A scientific investigation in the environment


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Grade 08
1st unit

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A scientific investigation in the environment

  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Eco-system. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural aquatic environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural terrestrial environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural grass lands. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  3. 3. Eco-system <ul><li>There are different environment in Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>We call that as Eco-system Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms in an area with their inter relationship with non-living environment is called an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate diversity is the reason for ecosystem diversity in Sri Lanka. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  4. 4. December 16, 2010 Environment <ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Human Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul><ul><li>Lagoons </li></ul><ul><li>Riverine </li></ul><ul><li>Inland waters </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Grass lands </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Mixed Ever Green </li></ul><ul><li>Thorny shrubs and woods </li></ul><ul><li>Montene Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Wet patanas </li></ul><ul><li>Dry patanas </li></ul><ul><li>Villus </li></ul><ul><li>Wet grass land </li></ul><ul><li>Damana and Talawe </li></ul>
  5. 5. Natural Aquatic Environment Rivers <ul><li>Rivers are fresh water environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Most rivers are begin at the high grounds of central hills and end up in the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper region water in a river is, </li></ul><ul><li>Pure, clear, fast and highly oxygenated. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  6. 6. <ul><li>When the rivers falls down following things happen, flow rate decreases gets mixed with silt and mud, becomes unclear. When a river reaches the costal line following things happen, flow rate decreases, a lot of silt and sediments are added, looks muddy. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  7. 7. <ul><li>Bio-diversity is not high as in forest, but rivers also show a bio-diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different organisms adapted to live specially in rivers. E.g.: Trout can survive only in unpolluted water. This is found in water bodies in Nuwara-Eliya. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 81 species of inland fish in Sri Lanka. Out of them 29 species are endemic. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  8. 8. Use of rivers <ul><li>Provide water for daily needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide water for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>To generate hydro-electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>As a medium of transport . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitats for aquatic plants and animals to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution of rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial waste, destruction forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing dead bodies, sand mining. </li></ul><ul><li>Dumping garbage, additional oil. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  9. 9. Estuaries <ul><li>The place where a river falls into the sea is called estuary. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a mixure of pure water and saline water in an estuary. </li></ul><ul><li>When a river falls reaches an estuary, it broadens and divides into brands. </li></ul><ul><li>There are triangular shaped deposits near estuaries, they are known as “ deltas” </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  10. 10. <ul><li>Delta’s contains sediments and silt. </li></ul><ul><li>They prevent mixing of sea water with fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a great bio diversity than rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Economically important fish can be found in estuaries. E.g.: salmon. </li></ul><ul><li>we can find different types of organisms in an estuary, fresh water migrants. marine species. permanent inhabitants. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  11. 11. Lagoons <ul><li>Contain brackish water. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not have permanent connection to the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from the sea by sand dunes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in bio-diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Good fishery ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in prawns, crabs and small fishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove can be found. They prevent sea erosion. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lagoons get polluted due to the following reasons, development of towns. industrial and domestic waste. tourist industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Following things should be done to protect lagoons, proper disposal of garbage. Not using destructive methods for fishing minimizing the addition of oil, soap etc... </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  13. 13. Riverines <ul><li>Flood plains found on either side of a river are called riverines. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain silt, mud and other organic sediments brought by flood. </li></ul><ul><li>During dry season riverines could be used for cultivation because they have rich soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Clay obtained from riverines can be used for, pottery industry, brick industry, tile industry. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  14. 14. Inland waters <ul><li>Natural ponds and lakes are inland waters </li></ul><ul><li>Inland waters provide aquatic organisms with food, breeding ground, habitat, protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals and plants live in inland waters are frogs, toads, fish, hydrilla, reptiles, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inland waters are important as they, provide water for daily needs. provide water for agriculture. have valuable medicinal plants. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  15. 