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  • 1. APA Style NoteCards A
  • 2. Abstract Find info how to write cit and reflist
  • 3. Authorship Find info how to write cit and reflist
  • 4. Article from Internet journal Author. (Year). Title of article. Source, vol. #, (issue # if each issue is separately numbered), pages. Retrieved date, from URL
  • 5. Article in an Internet-only journal Cummings, W. (2000, May). Interdisciplinary social science. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 5(2). Retrieved September 25, 2001, from http://www.sociology.org/content/ vol005.002/ cummings.html
  • 6. Article in an Internet-only newsletter Frieling, D. (2000, May). Developments in wireless communication. Telehealth News, 3 (2). Retrieved October 7, 2001, from http://telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr_9.html# develop
  • 7. APA Style NoteCards B
  • 8. Book chapter Reference: Roll, W. P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley & H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press. In-Text: (Roll, 1976)
  • 9. Book, second or subsequent edition Reference: Berk, L. E. (2000). Child development (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • 10. Book, revised edition Reference: Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy (Rev. ed.). Secaucus, NJ : Carol Publishing Group.
  • 11. Book, edited Reference: Friedman, S. L. & Wachs, T. D. (Eds.). (1999). Measuring environment across the life span: emerging methods and concepts. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
  • 12. Book, author & publisher are identical When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. Reference: National Health and Medical Research Council, Working Party of the Health Advancement Standing Committee (1997). Workplace injury and alcohol. Canberra, Australia: Author.
  • 13. Book. Article or Chapter in an edited book, one author. Reference: Ornstein, P A., & Naus, M. J. (1978). Rehearsal processes in children's memory. In P. A. Ornstein (Ed.), Memory development in children (pp. 69-99). Hillsdale: Erlbaum. Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (1986). School effects. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 570-602). New York: Macmillan.
  • 14. Book. Article or Chapter in an edited book, two or more authors Reference: Arabsolghar, F. (1998). Teacher predictions about students' memory strategies, knowledge and behaviours in Years 3, 5 and 7. In B. Baker, M. Tucker and C. Ng (Eds.), Education's new timeSpace: Visions from the present (pp. 127132). Brisbane: Post Pressed.
  • 15. APA Style NoteCards C
  • 16. Citations, additional information Sometimes additional information is necessary  More than one author with the same last name (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)  Two or more works in the same parentheses (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997)  Work with six or more authors (Smith et al, 1998)
  • 17. Citations, additional information 2   Specific part of a source (Jones, 1995, chap. 2) If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: (“California,” 1999)
  • 18. Conference paper, paper presented. Abdullah, S. (2000, November). Changing the way we learn. Paper presented at the Workshop for Instructors of Distance Learners, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam.
  • 19. Conference paper, proceedings. Hall, J. E. (1995). Alcohol and other drug use in commercial transportation. In C.N. Kloeden & A.J. McLean (Eds.), Alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on alcohol, drugs, and traffic safety (pp.3-10). Adelaide, Australia: NH&MRC Road Accident Research Unit, The University of Adelaide.
  • 20. APA Style NoteCards D
  • 21. Dictionary .
  • 22. Dissertation abstract Enos, M.A. (2001). Informal learning and transfer of learning: How managers develop proficiency. (Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Connecticut, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 2143.
  • 23. APA Style NoteCards E
  • 24. Electronic article. Journal article found in a database Reference: Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, 750–765. Retrieved January 12, 2001, from PsycARTICLES database. In-Text: (Jacobson et al., 1995)
  • 25. Electronic article. Exact duplicate of print version Reference: Vanden, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. In-Text: (Vanden et al., 2001)
  • 26. Electronic article. Format modified from print version Reference: Vanden, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html In-Text: (Vanden et al., 2001)
  • 27. Electronic copy of a journal article, retrieved from ABI/Inform Welge, M. K. (2000). International management under postmodern conditions. Management International Review, 39 (4), 305 . 333. Retrieved September 14, 2000, from ABI/Inform database.
  • 28. Electronic copy of a journal article, retrieved from ABI/Inform Kramer, J.F. (December 1999/January 2000). Valuing accounting practices. The National Public Accountant, 44 (10), 32. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from ABI/Inform Global via Proquest Direct.
