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S6: the higher the degree of task complexity, the more probable is the need for multiple information types: first task information, then task and domain information, and finally task, domain and [problem] solving information.
S7: the higher the degree of task complexity, the more information types are needed, and the greater the share of people as sources and the smaller the share of documentary sources.
S8: the higher the degree of task complexity, the more information types are needed and the greater the share of general-purpose sources and the smaller the share of task-oriented sources.
S9: the higher the degree of task complexity, the more information types are needed, and the higher the number of sources used.
S10: task complexity is distinctly related to increasing internality of people as sources and decreasing internality of documentary sources.
S11: Increasing task complexity fosters the use of people as sources.
Kuhlthau model of the information search process (ISP)
Originally studying pupils & undergraduates but subsequently looking at other user groups as well, Kuhlthau (1991, 2004) formulated a six-stage information search process (ISP), each stage representing differing needs, behaviors, and cognitive and affective states
Uncertainty is a cognitive state which commonly causes affective symptoms of anxiety and lack of confidence. Uncertainty and anxiety can be expected in the early stages of the information search process.
The affective symptoms of uncertainty, confusion, and frustration are associated with vague, unclear thoughts about a topic or question. As knowledge states shift to more clearly focused thoughts, a parallel shift occurs in feelings of increased confidence. Uncertainty due to a lack of understanding, a gap in meaning, or a limited construction initiates the process of information seeking.
User modeling is a process of identifying, understanding, and defining user information needs, context, requirements, and preferences, together with factors or attributes in the profile of the user that affect subsequent search for information
But user modeling should also deal with identifying user’s conceptions about how the information system or resource works, together with related expectations, with possible explanations on how it really works and what could be really expected