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Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town
 

Thesis Aytor Naranjo Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town

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    Thesis Aytor Naranjo  Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town Thesis Aytor Naranjo Innovative Sanitation The Mobi San Approach In Informal Settlements Of Cape Town Document Transcript

    • Innovative Sanitation Case study: The MobiSan approach in informal settlements of Cape Town by Aytor Naranjo A research project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University AUGUST 2009 Supervisor: Dr. Andrew Cotton Water, Engineering and Development Centre Department of Civil and Building Engineering
    • ii
    • INDIVIDUAL PROJECT ACCESS FORM Location: WEDC Resources Center, Loughborough University Author: Aytor Naranjo Title: Innovative Sanitation. Case study: The MobiSan approach in informal settlements of Cape Town Status of access: OPEN Author’s declaration: I agree with the following conditions: This project report shall be made available within the OPEN WEDC Resource Center to be borrowed by WEDC staff and Students. Pages may be copied, subjected to copyright regulations. For a period of five to ten years, it may only be available outside WEDC strictly subject to written permission from the author. After 10 years, the project shall be subject to open access. Author’s signature: Aytor Naranjo. Date: August 16th 2009 Conditions of access approved by: (Supervisor’s name) Supervisor’s signature: ........................................ iii
    • CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORSHIP I certify that: i. I am responsible for the work submitted in this report, and that the original work is my own, except as specified below; Aytor Naranjo ii. I have not submitted this work to any other institution for the award of a degree; iii. All laboratory work, field work and computed programming has been carried out by me, with no outside assistance except as noted below; and Aytor Naranjo iv. All information (including diagrams and tables) or other information which is copied from, or based on, the work of others has its source clearly acknowledged in the text at the place where it appears. Signed: ...........Aytor Naranjo.................................. Date: ............... REVISED VERSION JANUARY 2010................................. iii
    • iv
    • To my lovely partner Nuria, who has always been by my side v
    • Aknowledgements I would like to address my most sincere thanks to David Castellano, whose support and friendliness during the whole field work process has made this research so meaningful. I also wish to express my appreciation to the Dutch Consortium members, in particular, Hans Kraaijvanger, Marjo Lexmond, Adriaan Mels and Brendo Meulman for the great opportunity they have given me by joining the MobiSan project in Cape Town from May to August 2009. I have to thank the WEDC team for their support and great advices. This research has been accomplished thanks to the collaboration of the City of Cape Town, especially, the Water and Sanitation unit for informal settlements. In that respect I am very grateful with Lawrence Grootboom and Jaco Muller for sharing their knowledge and understanding about unplanned settlements. The finance analysis would have not been possible without the data provided by Martinus Jooste. I would also like to thank the researchers from the CSIR, particularly Jac Wilsenac whom I wish all the best in his new career. My gratitude to the two caretakers of the MobiSan unit, Shawn Prince and Willy Fontain for their long journeys working in Pook se Bos as well as the whole Pook se Bos community who were so kind sharing their concerns during this study. My recognition to Arne Singels and his family for their South African hospitality and finally, I wish to thank my family for their support during my MSc year spent between the United Kingdom and South Africa. vi
    • LIST OF ACRONYMS CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CWSS Community Water Supply & Sanitation Unit, Cape Peninsula University of Technology ECOSAN Ecological Sanitation GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit HCES Household Centered Environmental Sanitation HH Household MDG Millennium Development Goals MOA Method of Analysis NGO Non Governmental Organization CBO Community Based Organization O&M Operation and Maintenance PHAST Participating Hygiene and Sanitation Transportation SCOPE Society for Community Organisation and People’s Education SPARC Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centers UDDT Urine Diverting and Dehydrating Toilets WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WRC Water Research Commission WSSCC Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development WSIS Department of Water and Sanitation for Informal Settlements unit. City of Cape Town WTP Willingness to Pay WWTW Waste Water Treatment Works vii
    • TABLES OF CONTENT TABLES OF CONTENT ................................................................................................... viii  LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................. x  1.  INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1  2.  LITERATURE REVIEW........................................................................................... 3  2.1.  Main issues on sanitation ................................................................................................................... 3  2.2.  Sustainable sanitation ...................................................................................................................... 10  2.3.  Urine-diverting toilets......................................................................................................................... 11  2.4.  Communal sanitation........................................................................................................................ 17  3.  CASE STUDY: MOBISAN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN CAPE TOWN ..... 23  3.1.  Water and sanitation in South Africa ................................................................................................ 23  3.2.  Existing sanitation systems in informal settlements in Cape Town .................................................. 25  3.3.  Decision support tool for the selection of adequate sanitation systems .......................................... 27  3.4.  The Dutch Consortium ..................................................................................................................... 28  3.5.  The MobiSan unit ............................................................................................................................. 30  3.6.  Pook se Bos informal settlement ...................................................................................................... 31  3.7.  Project Management and implementation........................................................................................ 32  3.8.  MobiSan O&M .................................................................................................................................. 32  4.  METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................. 33  4.1.  Household survey............................................................................................................................. 34  4.2.  Observation ...................................................................................................................................... 35  4.3.  Key informant interviews .................................................................................................................. 35  4.4.  Analytical measurement data ........................................................................................................... 