Livestock future may 2014

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Livestock future may 2014

  1. 1. Volume 05 Issue 01 May - 2014 7 An Important Dairy Cattle DiseaseIn Summer Seasonfor Dairy In FY15 Bovine Mastitis to Dairy Sector Supreme Wake up call Protocols for Dairy Animals Infertility Management Improving reproductive efficiency for increasing milk production Introduction India possesses the largest livestock ruminant population in the world (520.6 millions), and accounts for the largest number of cattle (16.1%), buffalo (57.9%), second largest number of goat (16.7%) and third highest number of sheep (5.7%)intheworld. India ranks first in milk production (121.8 million tonnes) in world but per capita availability (281 gm/day) is far lesser than many developed countries which may be due to several factors out of which heat stress is one of the importantcause. High temperature of tropics along with high humidity, in particular global warming to a great extent impairs the production (growth, milk quantity and quality), reproductive performance, metabolism, health status and immune response of farm animals. The surface air st warming in the 21 century by best estimate will range from 1.1 to 2.9°C for a “low scenario” and of 2.4 to 6.4°C for a “high scenario” which will vary depending on the geographic zones of theWorld. Climate change projections for India suggest that temperature is expected to increase between 2.3 and 4.8°C because of doubling of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere which would directlyorindirectlyaffecttheperformanceofanimals. There are many directly deteriorating effects of heat stress on animals which involves reduction of feed intake, increase in respiration rate and water intake and changes in hormonal signals that affect target tissue responsiveness to environmental stimuli and would lead to illness, morbidity andmortalityofanimals. Indirect impacts follow more intricate pathways and include those deriving from the attempt of animals to adapt to thermal environment or from the influence of climate on microbial populations, distribution of vector-borne diseases, host resistance to infectious agents, feed and water shortages, or food-borne diseases. If exposure to high air temperature is prolonged, lower feed intake is Positive Growth 2 4 6 Effects of Heat Stress on Feed Intake and Digestibility in Ruminants: Recommended Feeding Strategies Contd. on page 5 Managing Dairy Animal 3 DearVets, The dairy sector is witnessing the positive growth. The NDDB (National Dairy Development Board) expects growth of around 5.5% (year to year) in milk production for the coming year. However, Scientists fear that climate change is likely to affect milk production in the coming year. Our country is likely to be more vulnerable due to the overdependence of higher population on agriculture sector. It is in this context the global experts are debating for suitable solutions. Recently, the Animal Nutrition Society of India (ANSI) organized a global animal nutrition conference on ,” Climate Resilient Livestock Feeding Systems for Global Food Security” to address the problems for finding suitable solutionswas agreatsuccess. In this issue bring to you topics of interest pertaining to effects of heat stress on feed intake and digestibility in ruminants, managing dairy animals in summer season, role of livestock in climate change, bovine mastitis: an importance dairy cattle disease and infertility management protocols for dairy animals. Hope you would enjoyreading. We would look forward for your practical experiences and views on minimizing the impact of livestock production owing to climate change. Newer technologies like hydroponics technology for green fodder production @365 is been promoted for saving land, water and labour to reduce the climate change impact. Dr. Anup Kalra followed by a decline in the secretion of calorigenic hormones (growth hormone, catecholamines and glucocorticoids in particular) involved in thermogenic processes of digestion and metabolism. All these events together would tend to reduce metabolic heat production and might be responsible for modifications of energy, lipid, protein and mineral metabolism, and liver function inthebody. EffectsofHeatStress: Effecton nutrientuptake and digestibility Increase in environmental temperature casues severe damage to the physiology, metabolism and health of animals. Increased heat load decreases nutrient uptake in almost all species and in case of cattle, the nutrient uptake decreases upto 30% of dry matter intake. Digestibility at 25°C to 30°C did not change whereas digestibility increased at 35°C and then decreased at 40°C could be attributed to change in rumen environment (pH, rumen temperature, rumen motility, rumen flora and fauna) due to higher intensity of thermal stress. Feed intake in lactating cows begins to decline at ambient temperatures of 2526°C and reduces more rapidly above 30°C and at 40°C; the dietary intake may decline by as much as 40% resulting in a negative energy balance (NEB) and loses significant amount of body weight and body score. During heat stress, DMI was reduced in the lactating goats because of decreased metabolic rate and more heat production. The concentrate intake during cool, comfort, hot-dry and hot-humid exposures did not change in buffalo calves whereas, wheat straw intake decreased significantly by 29.65% and 30.09% during hot-dry and hot-humidexposures respectively. Effecton ruminationand rumenmotility The rise in environment temperature alters the basic physiological mechanism of rumen which negatively affectsthenutrientenergybalanceofruminants. Heat stress reduces the dry matter intake, decreases ruminal motility and contraction, changes the fermentation pattern and volatile fatty acid production, affects the digestibility and nutrient utilization, and thus impairs the productive and reproductive efficiency of animals. Increase in environmental temperature reduces the rumination time and also depresses the appetite by having a direct negative effect on appetite centre of the hypothalamus. It was also reported that rumination decreases during dehydration of animals resulting from heat stress. Moreover, blood flow to rumen epithelium is depressed 1 2 2 1 1 2 Ramendra Das , M.V.Choudhari , Nishant Verma , Ashwani Arya , Dhaman Kumar and Rakesh Kumar 1. M.V.Sc Scholar, Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, NDRI 2.Ph.D Scholar, Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, NDRI Appelite Stimulant & Digetive Tonic
  2. 2. Visitors at Ayurvet Stall ASK THE EXPERT Q.What is inbreeding? How will it affect my livestock? Vikas Kumar,Delhi A. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. If practiced repeatedly, it often leads to a reduction in genetic diversity, and the increased gene expression of negative recessive traits, resulting in inbreeding depression. This may result in inbred individuals exhibiting reduced health and fitness and lower levels of fertility. Livestock breeders often practice inbreeding to "fix" desirable characteristics within a population. However, they must then cull unfit offspring, especiallywhen trying to establish the new anddesirabletraitintheirstock. Q.How do I careforanewborn calf? Swati Verma, Bareilly, U.P. A. Nature usually runs its course and everything goes fine with newborn calves. But there are several things that a rancher needs to check for, and several things you can do to make sure that your calf gets off to a good start. In order to survive, your calf absolutely must get a good dose of colostrum. Colostrum is the first milk from its momma and is rich in nutrients it needs for the calf to survive. Your primary concern when you first spot your newborn calf is to make sure that the calf gets up and nurses from the momma. If there is some problem preventing the calf from nursing, you either need to fix the problem or give the calf an alternative colostrum (such as frozen colostrum or dry-mix colostrum). Q. What is Brucellosis? PradeepKumar,Delhi A. Brucellosis is caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus and it is spread via infected placentas, vaginal discharges and aborted fetuses. Following the ingestion of B. abortus, susceptible cows or heifers may have abortions, retained placentas, weak calves or infertility problems. Milk from an infected cow also may harbor B. abortus. The infected milk