A scientific investigation in the environment
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A scientific investigation in the environment

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Grade 08

Grade 08
Science
1st unit
Done by- AZNEE AHAMED

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A scientific investigation in the environment A scientific investigation in the environment Presentation Transcript

  • A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IN THE ENVIRONMENT M.M.Aznee Ahamed 8C 15.06.2010.
  • Content
    • Eco-system.
    • Natural aquatic environments.
    • Natural terrestrial environments.
    • Natural grass lands.
    December 16, 2010
  • Eco-system
    • There are different environment in Sri Lanka.
    • We call that as Eco-system Diversity
    • All organisms in an area with their inter relationship with non-living environment is called an ecosystem.
    • Climate diversity is the reason for ecosystem diversity in Sri Lanka.
    December 16, 2010
  • December 16, 2010 Environment
    • Natural
    • Artificial
    • Aquatic
    • Terrestrial
    • Agriculture
    • Industrial
    • Human Settlements
    • Rivers
    • Estuaries
    • Lagoons
    • Riverine
    • Inland waters
    • Ocean
    • Forest
    • Grass lands
    • Tropical Rain Forest
    • Dry Mixed Ever Green
    • Thorny shrubs and woods
    • Montene Forest
    • Wet patanas
    • Dry patanas
    • Villus
    • Wet grass land
    • Damana and Talawe
  • Natural Aquatic Environment Rivers
    • Rivers are fresh water environments.
    • Most rivers are begin at the high grounds of central hills and end up in the sea.
    • In the upper region water in a river is,
    • Pure, clear, fast and highly oxygenated.
    December 16, 2010
    • When the rivers falls down following things happen, flow rate decreases gets mixed with silt and mud, becomes unclear. When a river reaches the costal line following things happen, flow rate decreases, a lot of silt and sediments are added, looks muddy.
    December 16, 2010
    • Bio-diversity is not high as in forest, but rivers also show a bio-diversity.
    • There are different organisms adapted to live specially in rivers. E.g.: Trout can survive only in unpolluted water. This is found in water bodies in Nuwara-Eliya.
    • There are 81 species of inland fish in Sri Lanka. Out of them 29 species are endemic.
    December 16, 2010
  • Use of rivers
    • Provide water for daily needs.
    • Provide water for agriculture.
    • To generate hydro-electricity.
    • As a medium of transport .
    • Provide habitats for aquatic plants and animals to live.
    • Pollution of rivers
    • Industrial waste, destruction forest.
    • Throwing dead bodies, sand mining.
    • Dumping garbage, additional oil.
    December 16, 2010
  • Estuaries
    • The place where a river falls into the sea is called estuary.
    • There is a mixure of pure water and saline water in an estuary.
    • When a river falls reaches an estuary, it broadens and divides into brands.
    • There are triangular shaped deposits near estuaries, they are known as “ deltas”
    December 16, 2010
    • Delta’s contains sediments and silt.
    • They prevent mixing of sea water with fresh water.
    • There is a great bio diversity than rivers.
    • Economically important fish can be found in estuaries. E.g.: salmon.
    • we can find different types of organisms in an estuary, fresh water migrants. marine species. permanent inhabitants.
    December 16, 2010
  • Lagoons
    • Contain brackish water.
    • Do not have permanent connection to the sea.
    • Separated from the sea by sand dunes.
    • Rich in bio-diversity.
    • Good fishery ground.
    • Rich in prawns, crabs and small fishes.
    • Mangrove can be found. They prevent sea erosion.
    December 16, 2010
    • Lagoons get polluted due to the following reasons, development of towns. industrial and domestic waste. tourist industry.
    • Following things should be done to protect lagoons, proper disposal of garbage. Not using destructive methods for fishing minimizing the addition of oil, soap etc...
    December 16, 2010
  • Riverines
    • Flood plains found on either side of a river are called riverines.
    • Contain silt, mud and other organic sediments brought by flood.
    • During dry season riverines could be used for cultivation because they have rich soil.
    • Clay obtained from riverines can be used for, pottery industry, brick industry, tile industry.
    December 16, 2010
  • Inland waters
    • Natural ponds and lakes are inland waters
    • Inland waters provide aquatic organisms with food, breeding ground, habitat, protection.