  • 29. Electronic copy of a journal article, retrieved from Elite db Dobrev, S. D., Kin, T., & Hannan, M. T. (2001). Dynamics of Niche Width and Resource Partitioning. American Journal of Sociology, 106 (5), 1299 .1337. Retrieved September 25, 2001, from Academic Search Elite database.
  • 30. Electronic materials, citations in-text of If the electronic document does not provide page numbers but paragraph numbers are shown, then the paragraph number may be used preceded by the ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para. If the electronic document does not provide page numbers or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it that contains the quote. Use the ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para.
  • 31. Electronic materials, citations in-text of. Examples Cummings (2000, Civilization and Capitalization, ¶ 4) argues that the third prominent system that Braudel metaphorically associates with the world-economy is the machine.. Cummings (2000, Civilization and Capitalization, para 4) argues that the third prominent system that Braudel metaphorically associates with the world-economy is the machine..
  • 32. E-mail message Source: email message from C. Everett Koop Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
  • 33. Encyclopedia article Reference: Warren, S. A. (1977). Mental retardation and environment. In International encyclopedia of psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis, and neurology (Vol. 7, pp. 202-207). New York: Aesculapius Publishers. In-Text: (Warren, 1977)
  • 34. ERIC documents Darkenwald, G.G., & Merriam, S. (1986). Deterrents to participate: An adult education dilemma. (Information Series No. 308). ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Columbus, Ohio.
  • 35. APA Style NoteCards I
  • 36. Internet. Specific internet document Reference: Electronic reference formats recommended by the American Psychological Association. (2000, October 12). Retrieved January 3, 2001, from http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html In-Text: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2000) Subsequent: (APA, 2000)
  • 37. Internet article based on a print source. Duplicate Currently, most articles found in fulltext databases and online journals are duplicates of the print version. If you have obtained an article and have viewed it only in the electronic form, you should include it in your reference list as shown: Thomson, R., & Murachver, T. (2001). Predicting gender from electronic discourse [Electronic version]. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 193-208.
  • 38. Internet article based on a print source. Modified If the electronic version differs from the print version (eg page numbers are not given), you should include the date you accessed the item in the citation: Thomson, R., & Murachver, T. (2001). Predicting gender from electronic discourse. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 193-208. Retrieved October 7, 2001, from ProQuest Medical Library database.
  • 39. APA Style NoteCards J
  • 40. Journal article (one author) Reference: Maki, R. H. (1982). Categorization effects which occur in comparative judgment tasks. Memory & Cognition, 10, 252-264. In-Text: (Maki, 1982)
  • 41. Journal article (two authors) Reference: Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, 82-90. In-Text: (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971)
  • 42. Journal article (three to five authors) Reference: Atkinson, R. C., Smith, J., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, 82-90. In-Text: (Atkinson, Smith, & Shiffrin, 1971). Subsequent: (Atkinson et al., 1971)
  • 43. Journal article (six or more authors) Reference: Anderson, W., Witkins, S., Younghusband, C., Atkinson, R. C., Smith, J., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, 82-90. In-Text: (Anderson et al., 1971). Subsequent: (Anderson et al., 1971)
  • 44. Journal article, the reference list The details required are author.s surname and initials, year of publication, title of article, title of journal and volume number, page numbers. The format is: Author, A. A. (1994). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. • The volume number is always included • The issue number is only included if the journal paginates each issue individually rather than paginating the volume as a whole.
  • 45. APA Style NoteCards L
  • 46. List of references APA style calls for a list of References instead of a bibliography. The requirements of a reference list are that all references cited in the text of a paper must be listed alphabetically by first author's last name in the list of References and that all references listed must be cited within the text… In general, the list of References is double-spaced and listed alphabetically by first author's last name http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
  • 47. APA Style NoteCards M
  • 48. Microfilm Strickland, W. (1989). A study to identify and evaluate staff development training component in local staff development activities for North Carolina public school teacher. University Microfilm International, DA9012356.
  • 49. APA Style NoteCards N
  • 50. Newspaper article Newspaper article with one author: Morris, S. (2001, September 5). Too many minds miss the mark. The Australian, p. 33. Newspaper article with no author: UK couples join clone trial. (2001, August 7). The Courier-Mail, p. 13. If you were to cite this item, you would use the title (“UK couples join clone trial,” 2001).