36  4.5.  Triangulation of data ......................................................................................................................... 37  4.6.  Limitations ........................................................................................................................................ 37  5.  FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 39  5.1.  Managerial and O&M requisites for the MobiSan to be considered as a long term solution ........... 39  5.2.  Survey findings in Pook se Bos ........................................................................................................ 42  5.3.  MobiSan acceptability ...................................................................................................................... 44  5.4.  Environmental & Health aspects ...................................................................................................... 48  5.5.  Technical aspects ............................................................................................................................. 53  5.6.  Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable and how the MobiSan fulfils those requirements ............. 60  5.7.  Financial aspects .............................................................................................................................. 61  5.8.  Potential for on-site/off-site reuse .................................................................................................... 66  5.9.  Findings in relation with the research questions .............................................................................. 70  6.  RECOMMENDATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH ......................................... 73  6.1.  Social ................................................................................................................................................ 73  6.2.  Technical .......................................................................................................................................... 74  6.3.  Financial / Economical ..................................................................................................................... 75  6.4.  Reuse ............................................................................................................................................... 76  6.5.  Gender.............................................................................................................................................. 76  6.6.  Strategic planning ............................................................................................................................. 76  7.  CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................... 77  8.  List of key informants ......................................................................................... 79  e-REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 82  9.  APPENDIX ............................................................................................................ 84  9.1.  Chemical toilets servicing frequency ................................................................................................ 84  9.2.  Container toilet servicing frequency ................................................................................................. 86  9.3.  June 2009 invoice container toilets Pook se Bos ............................................................................. 88  9.4.  Flush toilets maintenance cost ......................................................................................................... 89  9.5.  Household survey. Part 1 (Basic demographic information) ............................................................ 92  9.6.  Household survey. Part 2 (MobiSan acceptability information) ........................................................ 93  9.7.  Household survey (Part 3) Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable................................................ 94  viii
    • 9.8.  Household survey. Part 4 (Awareness about UDDT) ....................................................................... 95  9.9.  Certificate of analysis faeces sample ............................................................................................... 96  9.10.  Method of Analysis moisture content .......................................................................................... 97  9.11.  Moisture content analysis............................................................................................................ 98  9.12.  Care-taker schedule and checklist .............................................................................................. 99  9.13.  Community acceptance agreement on the removal of all container toilets from Pook se Bos . 101  9.14.  Method of analysis urine (CSIR) ............................................................................................... 102  ix
    • LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1. Major barriers for disable and disadvantages people ...................................................................................... 10  Figure 2.2. Different models of UDT ................................................................................................................................. 11  Figure 2.3. Nutrient content in different media ................................................................................................................. 13  Figure 2.4. The Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet ........................................................................................ 13  Figure 2.5. Wastewater treatment recreation at sewage works ........................................................................................ 14  Figure 2.6 Struvite production process in Siddhipur, Nepal .............................................................................................. 15  Figure 2.7. Ecotact model ................................................................................................................................................ 21  Figure 2.8. BioCentre design ............................................................................................................................................ 22  Figure 2.9. Ground floor BioCentre .................................................................................................................................. 22  Figure 3.1. Cape Flats area .............................................................................................................................................. 24  Figure 3.2. Adapted from the general household survey .................................................................................................. 24  Figure 3.3. Flooding prone areas ...................................................................................................................................... 25  Figure 3.4. Land accessibility ............................................................................................................................................ 25  Figure 3.5. Land ownership ............................................................................................................................................... 25  Figure 3.6.Housing density distribution ............................................................................................................................. 25  Figure 3.7.Assessment of the feasibility of various sanitation options for the ‘average’ informal settlement in Cape Town ................................................................................................................................................................................. 