creates a public health problem because B. abortus causesbrucellosis("undulantfever")inhumans. Q. What is the cause of mastitis? What are the clinicalsigns forit?And how can itbetreated? Hari Om, Aligarh A. Mastitis occurs most frequently when you have a heavy milking cow and a calf that is not eating enough. The down side of cows that produce lots of milk is they are more likely to get mastitis and they are harder to keep through the winter. The up side is they raise the biggest calves. So you have to maintain abalance.More is notnecessarilybetter. Page 2 In an effort to educate and guide our customers, team Ayurvet had participated in various farmers events in collaboration with the agriculture / veterinary universities andfiledveterinarians. Recently, Ayurvet team participated in melas as mentioned– EHyderabad International Trade Exposition during February 2014 organized by HITEX International Trade Expositions (a division of L & T) in association with Active Exhibition & Conference at Madhapur, Hyderabad. E8th PDFA International Dairy Show & Agri Expo during February 2014 at Jagraon, Ludhiana organized by PDFA(Progressive DairyFarmer'sAssociation) EProgressive Punjab Agriculture Summit 2014 during February 2014 at SAS Nagar (Mohali), Punjab organized by Punjab Government in association with PHD ChambersofCommerceandIndustry. EGPDFA (Gujarat Progressive Dairy Farmers Association) expo and cattle show on dairy sector during January 2014 at Chikhodra Road, Anand (The MilkCapitalofIndia). MAY ISSUE 2014 th E8 series of IAI Dairy Expo during February 2014 at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi organized by Pixie Consulting SolutionsLtd. EPusa Krishi Vigyan Mela 2014 during February 2014 at IARI, New Delhi. EPashudhan Evam Kisan Mela on the theme of “Managing Livestock & Agriculture Production in Context of Food Security” during March 2014 organized by DUVASU (U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evam GoAnusandhan Sansthan, Mathura and U.P. Seed Grower Association at UniversityGround. The experts and farmers appreciated the herbal scientifically valdiatedsolutionsAyurvetforimprovingthefarmprofits. The hydroponics technology for production of green feed and the integrated approach of agriculture and livestock for sustainabledevelopment. This holistic approach of Ayurvet “5F” i.e. security for Food, Feed, Fodder, Fertilizer and Fuel was appreciated and understoodbythevisitors. Positive Growth for Dairy in FY15 According to India Ratings and Research (Ind-Ra), the dairy sector is likely to witness positive growth, increase in market size and milk production and strong rise in exports in the next fiscal. India's milk sector is regarded as one of the world's fastest growing market and the agency expects it to expand by 16.3 percent in FY'15 The positive outlook also stems from increasing the government's initiatives on improving rural income.The agency also assigned a stable outlook to the dairy cooperatives (DCs) for FY'15. On the back of likely favourable monsoons and strengthening farmer base of the cooperative model, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) expects 5.47 percent year-on-year growth in milk production in FY'15. It said export opportunities have opened upasmilkproductionishigherthandomesticdemand. Climate Change a Big Challenge Dr. A. K. Srivastava, VC, NDRI, Karnal Scientists fear climate change is likely to affect milk production in the coming year. “The impacts of climate change are global, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the high population depending on agriculture. Around 1.5 million tonne of milk will reduce every year if the climate changes continue, “according to Dr.A. K. Srivastava, Director, NDRI, “Although we are on top in the world with 132.8 million tonne milk production, the changing climate is a big challenge for animal production”. and supply of feed and fodder in the country. He told that we have to tap new feed resources and improvise the utilisation of different agricultural by-products as qualityanimalfeeds. True to the topic of the seminar, Ayurvet made the presentation on Hydroponics technology for producation of green feed. Speaking to the delegates Dr. Anup Kalra shared thatAyurvet ProGreen Hydroponics produces quality green and conserves land, water and time. He also shared the experience of SUMUL, RAJUVAS, HLDB which have shown encouraging results by feeding Hydroponics green feeds for improvingAnimalhealthandproduction. Animal Nutrition Society of India in association with Compound Livestock Feed Manufacturers Association of India (CLFMAof India) and VIV India is hosted a Global Animal Nutrition Conference on the theme of , “ Climate Resilient Livestock Feeding Systems for Global Food th nd Security” from 20 –22 April 2014 at Vivanta by Taj – Yeshwantpur, Bengaluru. Honourable Governor of Goa, Shri. Bharat Vir Wanchoo inaugurated the 'Global Animal Nutrition Conference on 20th April 2014. The Chief Guest emphasised the importance of livestock sector in India's economy and livelihood security of marginal farmers. Dr. S. Ayyappan, Secretary DARE and DG, ICAR presided over the function. He asked the scientific and development agencies to address the wide gap in demand Global Animal Nutrition Conference at Bengaluru Ayurvet Fecilitates Extension Education Through Farmers Forum Dignitaries at Ayurvet stall Dignitaries on dias
  3. 3. Page 3 this the extra protein and energy rich cakes and oils approximately 0.8% of body weight should be fed to counter the stress of high temperature for maintaining normal milk production and other activities. Water should be clean and available five to six times a day possibly cold waterattheirdrinkingtime Sheltermanagement: Shelter plays a key role in production efficiency of high producing dairy animals because it protects them from extreme weather conditions and provides comfort. If the animals are in discomfort due to summer ; alterations in house should be made by covering the windows at day time by jute bags, etc. and should be kept wet so cold air may enter in. This will certainly protect the animals against hot winds (loo). Spacing should be appropriate (3.5 sq. m. for cows and 4 sq. m. for buffaloes). Bedding should be 1- 2 inches thick and cold. Windows should be opened at night for air and disinfection. Proper ventilation in animal housing is undisputedlyimportant. Generalmanagement: During a warm day the dairy animal should be kept indoors and in the loafing area at night. The bathing, washing and grooming should be carried out in open area in early morning or evenings and it should be followed by water splashing to preventitching,skindiseasesand ectoparasites. Sunlightexposure inearlymorningisgoodfordairy animal's especially young dairy calves. More quantity of green fodder feeding is advised. It will provide coolness, protein and Tips for Managing Dairy Animals in Summer Season 1 2 Dr K S Dangi , Dr Rajinder Singh 1 Chairman Haryana Livestock Development Board & Former D.G. Dept of Animal Husbandry Department, Haryana 2 Sr Extension Specialist (Animal Sciences) Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Extension Center Rohtak In summer the temperature rises up to 50 degree centigrade and it badly affects the dairy animals. Consequently the animals often go off feed, feverish and stressed. This affects the milk production, health and reproduction of the animal. Normal cow and buffalo body temperature ranges between 101-102 degree Fahrenheit and suitable ambient temperature favorable is 65-75 degree Fahrenheit. Severe hot surroundings mean more energy and protein loss which has to be compensated by giving extra calorie protein rich feed and special care. However cows and buffaloes freshening shortly before summer months produce less total milk than other seasons. During this season unfavorable temperature (very hot), low availability of quality greens and digestible feed are the reasons for it. Following is a list of do's and don'ts for their special care in thisseason: Feedingand watering: Generally the dairy animal should be fed balanced ration comprising of dry matter at the rate of 2.5 kg per 100 kg body weight out of which one third should be from concentrate mixture, one half from dry roughages and one sixth from green roughages. Concentrate mixture should comprise of grains (40%), oil cakes (32%), brans (25%), mineral mixture (2%) and common salt (1%). Apart from will be helpful in maintaining body temperature normal. Green fodder contains carotene which converts into vitamin A. It should be mixed with dry fodder in appropriate proportion. Feed dry fodder at night when temperature is low.Wallowingisrecommendedforbuffaloes. Sanitation: Animals should be fed clean and dust free feed and water. Thorough cleaning of animals sheds, dung, urine, milking parlour,teatsofmilchanimalsisalsoveryimportant Vaccination: Many diseases flare in summer stress. Vaccination against various contagious diseases such as FMD, H.S., T.B., J.D., B.Q. etc. should be carried out about once or twice a year according to the schedule. This would certainly avoid the expenses incurred on routine treatment and production lossesduetoillnessandwouldalsoimprovequalityofmilk. In summer the temperature rises up to 50 degree centigrade and it badly affects the dairy animals. Consequently the animals often go off feed, feverish and stressed. This affects the milk production, health and reproduction of the animal. During this season unfavorable temperature (very hot), low availability of quality greens and digestible feedarethereasons forit. MAY ISSUE 2014 vector populations into cooler areas (in higher attitude areas: malaria and livestock tick-borne diseases) or into more temperate zones (such as bluetongue disease in northernEurope). Climatic effects on livestock: Direct and/or Indirect Climate change may have direct or indirect effects on livestock. The quantity and quality of the feed supplied to the animal is a major factor but as well as the direct relationship between the nutrition of the animal and its thermal environment, modifications to the seasonal availability of forage may have implications on animal productionsystems. Indirecteffects Livestock numbers:Total GHG emissions from livestock are positively related to the numbers of livestock. It is likely that our systems will be under political and social pressure to reduce livestock numbers to reduce the levels of emissions. Additionally, lower numbers of more productive animals will also contribute to more efficiency ofproductionrelativetoemissions. Breeding: Many non-genetic farm technologies that could help to mitigate emissions require ongoing investment of some sort to maintain the commercial benefit (e.g., dietary Role of Livestock in Climate Change 1 2 3 D. K. Meena1 ,Gopal Sankhala2 and M. L. Meena 1 2 3 Ph.D. Scholar, DivisionofDairyExtension, NDRI, Karnal, PrincialScientistDivision of DairyExtension, NDRI, Karnal, Subject MatterSpecialist,KrishiVigyanKendra,Pali,Rajasthan The specificities of Greenhouse Gas emissions fromthelivestocksector The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions profile of livestock production is fundamentally different to that of other sectors such as transport. The emissions result from inherently variable, biological processes which are extremely numerous and complex. There are limited possibilities for managing these intractable emissions arising from biological processes. Methane emissions (CH4) arise from enteric fermentation by ruminant animals and from manures whilst the application of organic and inorganic fertilisers to soil can give rise to nitrousoxide(N2O). Climatechangeeffectson livestock In pastoral and agro-pastoral systems, livestock are key assests for poor people, providing multiple economic, social, and risk management functions. The impacts that climate change will bring about are expected to exacerbate the vulnerability of livestock systems. For rural communities losing livestock assets might lead to the collapse into chronic poverty with long-term effects on theirlivelihoods. Livestockhealth Major impacts on vector-borne disease: Expansion of manipulation). Genetic improvement on the other hand is effectively a permanent change and does not require additional or continuing resources. Many breeding goals for livestock species include production traits and productionefficiencyandthishelpstoreduceemissions. Crop and animalhealth A new range of pests and diseases will affect our crop and forage species with effects on the quantity and quality of livestock feeds. Similarly, we will face new challenges in the field of livestock disease. Diseases currently thought of as “exotic” may become of importance whilst existing diseases e.g. parasitic gastroenteritis may become more widespread with increased costs of control and risks of immunity developing. The link between climate changes and diseases risks from various pathogens has been increasingly recognized. The effect of climatic factors on host parasite population dynamics is particularly evident in northern altitudes where the occurrence and transmission of parasites are strongly regulated by seasonality driven changesinenvironmentaltemperatures. Options derivedfromanimalmanagement 1. Improving the productivity of farm animals will lower emissionsperunitproduced. 2. Potential modifications of the diet of ruminants may Climate change, which can be defined as the misbalance, on the long term, of customary weather factors such as temperature, wind and rainfall characteristic of a specific region on Earth, is likely to be one of the main challenges that human kind will face in the current century. The major scientific studies have shown that increasing average temperature of the Earth is now a reality and increased concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, due to human activities, mainly the emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from combustion of fossil fuel contribute to the enhancement of global greenhouse effect, the disturbance of the radioactive forcing, and consequently the intensificationofclimatechange phenomena. Contd. on page 8
  4. 4. Page 4 Opportunity to Advertise in Livestock Future corporate advertorial / logo / event information Pleasesendinyourcheque/draftinfavourofAyurvetLimited,addressed to6thFloor,SagarPlaza,VikasMarg,LaxmiNagarDisttCentre,Delhi-92. Contact on (Tel.) 011-22455992-94, (Fax.) 011-22455991 e-mailswati@ayurvet.com/info@ayurvet.com Reaching your Veterinarians, is now easier! Price Size Area A. Rs. 1,500 /- 1/8 B. Rs. 2,500/- 1/4 C. Rs. 4,000/- 1/2 Advertisement Tariff Approach 5000+ Veterinarians/ Animal Health Experts bi-monthly As per length and width of Livestock Future Mastitis an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection, trauma, or injury to the udder, remains the most common and expensive disease affecting dairy cattle throughout the world. Mastitis is caused by several different bacteria that can invade the udder, multiply there and produce harmful substances that result in inflammation. Itreducestheproductivityofthecowaswellasthequalityof milk causing enormous losses for breeders and consequently,tothenationalincomeofthecountry. Etiology This disease can be caused by an infectious or non- infectious etiological agent. The infectious type of mastitis is the most important one that frequently occurs due to infection by one and / or the other pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, yeasts and algae (DaRong et al, 2010). Classically, the mastitis pathogens may either be contagious or environmental. The contagious pathogens are the organisms which are adapted to survive within the host, in particular within the mammary gland, and are capable of establishing sub-clinical infections, which are typically spread from cow to cow at or around the time of milking (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Str. Dysgalactiae) (Bradley, 2002). The environmental pathogens are opportunistic invaders of the mammary gland which typically invade, multiply, engender a host immune response and are rapidly eliminated (e.g. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter aerogees, Streptococcus uberis, Corynebacterium bovis, Mycoplasma species, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus species, environmental Streptococci)(BedadaandHiko,2011). Despite intensive research, the etiology of around 20-35% of clinicalcasesofbovinemastitiscannotbeestablishedreadily. Types ofmastitis Mastitis is mainly of two types. It may be Sub-clinical type in which although there are no visible changes in the appearance of the milk and / or the udder, milk production decreases by 10% to 20% with undesirable effect on its constituents and nutritional value rendering it of low qualityandunfitforprocessing(RadyandSayed,2009). Sub-clinical mastitis is the most common and economically most harmful; and gradual decline in milk production is its characteristic feature although there are no visible or palpable external changes inspite of the presenceofinfectionandinflammationintheudder. The milk has a normal or slightly increased somatic cell count. Normally the bacterial count of herd milk is not affected and will remain below 50,000 per ml. It is estimated that 50% of all cows have subclinical mastitis in onequarteroftheirudder. The other type is in which there is anClinical Mastitis inflammatory reaction characterized by heat, pain, swelling and redness of the udder, along with reduced as wellasanabnormalnatureofmilkyield. It is usually accompanied by a mild fever and the animal is depressed. The affected quarter is sensitive to touch and painful to the animal. If is notacute mastitis attended and the inflammatory process persists for long, it gets converted into which may furtherchronic mastitis lead to a progressive fibrosis (hardness) of the gland thereby rendering the milk secreting tissue unable to produce any more milk. These changes are generally incurable and permanent. Often one or more quarters or even the whole udder may become permanently dysfunctional. Effecton dairyindustry Mastitis is responsible for heavy economic losses due to reduced milk yield (up to 70%), milk discard after treatment (9%), treatment costs (75), premature culling (14%) (Bhikane and Kawitkar, 2000), decrease in milk quality and price due to high bacterial / somatic cell count, increased risk of subsequent mastitis, herd replacement, antibiotics residue in milk and its products and rejection by processor and consumer (Harmon, 1994). Though cows with clinical mastitis have more dramatic changes in milk yield and composition than cows with subclinical mastitis, Bovine Mastitis: An Important Dairy Cattle Disease by Anita Tiwari Ph.D. Scholar, School of Public Health & Zoonoses, GADVASU, Ludhiana - 141004 Mastitis involves an inflammation of the mammary gland through bacterial infection, trauma, or injury to the udder. One of the most common diseases incurring huge losses to the diary industry, it not only reduces the productive capacity of the cows but is also expensive to treat. Mastitis, mainly of tow types – sub-clinical and clinical, is responsible forheavy economic losses due to reduced milk yield, milk discard aftertreatment, treatment costs and prematureculling. MAY ISSUE 2014 the losses due to latter are more severe than those due to the former (Muhamed et al, 2011). The Indian diary industry suffers and annual loss of approximately 526 millions dollars due to mastitis, 70% of which is due to subclinicalmastitis(RadyandSayed,2009). Diagnosis While acute clinical mastitis is easily suspected/recognized even by farmers and is readily diagnosed due to udder swelling, pain and drasticdecreasein milkproduction,the sub-clinical mastitis has neither visual abnormalities in the mammary gland (swelling, hotness, cracks etc.) nor in the milk (blood, clots, flakes etc.). Therefore, routine physical examination of udder and diagnostic screening tests for early detection of mastitis and proper treatment of affected animal are of paramount importance in order to minimizelossesduetosub-clinicalandclinicalmastitis. Physical examination of udder: It can be done by visual observation and digital palpation. Physical examination of each gland must be made immediately after milking when the hormone stimulation has ceased and the udder is completelyrelaxedandempty(Sharmaetal,2009). Milkexamination The visible abnormalities like presence of flakes or clots in the milk, changes in the consistency and colour of milk (which may be thin or watery and at times yellow in color) are noted (Sharma et al, 2009). For convenience milk examinationtestsmaybedividedintotwogroups, viz: — Direct or cultural test: These are the standard tests for determining the presence and identity of mastitis organisms in the milk, but are time consuming and requiretechnicalskillandlaboratoryfacilities. — Indirect Tests: These depend upon the development of palpable lesions in the udder or changes in the composition of milk. Indirect tests (e.g. Somatic cell count, California Mastitis Test, Strip cup test etc.) are useful in determining the quality of milk in the absence of laboratory facilities. These are simple, economical,fastandeasytouseasacow-sidetest. Risk Factors: Factors Ageandparity Stage of lactation Milking techniques Milking interval Milking hygiene Udder immunity Season Housing system Dietary factors Relation with Intra-mammary Infection Increasing parity increases the risk of clinicalmastitis Lactating cow is more likely to develop clinical mastitis during the first 3 months of lactation than the remainder ofthelactatingperiod Over- milking, faulty machine milking, knuckling and stripping method of milking can induce damage to the teat tissueincreasingtherisk ofmastitis Milking should be done at fixed time interval to reduce the incidence of mastitis Udder hygiene significantly associated with the risk of environmental pathogen intra-mammaryinfectionincows Teat duct-primary physical defense for the mammary gland. When the integrity of the teat canal is damaged, the quarter will be predisposed to intra–mammary infection. Mastitis is high in summer and rainy monthsandlessinwintermonths High stocking density, dirty bedding or ground, infected utensils, poor ventilation and high humidity are importantriskfactors. Deficiency of vitamins E, A, b-carotene and the trace minerals selenium, copper andzinc-greaterrisk. Contd. on page 5
  5. 5. Page 5 during heat stress and reticular motility and rumination is decreased whereas, the volume of digesta in the rumen of beef cows, goats and revierine buffalo increased. A very high concentration of lactic acid was observed in heat- stressed cattle, which lowers the ruminal pH and in turn inhibiting rumen motility. Heat stress reduces the acetate whereas increases the propionate and buyate production. Therefore the animal responds by consuming less roughage which leads to variation in digestion patterns due to changes in microbial population in the rumen and increased inrumenpH from5.82to6.03 inlactatingcows. Ruminal and intestinal absorption of nutrients in ewes were found to be changed when exposed to thermal exposure for different durations. Later on when the ewes were chronically exposed to heat, there was lower diet digestibility and lower pH and cellulolytic and amylolytic bacteria concentrations, slower digesta passage rate and lower osmolarity of rumen content, indicating a possible impairment of bacterial activity and high dilution of rumen fluid. There are some of the gastrointestinal hormones that influencemotilityandalsoaffectfeedintakeinruminantsbut there is not clear evidence of involvement of gastrointestinal hormones and peptidergic neurons in mediating the effect of temperatureongastrointestinalmotility. Heat stress tends to decrease the ruminal fermentation and therefore reduction in methane production, leading to lowerruminalactivity. Feedingapproachtoovercomeheatstress Maintaining optimum nutrient balance and providing highly palatable and digestible feeds and ample supplies of fresh and clean water, along with shade and ventilation, will go far toward keeping your animals comfortable and healthy. Low quality, stemmy forages generate more heat of fermentation inside the rumen and contributing to the animal's total heat load. So animals should be provided with high quality forages but don't go below 18-19% ADF (acid detergent fiber) which would digest faster and result in lesser heat production. Decreasing the forage to concentrate ration (feeding more concentrate) could be practised whereas, excess concentrate may cause problems like rumen acidosis and animal can go off feed. Sodium bicarbonate or sesqui-carbonate at the rate of 0.25 to 0.5 lbs./cow/day can help buffers the rumen to accommodate higher levels of concentrate. Increase buffer to 0.75% of DMI (dry matter intake) in Total Mixed Rations or completefeedsandofferfreechoice. Other feed additives like yeast (improved fiber digestion), fungal cultures for example Aspergillus oryzae and niacin (improved energy utilization) can be incorporated into the ration for better comfort to the animals. however, all of these additives should not be used together. Ration of Contd. from page 1Effects