  • 51. APA Style NoteCards P
  • 52. Page numbers: p or pp? Q: In referencing periodicals, what's the difference between using "p." or "pp." for page numbers? A: If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then change to regular type and give the page range without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include "pp." before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination. Use "p." if the source is a page or less long. http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
  • 53. Parenthetical citations, when to use?  When quoting any words that are not your own  When summarizing facts and ideas from a source When paraphrasing a source  Source: Purdue University Writing Lab.
  • 54. Proceedings Refer conference paper, proceedings.
  • 55. APA Style NoteCards Q
  • 56. Quotations Where the quotation is less than 40 words (short quotation), it should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated into to the text of the assignment. Where the quotation is 40 words or more, it should be displayed as a freestanding block of typewritten lines. The block should begin on a new line and be indented. It should be double line spaced and no quotation marks are needed.
  • 57. Quotations. Examples 1. It has been argued suggest that .employees may use alcohol in different ways: as part of socializing, as a stress coping mechanism, and as a way to deal with sleep problems associated with shiftwork (Zinkiewicz, Davey, Obst & Sheehan, 1999, p. 57) 2. Zinkiewicz, Davey, Obst & Sheehan (1999) suggested that .employees may use alcohol in different ways: as part of socializing, as a stress coping mechanism, and as a way to deal with sleep problems associated with shiftwork. (p.57).
  • 58. Quotations. Examples 2 3. Zinkiewicz, Davey, Obst & Sheehan (1999) found the following: Station staff were the most likely workstream to report definitely having a drinking problem and to report drinking alone. In comparison to other workstreams, station staff are often required to spend a large amount of work time without contact with other employees, particularly at rural and regional stations. (p. 56)
  • 59. APA Style NoteCards R
  • 60. Research report Williams, H., & Owen, C. (1997). Recruitment and utilization of graduates by small and mediumsized organisations. Research Report No. 29, DIEE, London.
  • 61. APA Style NoteCards S
  • 62. Secondary source Q: How do I cite a source that I found in another source? A: To cite secondary sources, refer to both sources in the text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used. For instance, suppose you read Feist (1998) and would like to paraphrase the following sentence within that book: Bandura (1989) defined self-efficacy as "people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives" (p. 1175).
  • 63. Secondary source cont’d In this case, your in-text citation would be "(Bandura, 1989, as cited in Feist, 1998)." Feist (1998) would be fully referenced within the list of References. Bandura (1989) would not be listed.
  • 64. APA Style NoteCards T
  • 65. Teletutorial Boone, E.J. (1990, August). A perspective on selfdirected learning and its implication for adult students enrolled in USM’s off-campus academic program. Presented in a teletutorial with USM off-campus students, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang.
  • 66. Thesis, unpublished Azian Nafiah. (2003). The study of women’s view on career advancement. Unpublished master’s thesis. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok.
  • 67. Thesis, first 3 chapters Find info how to write cit and reflist
  • 68. APA Style NoteCards W
  • 69. Website. Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date GVU.s 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2001, from http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey1998-10/
  • 70. Website. From university program or department Web site Smith, S. (2001). Stress, coping and health. Retrieved September 25, 2001, from PYB101 Introduction to Psychology 1a Online Teaching Web site: http://olt/arts/pyb101/sec/index.cfm/stress.ppt ? fa=getFile&rNum=143586&file=stress.ppt
  • 71. Website. Citing entire website Q: How do I cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document on that site)? A: When citing an entire Web site, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text. For example, Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive web site for children (http://www.kidspsych.org). http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
  • 72. Works cited entries, rules for  Double space each entry.  Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author.  Entries by same author are arranged by publication date, earliest first.  If no author, the title moves to the author position and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word of the title.
  • 73. Works cited entries, rules for 2  First line of each entry is flush to left margin and all succeeding lines are indented. This is known as a hanging indent.  Titles of books and journals should be italicized.  Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper nouns in titles of books, articles, films and broadcasts.  Capitalize all major words and all words of four letters or more in periodical titles.
  • 74. Works cited entries, rules for 3  Use author initials only.  Vol. # is italicized; issue # is not.  There is no period at the end of a URL in a citation. If you do not have a URL at the end, put a period there.  Put the date you retrieved the article in month day, year order followed by a comma, i.e. July 7, 2001,  Entries retrieved from RIT licensed research databases do not require a URL; use database name only.