28  Figure 3.8.Cubicles distribution ........................................................................................................................................ 30  Figure 3.9. Airflow recreation ........................................................................................................................................... 31  Figure 3.10. Map of Pook se Bos including toilet location ................................................................................................ 31  Figure 5.1. Distribution of the exiting 21 container toilets in Pook Se Bos ........................................................................ 42  Figure 5.2. Age distribution ............................................................................................................................................... 43  Figure 5.3.Users and non-MobiSan users distribution per groups by July 10th 2009 ........................................................ 44  Figure 5.4. Women’s reasons for not using the MobiSan .................................................................................................. 45  Figure 5.5. Men’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ....................................................................................................... 45  Figure 5.6. Elder’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ...................................................................................................... 45  Figure 5.7. Children’s reasons for not using the MobiSan ................................................................................................. 45  Figure 5.8. Objections among MobiSan users .................................................................................................................. 46  Figure 5.9.Sanitation system used at night in Pook se Bos .............................................................................................. 50  Figure 5.10. Red Plexiglass extension to reduce urine into the faeces tank ................................................................... 54  Figure 5.11. Comparing wind speed to natural air flow within the ventilation pipe ............................................................ 55  Figure 5.12. Comparison of rH% of the airflow in the ventilation pipe and outside temperature ....................................... 56  Figure 5.13. Comparison RH% getting out the pipes and RH% outside the MobiSan ...................................................... 57  Figure 5.14.User’s degree of satisfaction .......................................................................................................................... 60  Figure 5.15.Priorities for the respondent to consider a toilet acceptable ........................................................................... 60  Figure 6.1. Strategic planning ........................................................................................................................................... 77  LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Examples of obstacles faced by disabled people ............................................................................................. 9  Table 2.2. Advantages Vs Disadvantages of UDDT ......................................................................................................... 12  Table 3.1. Sanitation technologies in informal settlements of Cape Town ....................................................................... 26  Table 5.1. Caretaker counting ........................................................................................................................................... 48  Table 5.2. Sensor probes installed ................................................................................55  Table 5.3. Operating cost chemical, container and flush toilets ....................................................................................... 63  Table 5.4. MobiSan operating cost.................................................................................................................................... 63  Table 5.5. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of container toilets ............................................................................................ 64  Table 5.6. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of flush toilets ................................................................................................... 64  Table 5.7. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of chemical toilets ........................................................................................... 65  Table 5.9. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of the MobiSan approach ............................................................................... 65  Table 5.10. Capital cost container and flush toilets ........................................................................................................... 66  Table 5.11. Comparison of urine characteristics from different origins .............................................................................. 68  Table 5.12. Fertilizer comparison prices ........................................................................................................................... 69 x
    • LIST OF PHOTOS Photo 2.1. Slogan DMT Mobile toilets ............................................................................................................................... 7  Photo 2.2. Community designed children's toilets in Byanapalli settlement, Bangalore .................................................... 9  Photo 2.3. Wastewater discharge .................................................................................................................................... 10  Photo 2.4.Barrels for excreta storage before upgrading .................................................................................................. 19  Photo 2.5.Upgraded system to empty urine collection tanks ............................................................................................ 19  Photo 2.6. Upgraded vacuum system for faeces .............................................................................................................. 19  Photo 2.7.Salt deposits from urine .................................................................................................................................... 20  Photo 2.8. Ikotoilet in Nairobi business distric .................................................................................................................. 20  Photo 2.9. BioCentre ........................................................................................................................................................ 22  Photo 3.1.Improvised stormwater drainage ....................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.2. Water ponding next to the shacks .................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.3. Unplanned and dense settlement ................................................................................................................... 24  Photo 3.4.Chemical toilets (CPT, 2009) ............................................................................................................................ 26  Photo 3.5. Prevalent toilet conditions in Pook se Bos (container toilets) ........................................................................... 26  Photo 3.6. Clogged flush toilet ......................................................................................................................................... 27  Photo 3.7. Porta-potti ........................................................................................................................................................ 