of Heat Stress... Treatment The treatment of clinical mastitis is generally based on clinical signs, number of episodes and the likelihood of response. It should include supportive therapy, milk-out, and observation until culture results are available the following day. In case of contagious pathogen, all 4 quarters should be treated to ensure elimination of pathogen and to prevent possible cross-infection of a non infected quarter. Drug manufacturer's instructions regarding frequency, duration and level of treatment should be precisely followed. Udder balm may be applied on the udder to reduce inflammation. For anti bacterial treatment, the drug (usually an antibiotic) must reach the causative bacteria in the udder. Therefore, an intra-mammary treatment is by far the most common method for all forms of mastitis.Theantibioticmustbeadministeredintotheteatofthe affectedquarterafterithasbeenemptiedofmilk. Antibiotictherapy a)Parenteral administration-Severe mastitis is usually treated systemically, although intra-mammary therapy willoftenbeusedadjunctively. b)Intra-mammary administration-This route is accepted as the route of choice in the treatment of subclinical, chronic or mild clinical mastitis and as prevention during dry clinical mastitis and as prevention during dry cow therapy. It permits delivery of the antibiotic directly into themammarygland. Hygiene and management: The infection easily spreads from one cow to the other during milking via contaminated milk, hands of the milker, and udder cloths (in case of milking machine). Infection may also occur during the interval between milking. Possible routes are contaminated beddings, licking of teats and udder, contact of the udder with the tail and legs and files. Therefore strict hygienehastobemaintained. Cows with a high cell count can be separated from healthy cows with a low cell count. Disinfection of the entire teats immediately after milking in a safe and effective teat dip is perhaps the most important single measure a dairy farmers can take to reduce new infections in a herd. Most commercially available teat dips will reduce new infectionsbyatleast50%. Controland prevention Cows suffering from mastitis may recover spontaneously, but usually drug therapy is required to maintain productivity. It is a good practice to empty the affected quarters as often as possible by stripping the concerned teats several times per day. Improved animal husbandry, hygiene and good management are the only practical methods of prevention and disease control. To prevent cows from damaging their teats barbed wires should be removedfromthepremises. Contd. from page 4 Bovine Mastitis : An... In conclusion the most effective measures to prevent mastitisare: — Maintaining a consistent high standard of management and hygiene before, during and after milking; — Using a good milking technique or an adequately functioningmilkingmachine; — Use of teat-dip with a disinfectant on all cows after everymilking; — Treating all cows with evidence of clinical mastitis promptly; — Applying the somatic cell count monthly to monitor thehealthstatusoftheherd; — Applying antibiotics to all cows after the last milking atthetimetheyaredriedoff; — Attending immediately to any minor injury to the teat oruddertissue; — Cullingofcowssufferingfromrecurrentclinicalmastitis. — Providing adequate nutrition to preclude increased susceptibilitytomastitis. Conclusion Mastitis not only reduces the productive capacity of the cows, it is also expensive to treat. Therefore, its prevention should be the prime concern of each farmer. Effective mastitis control strategies including prudent use of antibiotics, adequate strategies including prudent use of antibiotics, adequate housing with proper sanitation and regular screening for early detection and treatment, follow up of chronic case, culling of older cows with repeated attacks, avoiding consecutive milking and susceptibility testing of the mastitis pathogens before treatment are recommended to alleviate the problem. MAY ISSUE 2014 Prof. N.H. Ravindranath at the Centre of Ecological Sciences, IISc, Bengaluru, and one of the lead authors of the last of the three IPCC working group reports focusing on mitigating climate change maintains that the agricultural sector has a high potential for energy efficiency. Prof. Ravindranath said, “The agricultural sector accounts for 25 per cent of emissions. These are coming from different sources,” he said, pointing out that “Thirty to forty per cent of the food being grown in India is being wasted.Wastingfood meanswastingenergy.” Prof. Ravindranath pointed out that a huge amount of energy was also being wasted by the 15 million “extremely inefficient” pumps being used by farmers in the agricultural sector.“Each pump consumes 3,000 to 4,000 units of electricity per annum. This electricity is being provided free of cost and is again a complete waste of energy . There are many technologies available to improve pumps and reduce electricity losses but there is no incentivetousethem”. Prof. Ravindranath, who has been a lead writer for the last two decades, also maintains that excessive use of fertilisers in agriculture is another area of energy waste.“Fertilisers are highly energy intensive but since they continue to be heavily subsidised, this is another area of inefficient energy use,” he added.He also argues in favour of reducing methane emissions from rice and livestock. The IPCC report is hopeful about emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) showing a decline largely due toincreasingafforestation. However, this does not seem to be the case in India where deforestation is rampant. “The Greening India mission had set a target of greening 10 million has at the cost of `40,000 crore.This had been announced by Jairam Ramesh but little progress has been made in the last 2-3 years,” Prof. Ravindranathsaid. “The ministry of environment and forests has made no serious effort to find money for this work from the Planning Commission. In fact, none of the missions is making serious progress. But reforestation is good for the local economy. Not only will it provide timber and forest products for the poor but also help fight climate change at thelocallevel”. Agri Sector has Potential to be Energy-Efficient ruminants should usually contain 18% protein or less on a dry basis but that containing greater than 65% of the total protein as rumen degradable protein should be avoided. Supplemental fat, such as cotton seeds, soybean, tallow, rumen inert sources, or combinations can be added to rations to increase energy intake. There is increased sweating and urination during hot weather conditions resulting in more minerals being excreted. Therefore, additional mineral supplementation should be incorporated in the ration containing potassium to the level of at least 1.5%, sodium to 0.45%, and magnesium to 0.35% of dry matter. Increasing the levels of vitamins such that supplementing 100,000 international units (IU) of vitamin A/day, 50,000 IU of vitamin D/day and 500 IU of vitamin E/day could help the animal to sustain its health andproductionduringheatstress. Conclusion Heat stress is a cause of great concern that evokes a series of drastic changes in the animal's biological functions that include depression in feed efficiency and utilization, disturbances in metabolism of water, protein, energy, and mineral balances, enzymatic reactions, hormonal secretions and blood metabolites. Such changes leads to reduction in production and reproduction performance of animal resulting in huge economical loss to global livestock husbandry. Therefore, scientific feeding methods should be practised to overcomedeteriorateaffectsofheatstressinlivestock. Agri Sector has Potential to be Energy-Efficient Ayurvet 5F Initiatives; Aimed Towards Improving Efficiency in Energy & Allied Sectors. Ayurvet through its initiatives of 5F of sustainable integration livestock and agriculture (Food, Feed, Fodder, Fuel & Fertilizer)is advocating to the farmers to efficiently use the cow dung for production of biogas and vermicompost. This would not only reduce the dependence of farmers on the cooking gas but also reduce the fertilizer inputs in the agriculture sector. Through its hydroponics technology the initiatives aimed at reducing the water and land usage in paddy and fodder crops.This indirectly means higherefficiencyof theenergy requiredintherelatedsector.