    • Animals and plants live in inland waters are frogs, toads, fish, hydrilla, reptiles, etc.
    • Inland waters are important as they, provide water for daily needs. provide water for agriculture. have valuable medicinal plants.
    December 16, 2010
  • Ocean
    • About ¾ of the earth is covered by ocean.
    • Has a high salinity so we can’t take ocean water for drinking.
    • It provides habitats for many organisms starfish, jelly fish, coral polyps, sea anemone, tuna, algae, etc.
    December 16, 2010
  • Use of oceans
    • Food production using marine plants.
    • Producing pharmaceutical drugs, tooth pastes and paints [Algae and diatoms are used]
    • A good source of various salt, common salt [sodium chloride NaH] epsum salt [magnesium sulphate-Mg Spa]
    • To generate electricity using tides and sea waves.
    December 16, 2010
  • Natural terrestrial environments Tropical Rain Forest
    • Situated 900m above the sea level.
    • Annual rail fall is 2000mm.
    • Temperature is high.
    • Trees are, Tall [about 40m] Thickly branched. Form a canopy. Show a stratification.
    • Found in: Sinharaja, Kithulgala, Kanneliya.
    • Plants are: Dipterocarpus [Hora], Berriya [halimilla], Keena, Kalcel, Nadun, Ferns.
    December 16, 2010
  • Montane Forest
    • Situated 900m above the sea level.
    • Annual rail fall is 4000mm.
    • Temperature is low.
    • Trees are, Short and Stanted. Trunks are twisted. No stratification. Form a flat canopy.
    • Found in: Pithuruthalagala, Adam’s peak, Knukles range, Horton planes, Kikiliya manna.
    • Plants are: Lichens, Epiphytes, Mosses.
    December 16, 2010
  • Dry Mixed Ever Green Frost
    • Situated 900m above the sea level in the dry zone.
    • Annual rail fall is 1250-1900mm.
    • Temperature is above 30 degrees.
    • Trees are, Roots penetrating deep into soil. Short thick barks. Twisted trunk. Perennial and deciduous. No stratification.
    December 16, 2010
  • Thorny Shrubs And Woods
    • Situated in the North West and South East arid zones.
    • Annual rail fall is 1250mm.
    • Temperature is high [above 34 degrees]
    • Leaves are become thorns, fleshy and green colored stem, stems contain latex.
    • Found in: Madhu, Vilpathu, Kilinochi, Mannor, Hambantote, Mullaithieve.
    • Plants are: Cactus, Aloe, Cassurina.
    December 16, 2010
  • Natural Grass Lands Wet Patanas
    • Situated 2000m above the sea level.
    • Annual rain fall is high.
    • Trees are similar to montane forest type.
    • Soil is rich in humus.
    • Can be Found in: Bogawanthalawa, sita eliya, Moon plane, Bopaththalawa, Horton planes, Elk plane.
    • Plants are: Rhodo denron [Maha rathmal] Usnea [Old man’s beared], Cyperus, Pteridum [A fern]
    December 16, 2010
  • Dry Patanas
    • More spread than wet patanas.
    • There are small patches of forest in valleys.
    • The rest of the areas is covered with Mana [Cymbopogan Nardus]
    • During dry season these grasses catch fire
    • So, the soil get exposed to rain water.
    • This result in soil erosion.
    December 16, 2010
  • Damana And Talawe
    • A result of Chena cultivation.
    • Grass lands in low country dry zone are damana.
    • Grass lands in low country wet zone are called talawe.
    • Plants are: Mana, Iluk, Cane, Wood apple, Palu, Myla, Madan.
    • Animals are: Deers, Buffaloes, Elephants.
    • Can be Found in: Polonnaruwa, Weligandha, Kalutara district, Trincomalee
    December 16, 2010
  • Villus
    • Wet grass lands found in flood plains of river in the dry zone.
    • Formed in lake, pond and other large water bodies.
    • Very fertile ecosystem.
    • Show a great bio diversity.
    • Animals are: Elephant, deer, buffaloes, pea cock jungle fowl, etc….
    December 16, 2010
    • After the rainy season they get filled with aquatic plant this has becomes a tourist attraction.
    • Villus filled with fish could be used for cattle farming.
    • The most expensive Villus in Sri Lanka could be found in flood plains of Mahaweli river.
    December 16, 2010
  • Wet land
    • Located at the lower levels than the other water bodies.
    • Water from the other areas flow into these and collect there.
    • Water levels of the soil is very high.
    • As soil as absorb the maximum amount of water, excess water remains on the surface.
    • Can be found in: Muthurajawela, Bundala, Attidiya, Bellanwila.
    December 16, 2010
  • December 16, 2010
    • They are considered as important ecosystem. Because,
    Act as a sponge for water Remove Poisonous pollution Improve Natural beauty Provide a Habitat for Wild life Wet land marshes
  • Done By Aznee Ahamed
    • THANK YOU
    December 16, 2010