starts the course What the learner measurably knows after successful completion of the course CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEARNER Figure 3: Educational Objectives Course Description (content)
Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Attitudes (values) Psychomotor Domain Main Categories of Human Behavior Figure 4: Main Categories of Human Behavior
Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives are statements that communicate in behavioral terms the expected performance of the students at the END of instruction.
Selecting instructional methods, instructional materials and media
Preparation of plans for instruction
Development of tests and other materials needed for evaluation of students performance
Orienting the teachers to the new curriculum.
TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: Curriculum Development Phase
Criteria of Utility, Variety & Flexibility While making various decisions during the process of curriculum development three criteria, described below, are usually employed: 1. CRITERION OF UTILITY 2. CRITERION OF VARIETY 3. CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY
Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making 1. CRITERION of UTILITY CONTENT Must know Should know Nice to know
2. CRITERION of VARIETY Interesting Variety of learning experiences Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making
COMPETENCY BASED Subject Approach Knowledge Based Analysis of Subject Matter & Disciplines Systems Approach Job / Occupation Based Analysis of Policies, Labour Market and Occupations Contd. Two Approaches to Curriculum ACADEMIC
Determining Level and Prerequisites Organise Curriculum According to Logic of the Discipline Develop Instruction Analysis of Job and Tasks Contd. Develop Instruction Organise Curriculum According to way the job is done COMPETENCY BASED Two Approaches to Curriculum ACADEMIC
Who are the Learners? What Learning Objectives? What Learning Strategies? What Resources Needed? How Evaluate? What is to be learned? How will it be learned? What Texts / Materials? What Tests / Exams? COMPETENCY BASED Two Approaches to Curriculum ACADEMIC
Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum INTENDED CURRICULUM: Refers to the PRESCRIPTIONS in the curriculum document. The intended curriculum is an inert document containing the objectives of the curriculum, content matter, time schedules and the performance standards expected.
Intended Curriculum vs. Operational Curriculum OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM When an “intended curriculum” is enacted in a classroom or given life through teaching it becomes an “OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM”. It deals with the processes of teaching and learning, organisation of the class and the milieu in which instruction takes place.
Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation 1. FACTORS RELATED TO THE STUDENT:
Aptitude for the subject
Proficiency in the language which is used as the medium of instruction
Curriculum Evaluation Phase Curriculum evaluation can be defined as the collection and provision of evidence, on the basis of which decisions can be taken about the feasibility, effectiveness and educational value of curricula.
Tasks to be undertaken: Curriculum Evaluation Phase
This is carried out during the process of curriculum development. The evaluation results provide information to curriculum developers and enable them to correct flaws detected in the curriculum. The evaluation results may contribute to the formation of the curriculum and hence the notion of formative evaluation. 1. Formative evaluation: TASKS Curriculum Evaluation Phase
This is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. Such an evaluation will summarize the merits (as well as the weaknesses) of the program, hence the notion of summative evaluation. Summative evaluation of curriculum may aid in the specification of the optimal or minimal conditions for usage. Such results may serve the clients / customers in deciding whether they should use the program at all, or under what conditions (Availability of equipment, space, time, professional prerequisites etc.) they should use it. 2. Summative evaluation: TASKS Curriculum Evaluation Phase
A curriculum that operates satisfactorily over a certain period of time may gradually become obsolete or deteriorate over time. To prevent this from occurring permanent follow-up and quality control of the program should be maintained. Quality control may reveal when some or all portions of the program should be altered or replaced. In this way quality control may lead toward the updating of an old program and production of “Second Generation Program”. 3. Curriculum Improvement: TASKS Curriculum Evaluation Phase
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