  6. 6. Page 6 MAY ISSUE 2014 Introduction Fertility is a qualitative term that denotes desire and ability to mate, capacity to conceive, nourish the embryo and finally the power to expel the normal fetus (es). Infertility is expressed as degree of reduced fertility. Infertility in animals accounts for major economic losses in Indian dairy farming and dairy industry as maintaining an infertile animal is an economic burden. Reproductive efficiency is a critical component of a successful dairy operation, whereas reproductive inefficiency is one of the most expensive problems facing the dairy industry today. The dairy industry is sustainable in the long run only if there is considerable profit over a specified period of time (Mishra and Tiwari, 2013). Reproductive disorders can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. The causes of infertility are many and can be complex ones. Infertility or failure to conceive and give birth to a young one can be due to malnutrition, infections, congenital defects, management errors and ovulatory or hormonal imbalances in the female. Some of the most common disorders include repeat breeding, anoestrus, ovarian cysts, and early embryonic loss. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired reproductive function. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull diary animals exhibiting one or more of these reproductive disorders is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition to therapeutic intervention for treating these disorders, reproductive management is today the most effective consideration among diary scientists and bovine practitioners as these have great economic impact in a dairyoperation. MajorAttributes forInfertility Infertility is one of the greatest threats to dairy industry impacting, directly and indirectly, the production potential of individual diary animals and thereby leading to heavy economic loss of the particular herd. Practically to heavy economic loss of the particular herd. Practically delayed puberty, gestational accidents, postpartum complications and ovarian inactivity are the major forms to hamper fertilityrateunderagro-climaticconditionsofthecountry. I.Delayed puberty: Puberty may be defined as the age or time at which the genital or reproductive organs become functional for reproduction to occur. In the female animal, it is characterized by the appearance of estrum and ovulation. Timely onset of puberty optimizes reproductive efficiency of female animals resulting in higher fertility index. Delayed puberty and sexual maturity may be mainly due to low levels of nutrition, exposure to stress and inbreeding trends. Delayed puberty accounts for economic disadvantages through decreased lifetime reproductive performance. Delayed first oestrus contributes to reduced reproductive efficiency thereby leading to a period of adolescentinfertility. II.Gestational accidents: Diseases and accidents of gestation are believed to be the major silent forms of infertility as they generally go unnoticed. They include early embryonic loss, unseen expulsion of embryos or foetuses (abortions), foetal death, foetal mummification andmaceration. a) Embryonic loss: Embryonic mortality is one of the major causes of reproductive failure. Early embryonic mortality occurs between fertilization and day 24 of gestation resulting in repeat breeding, whereas the late embryonic mortality considered between day 25 to day 45 resulting in irregular or prolonged oestrous cycle and Infertility Management Protocols for Dairy Animals 1 2 By G.K. Mishra and R.P.Tiwari and arthritis leads to infertility. Retained placenta and abnormal discharges etc. Are some of the problems that warrant attention that are directly or indirectly responsible forinfertility. b) Environmental factors: Environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity and light affect fertility. Very hot and extreme cold climates affect reproductive efficiency of all domestic animals. High temperature shortens the duration and lowers the expression of estrum in cows. Larger percentage of oestrus occurs during night with more chances to miss it, since this is very common during odd hours it causes temporary cessationoffertility. Ways to overcome infertility through management: Management is a very important factor to optimize reproductive efficiency. Nearly 70% of breeding problems arise due to improper management practices and nutritionaldeficienciesofanimals. Nutritionalmanagement: The interrelationship between nutrition and reproduction are amongst the most important and probably the least understood factors that control reproductive performance. Importance of adequate feeding during calfhood to ensure early onset of puberty is the essential determinant for absolute gain of higher production potential. Special attention should be paid with regards to energy, protein, micronutrients and vitamins prior to two months breeding to calving. This is the best reproductive management option for dairy animals to overcome infertility cases. Healthy nutrition is responsible for optimum fertility of the animals. The level of energy intake is more important for normal reproductive function. Low levels of energy intake in adult animals cause failure of follicle to develop on maturity and follicular atresia along with a loss of sexual desire and anoestrus. Similarly, quality and quantity of protein is important for reproductive functions. The present concept of chelated form of micro- minerals (manganese, cobalt, copper, iron, iodine and zinc) and reproductive functions. Vitamin A deficiency adversely affects reproduction and characterized by changes in the epithelial tissues such as keratinisation and degeneration and septic metritis ultimately form the basis of nutritional infertility. Vitamin E and selenium deficiency play a major role in higher incidence of metritis, ROP and cystic ovaries. Obesity due to overfeeding may sometimes cause infertility, speciallyinbuffaloeswithsmallovariesandoestrusmayfail to occur. Now a days area specific soil testing facilities are available and accordingly mineral mixture can be prepared and fed to the animals. Therefore, improving and managing nutrition aspect in fertility management rather than treatmentshouldbethefirstchoice. thereby decreasing lifetime performance. Luteal insufficiency, physiological as well as thermal stress and incompatibility between spermatozoa/ egg or between zygoteandmothermayleadtoembryonicloss. b) Abortion: abortion is defined as the expulsion of dead fetus of recognizable size at any stage of gestation. Single or combination of causative agents may be responsible for abortion in animals. Economically, abortions are of great importancetothedairyowner,becauseof I.Thefoetusloss (futurebreedingstock) ii.Productionloss (milkproduction) iii.Aprolongedperiodofuterinediseaseandinfertility iv.Maintenanceofunproductivefemaleforlongperiod. v. Chances to spread infection to other animals (in cases of infectiousabortions) Foetal death, foetal mummification and maceration: Foetal death in animal after conception prolongs the oestrus cycle and results into infertility. Aseptic form of foetal death (mummification) and septic conditions (maceration) generally go undiagnosed and are confused with pregnancy resulting into infertility. On the other hand if spontaneous abortion occurs, the heavy economical burden is imposed on the dairy farmers by reproductive disruption. a)Postpartum complications: Thecausesaremanyandcanbecomplex. i.Endometritis– Metritis-Pyometra complex: Specific or non specific infections cause the infertility due to the alterations of uterine environment. Varying degree of inflammation of various layers of uterus by damage of physical barriers and failure of natural defence mechanism may lead to the infection of genital tract. Physical damage of barriers is either due to damage of vulva which impairs the sphincter like barrier, aspiration of air, ballooning of vagina and vaginitis or damage of cervix predisposing factor for uterine infections. Progesterone domiance state of genital organs is more prone to infection. Endometritis is the inflammation of the endoemtrium, whereas metritis involves the entire thickness of the uterus. Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent exudates within the uterus. Postpartum uterine infections occurs as common sequel to trauma, retention of foetal membranes leads to the establishment of infection. Unhygienic breeding during wrong time and site are the major causes of endoemtritis. Low moderate (metritis) and severe infection with pus (pyometra) temporarily reduces fertility of the animals as oneofthemostcomplexdisease. ii.Ovulatory distrubances: Ovulatory failure and cyst formation are mostly related to high prolactin secretion associated with high yielders which suppress release of luteinizing hormone (L.H.) resulting ovulatory defects. Incidence of delayed ovulation is 12-20% and 10-12% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. However, the incidence of an ovulation ranges from 2 to 13% in cyclic and repeat breedercows andbuffaloes. iii. Ovarian acyclicity: Resumption of ovarian cyclicity after parturition a critical component in attaining higher fertility in dairy animals. Up to 50 percent of modern dairy cows have abnormal oestrous cycles postpartum resulting in increased calving to first insemination interval and decreased conception rates (Garnsworthy et. al, 2009). Production loss coupled with negative energy balance during lactation reduces functional energy balance during lactation reduces functional competence of ovarian follicle responsive towards pulsatile LH stimulation resulting into delayedovulation. iv. Repeat breeding: Repeat breeding is a syndrome in which the female animal fails to conceive after 3-4 attempts by fertile bull or artificial insemination at normal or nearly normal oestrous cycle. It is one of the poorly understood defined reproductive challenging and discoursing problems related to dairy animals. Fertilization failure or early embryonic death (EED) are the primary cause of repeat breeding that results from the hostile uterine environment produced by the invading microorganism during the critical period of pre- implantation stage. Mild ascending specific and non specific clinical and sub-clinical genital infections are found to be closely associated with post-parturient form of repeatbreeding. a) Disease conditions: Any parasitic infestation and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea Contd. in next issue Has your animal crossed over 90 Days of Calving without conception ? May be it is heading towards ...Infertility Uterine Cleanser and Restorative EXAPAR JANOVAFor Inducing Ovulatory Oestrus MINTRUS Trace Mineral Caplets TM E J M Ensure Timely Conception With * From to inINFERTILITY FERTILITY Perfect trio to revive your animal * 1. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Vet. Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Vet. Science and Animal Husbandry, Chhattishgarh 2. Professor and Head, Dept. of Vet. Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Vet. Science and Animal Husbandry, Chhattishgarh
  7. 7. argemonethathappenedin1998. Unless there is exemplary speed in handling cases of food adulteration and deterrent punishment to the guilty, the cases that are happening would continue with same alacrity to the chagrin of the nation. We must learn from China! Supreme Court showing concern is a warning for the Indian milk processing industry. Formula to cope with this problem is simple. Milk processors need to have the “will tofightadulteration”. If a dairy plant stops accepting adulterated milk the scourge would wane. Most private sector dairy plants in India do not have their own network of milk collection. They heavily depend upon middle men for supply of milk in road tankers. It is these middlemen who indulge in adulteration. It is commonly known that milk like substance is produced by a mixture of urea, vegetable oil and sugar. The mixture is so churned and adjusted that it becomes difficult to check it by tasting or smelling. It is only through complicated laboratory tests that it possible todetectadulteration. A milk producer who produces 5- 10 litres of milk daily and sells it to make his both ends meet, does not have the wherewithal to prepare such milk-like substance and add to milk. In fact the farmers do not adulterate milk with anything other than water. It is the middlemen-suppliers who sell milk in large volumes of 10,000 litres and more that indulge in adulteration. It is therefore very important that the dairy manufacturing industry sets up its own network of collecting milk directly from the farmers. They should learn the process of organising milk producers into self help groups from the dairy co-operatives. In my experience this system is beneficial to both the milk producer as well as the manufacturer. In the long run milk collected directly from the farmer is cheaper and the farmergetshigherpricethathegetsfromthemiddleman. Page 7 Supreme Court Wake up Call to Dairy Sector Dr. R S Khanna, International Dairy Consultant On the other hand AMUL has come out with a full page advertisement in Delhi newspapers seeking the consumers to say “NO” to liquid milk containing powder and butter oil. In fact this advertisement seems to lead the consumer to believe that liquid milk when reconstituted is also adulterated or at least there is need that the consumer must be informed of the fact that milk is a mixture of fresh and reconstitutedmilk. Milk being complete food has been given the status of “nectar” in India. For such a product to be adulterated for pettygainsis reallypainful. This paper had reported last year the scandal of baby milk foods being adulterated with melamine, a protein-like contaminant, in China. Consumption of the adulterated baby food not only resulted in the death of many infants but had also caused severe sickness amongst thousands of them. It all happened when baby food manufactured by Sanlu Group Company was given to infants and they developed kidney stones. The Chinese government handled the matter with required severity. At least three persons were hanged to death within one year of the scandal coming to light. The famous Fonterra Cooperative of New Zealand who was a partner in this company decided toseverthejointventureanddecidedtoleaveChina. In India the government departments are quick in conducting raids and that is the end of it. Hardly any cases have been reported where any person involved with food adulteration has been punished, forget capital punishment. The need is to bring the culprits to justice so that nobody darestoadulterateitemsoffood consumption. This incident is being narrated with the intent that the same speed should be shown in India also. But will it ever happen? We still have not seen any hangings or serious punishment to the cases of adulteration of mustard oil with Nobody can afford to ignore the anger and anguish of Supreme Court on the importance of dealing with adulteration of milk. There have been many instances where the former Department of Prevention of Food Adulteration, now Food Standards and SafetyAuthority of India, had swooped on the factory where synthetic milk was being manufactured in Kurukshetra and other locations. A TV Channel had carried a comprehensive video analysis of the process of manufacturing of synthetic milk and how it arrived at the processing units and to the consumers. Issue is not that the synthetic milk is being produced and sold. Issue is the importance of food safety and health of the consumer. Indian DairyAssociation, New Delhi and National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal have beenraisingtheseissues atnationallevelseminars. Apart from the food safety aspect it is important to understand the reasons for such adulteration. First, it is to be noted that cases of adulteration surface during summer when there is shortage in production and availability of milk and the consumption of milk and milk products is comparatively high. Second, the scourge of synthetic milk production is highest in the areas that have the milk processing capacity higher than the marketable surplus of milk.The number of factories for processing milk and their total processing capacities is very high in Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh. Therefore, maximum problem of adulteration is faced in these areas. Most notorious areas known for synthetic milk production are Bulandshaher and Mewat zone of Rajasthan and Haryana. Kurukshetra has been repeatedly been known for thisscourgeinthepastalso. Most of the milk processors have been reacting that the television channels were regularly making loud noise about the manner in which milk was being adulterated and accepted by the milk plants. They felt that the media cry was uncalled for and there is need to counter it. It was alleged that the media is blowing the incidents of adulteration beyond the actual facts. With festive season having started the news channels have opened their archives of stockshots again. The allegation is true to the extent that the message being communicated is that all milk and milk products are adulterated. This may not be true. But then how can the news channel identify which milk is pure and which is adulterated. There have also been many news about the government regulators discovering factories of adulterated milk and ghee. And these have comeinquicksuccession. The fact that the milk and milk products are pure and unadulterated has to be highlighted and certified by the processors themselves. Unfortunately none of the milk processing dairies has come out with any statement or advertisement pledging that its milk or milk products are trulypureandunadulterated. AYURVET SOLUTIONS FOR OPTIMUM GROWTH & BOOSTING MILK PRODUCTION MAY ISSUE 2014 Ayurvet Uttam Santulit Pashu Aahar offers one such opportunity to feed the animals effectively during winter months Nobody can afford to ignore the anger and anguish of Supreme Court on the importance of dealing with adulteration of milk.Issue is not that the synthetic milk is being produced and sold. Issue is the importance of food safety and health of the consumer. Indian DairyAssociation, New Delhi and National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal have been raisingtheseissues atnational levelseminars.