15. Ocean <ul><li>About ¾ of the earth is covered by ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a high salinity so we can’t take ocean water for drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides habitats for many organisms starfish, jelly fish, coral polyps, sea anemone, tuna, algae, etc. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  16. 16. Use of oceans <ul><li>Food production using marine plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Producing pharmaceutical drugs, tooth pastes and paints [Algae and diatoms are used] </li></ul><ul><li>A good source of various salt, common salt [sodium chloride NaH] epsum salt [magnesium sulphate-Mg Spa] </li></ul><ul><li>To generate electricity using tides and sea waves. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  17. 17. Natural terrestrial environments Tropical Rain Forest <ul><li>Situated 900m above the sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rail fall is 2000mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is high. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are, Tall [about 40m] Thickly branched. Form a canopy. Show a stratification. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in: Sinharaja, Kithulgala, Kanneliya. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are: Dipterocarpus [Hora], Berriya [halimilla], Keena, Kalcel, Nadun, Ferns. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  18. 18. Montane Forest <ul><li>Situated 900m above the sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rail fall is 4000mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is low. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are, Short and Stanted. Trunks are twisted. No stratification. Form a flat canopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in: Pithuruthalagala, Adam’s peak, Knukles range, Horton planes, Kikiliya manna. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are: Lichens, Epiphytes, Mosses. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  19. 19. Dry Mixed Ever Green Frost <ul><li>Situated 900m above the sea level in the dry zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rail fall is 1250-1900mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is above 30 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are, Roots penetrating deep into soil. Short thick barks. Twisted trunk. Perennial and deciduous. No stratification. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  20. 20. Thorny Shrubs And Woods <ul><li>Situated in the North West and South East arid zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rail fall is 1250mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature is high [above 34 degrees] </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves are become thorns, fleshy and green colored stem, stems contain latex. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in: Madhu, Vilpathu, Kilinochi, Mannor, Hambantote, Mullaithieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are: Cactus, Aloe, Cassurina. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  21. 21. Natural Grass Lands Wet Patanas <ul><li>Situated 2000m above the sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Annual rain fall is high. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are similar to montane forest type. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is rich in humus. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Found in: Bogawanthalawa, sita eliya, Moon plane, Bopaththalawa, Horton planes, Elk plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are: Rhodo denron [Maha rathmal] Usnea [Old man’s beared], Cyperus, Pteridum [A fern] </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  22. 22. Dry Patanas <ul><li>More spread than wet patanas. </li></ul><ul><li>There are small patches of forest in valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the areas is covered with Mana [Cymbopogan Nardus] </li></ul><ul><li>During dry season these grasses catch fire </li></ul><ul><li>So, the soil get exposed to rain water. </li></ul><ul><li>This result in soil erosion. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  23. 23. Damana And Talawe <ul><li>A result of Chena cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Grass lands in low country dry zone are damana. </li></ul><ul><li>Grass lands in low country wet zone are called talawe. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are: Mana, Iluk, Cane, Wood apple, Palu, Myla, Madan. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are: Deers, Buffaloes, Elephants. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Found in: Polonnaruwa, Weligandha, Kalutara district, Trincomalee </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  24. 24. Villus <ul><li>Wet grass lands found in flood plains of river in the dry zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in lake, pond and other large water bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Very fertile ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Show a great bio diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are: Elephant, deer, buffaloes, pea cock jungle fowl, etc…. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  25. 25. <ul><li>After the rainy season they get filled with aquatic plant this has becomes a tourist attraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Villus filled with fish could be used for cattle farming. </li></ul><ul><li>The most expensive Villus in Sri Lanka could be found in flood plains of Mahaweli river. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  26. 26. Wet land <ul><li>Located at the lower levels than the other water bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Water from the other areas flow into these and collect there. </li></ul><ul><li>Water levels of the soil is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>As soil as absorb the maximum amount of water, excess water remains on the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be found in: Muthurajawela, Bundala, Attidiya, Bellanwila. </li></ul>December 16, 2010
  27. 27. December 16, 2010 <ul><li>They are considered as important ecosystem. Because, </li></ul>Act as a sponge for water Remove Poisonous pollution Improve Natural beauty Provide a Habitat for Wild life Wet land marshes
  28. 28. Done By Aznee Ahamed <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>December 16, 2010
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