  8. 8. Publisher:M.J.Saxena Editor:Dr.AnupKalra EditorialBoard:Dr.PrafulVerma,Dr.AshishSachdeva&Dr.ShivendraDeora Asstt.Editor:SwatiSrivastava ZonalAssociates:AnandMehrotra,C.V.Reddy andC.X.Cruz Layout,Design:AmitBehl EditorialOffice:AyurvetLimited,6thFloor,SagarPlazaBldg.LaxmiNagarDistt.Centre,VikasMarg,Delhi-110092 Tel:011-22455992-94,Fax:011-22455991 e-mail:info@ayurvet.com,web:www.ayurvet.com PrintedBy:M/s.DewanOffsetPrinters Pvt.Ltd.,WZ-8/5,IndustrialArea,KiritNagar,NewDelhi-110015 Views expressed by individuals and contributors in the magazine are their own and not necessarily represent the view of LIVESTOCK FUTURE and it does not accept any responsibility of any direct, indirect of consequential damage caused to any party due to view expressed by any or morepersoninthetrade.AlldisputesaretobereferredtoDelhiJurisdictiononly. `10/-percopy `60/-foryearlysubscription Page 8 LIVESTOCK FUTURE Bi-monthly magazine related to Livestock news for Veterinary Industry Letter to Editor: We solicit your articles and would appreciate if you could send in your suggestions, queries and advice through post to Post Bag No. AyurvetLimited-9292,DelhiorE-mailaddressedto: swati@ayurvet.com, abehl@ayurvet.com,info@ayurvet.com J kes reducestrategies. Meeting the challenges: adaptation and mitigation livestockstrategies Livestock can play an important role in both mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation measures could include technical and management options in order to reduce GHG emissions from livestock, as well as the integration of livestock into broader environmental services. As described in the section below, livestock has the potential to support adaptation efforts of the poor. In general, livestock is more resistant to climate change than crops because of its mobility and access to feed. The sections below provide a brief overview of possible adaptation and mitigationactivitiesofthelivestocksector. Livestockadaptation strategies Livestock producers have traditionally adapted to various environmental and climatic changes by building on their in-depth knowledge of the environment in which they live. However increased human population, urbanization, environmental degradation and increased consumption of animal source foods have made some of those coping mechanismsineffective. Breeding strategies: Many local breeds are already adapted to their harsh conditions. However, developing countries are usually characterised by a lack of technology in livestock breeding and other agriculture programmes whichmighthelptospeedadaptation. Capacity building livestock keepers: Increased awareness of global changes, and improved capacity of herders/livestock producers to understand and deal with climatic changes. Livestock management systems: Efficient and affordable adaptation practices have to be developed for rural poor not able to buy expensive adaptationtechnologies. Reduction of livestock numbers: Lower number of more productive animals will cause more efficient production andlesseremissionofGHG fromlivestockproduction. Mitigationoflivestockgreenhouse gasemissions Unmitigated climate change would, in the long term, be likely to exceed the capacity of natural and human systems to adapt. Mitigation of GHG emissions in the livestock sector can be achieved through various activities including: Different animal feeding management, Manure management,Managementoffeedcropproduction. How livestockproduction affectsthe environment? Measuring the emissions caused by the food supply system is difficult given the complexity and global nature of feed and food supply chains. Lifecycle analysis (LCA) results for GHG emissions measured by kilogram of output are often lower when output per animals is higher. This can be taken to suggest that intensive animal farming. Which includes breeding for high yields, permanent indoor housing and concentrates feeding of animals. Is the best way to reduce livestock emissions? However, this assessment is far too simplistic. It fails to account for significant elements of the farming system, such as co- products. It also often ignores the most disturbing waste in industrial sale animal production systems, indeed, when taking into account all aspects of dairy production, including their fertility, productive lifespan and beef production from male dairy calves, evidence shows extensivesystems havelowerGHG emissions. Effectson climatechange All food–producing agricultural acitivities generate GHG MAY ISSUE 2014 Contd. from page 3 Role of Livestock in... emissions, so the question is: how do we feed the growing population while minimising emissions?According to the United Nations Environment Programme, when considering the entire food chain, meat production accounts for 18-25 percent of the words GHG emissions. Left unchecked, animal production is predicted to account for 70 percent of the sustainable level of all global GHG emissions by 2050. This level of global consumptionposes severesustainabilitychallenges. Why animalwelfaremattersto climatechange? As noted above, green house gas emissions relate to different elements of livestock production.The health and productivity of animals and breeding herds (such as cattle and pigs) are an important factor. Many studies confirm that animal health and welfare are integral to environment sustainability. Breeding for health can create productivity and welfare benefits and result in lower emissions. Robust breeds of animals reared in extensive systems often have longer productive life times and these systems often have reliance on fossil fuel and grain inputs. Intensive high input, high output. Systems that appear highly efficient at first glance are in fact energy and resource hungry. By focusing on high yields, these systems have unintended consequences, including shortening animals. Productive livesandintroducingmassivewaste,suchasthebreedingof surplusanimalsthatarenotseenaseconomicallyviable. Climateadaptation inlivestock Climate change will have far-reaching consequences for dairy and meat production, especially in vulnerable parts of the world where it is vital for nutrition and livelihoods. The impact of climate change can heighten the vulnerability of livestock systems and exacerbate existing stresses upon them,such asdrought. The country's livestock population is forecast to reach 312 million by 2015, leading to likely shortage of feed and fodder. Growing at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of about four percent, the total livestock population in India is likely to reach about 312 million by 2015, according to theAssociated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM). The total livestock population in India is currently about 280 million, according to the organization's sector-specific comprehensive analysis of'Livestock,animalfeedandfodder'. Cattle constitute a share of about 60 percent in India's total livestock population followed by buffaloes (32 percent), goats(fourpercent)andsheep(two percent). “Rapidly growing human population has resulted in an upward spiralling trend in demand and consumption of milk products, meat, eggs, skin, leather, fibre and even wool not just in India but globally, “ said Mr. D. S. Rawat, National Secretary General of ASSOCHAM while releasing the findings of the Chamber's analysis. “An increase in number oflivestockisalsoledbygeneticallyupgradedanimals”. “Animal production is an integral part of agricultural sector and plays a significant role in income and employment generation, equity, foreign exchange earning and for developing a sustainable agricultural system, “ said Mr. Rawat. “Livestock accounts for about 30 percent of entireoutputfromtheagriculturalsector.” Report Warns of Growing Feed Shortage in India milliontonnescurrently. “There is a need to improve the productivity of grazing and pasture lands, enhancing the supply of quality seeds, promoting production of fodder crops, implementing technology to preserve post-harvest fodder and other such steps must be immediately taken to curb the grave problem of malnourishment amid animals,” said Mr. Rawat. “Besides, diseases due to lack of health and hygiene maintenance are also affecting the production potential of livestock.” ASSOCHAM has suggested for providing proper information and knowledge, services and support to carry out agri research, education and extension to livestock farmers to enable them for better decision – making to achieve rapid growth. A high growth in livestock sector can be sustained by developing value chains, market infrastructure, quality and safety mechanisms thereby making the livestock rearing profitable, recommended ASSOCHAM, India imports about 250,000 tonnes of residues and waste from food industry like flour meals, molasses, residue of starch, oil – cake, vegetables etc. worth over 1,000 million rupees (ICR). India exports about five million tonnes of animal feed worth over INR 80,000 million, according to ASSOCHAM. “Looking at this enormous demand for livestock products, there is an urgent need to improve health and productivity of the farm animals and steps must be taken to improve the qualityoffodderandfeed.” India is facing huge shortage to the extent of about 60 percent of feed and fodder for livestock population mainly due to overgrazing in the limited area under fodder crops, poor availability of good quality fodder varieties green fodder, dry crop residue, feeds, dry fodder, agricultural by- products and others. In addition, a lack of quality seeds of improvedvarietiesandhybridsisalsoasignificantissueinthis regard. The annual domestic demand for compound feed in India is growing at about 25 percent CAGR and is at about 70

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