27  Photo 3.8.Manual mixing device in care-taker room ......................................................................................................... 30  Photo 3.9. Second faeces chamber (separation panels can be seen in the left hand side) .............................................. 30  Photo 3.10. Line of container toilets before removal in April 2009 ................................................................................... 32  Photo 5.1. Oversused container toilet (Muller, 2009) ........................................................................................................ 39  Photo 5.2. Vacuum truck unblocking vacuum sewer ......................................................................................................... 39  Photo 5.3. Overused & not maintained chemical toilet ..................................................................................................... 39  Photo 5.4. Protection grid blocked with toilet papier .......................................................................................................... 41  Photo 5.5. Urine built up in non properly maintained urinal siphons.................................................................................. 41  Photo 5.6.Toilet paper in the urine channel and foot prints on the toilet pan .................................................................... 41  Photo 5.7. Nurse explaining reasons of urinary infections to a group of women in Pook se Bos ...................................... 46  Photo 5.8. Common container toilets servicing practice .................................................................................................... 49  Photo 5.9. Open defecation behind chemical toilets next to the canal in Khayelitsha ....................................................... 51  Photo 5.10. Open defecation next to container toilets in Pook se Bos .............................................................................. 51  Photo 5.11. Open defecation next to recently implemented vaccum sewer flush toilets in Kosovo informal settlement ... 51  Photo 5.12. Children defecating near the marsh in Pook Se Bos ..................................................................................... 51  Photo 5.13. Hand washing basin and laminated children friendly brochure on how to wash hands thoroughly ............... 51  Photo 5.14.Toilet converted into women urinal ................................................................................................................. 54  Photo 5.15.Moisture and airflow probes within the ventilation pipe  ............................................................................... 55  Photo 5.16. Exterior walls.................................................................................................................................................. 56  Photo 5.17. View of the lid closed ..................................................................................................................................... 57  Photo 5.18. Steps and platform too narrow ....................................................................................................................... 57  Photo 5.19. Toilet adapted for children with pedestal and detachable potty ..................................................................... 58  Photo 5.20. Slab for urinals and hand washing basin not adapted for children ................................................................. 58  Photo 5.22. Urine tank access gate .................................................................................................................................. 59  Photo 5.23. Second chamber access gates ...................................................................................................................... 59  xi
    • 1. INTRODUCTION This research aims to outline sanitation as an important contribution to eradicate poverty in informal settlements of Cape Town. It is also focussed on the evaluation of the potential of upscaling communal urine-diverting and dehydrating toilets (UDDT) in these locations, where individual sanitation options are difficult to implement due to physical and legal issues or just because other shared systems do not deliver a fare and acceptable service to the community involved. Sanitation englobes wastewater, stormwater, greywater and rainwater from which different resources can be recovered. Nevertheless, this study will focus mainly on urine-diversion and dehydration communal toilets in the peri-urban context. This document includes aspects of technology (hardware) to be combined with hygiene and health promotion, behavioural change and community participation (software) along with an enabling environment considering all stakeholders, in order to achieve a balance between the supply and the demand for sanitation. There are limitations in terms of scaling communal UDD toilets such as non-extensive data on large scale projects of these characteristics not fully working at the time of undertaking this study. Furthermore, the acceptability of reuse-oriented technologies and the demand for their end products is a challenge, especially in densely populated urban areas where the lack of space, financial constraints and social issues make a reuse-oriented approach difficult. The research will present a general overview of sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas as well as UDDT and communal sanitation. In that respect field work experience will be provided from communal urine diverting mobile sanitation unit (MobiSan) evaluated in the Pook Se Bos informal settlement in Cape Town. This research highlights operation and maintenance (O&M) as a key point in the success of communal UDDT and considers it a main difference between individual UDDT and communal UDDT, because the O&M in a communal unit is provided by caretakers who are receiving a salary for carrying out their duties. Nevertheless, when concluding this research the MobiSan unit would only have been monitored for about four months, therefore the available data would be insufficient. Even though communities in the 1
    • informal settlements might not be aware of the proper use of said technology, South Africa has the advantage of being a relevant and strategical location where sustainable sanitation has been actively promoted and where re-use oriented experiences are well documented. Consequently, this study will try to answer the following questions: 1) What socio-cultural, technical, financial and environmental aspects inhibit and encourage communal urine-diverting toilets from going to scale in the informal settlements of Cape Town? 2) What are the priorities from the user perspective for a toilet to be considered acceptable? To what extent does the MobiSan fulfil those requirements? 3) What is the on/off-site potential reuse of treated urine and faeces? 4) What are the managerial, operation and maintenance requisites for the MobiSan system to be considered as a long term solution? In order to answer these questions, the actual sanitation situation in the urban context will be evaluated, as well as different aspects from the social, political, financial and technical perspective along with constraints and successes with communal toilets from India, Kenya and Nigeria. Finally, the reasons for having chosen this subject are because well managed communal toilets can reach all users, especially the very poor that cannot afford another option. Moreover, upscaling reuse- oriented systems in the peri-urban context remains a contemporary and a very hot topic in the sanitation field. 2
    • 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Main issues on sanitation Sanitation is still the weak partner of the drinking water and sanitation sector (Snel, 2006), although, sanitation and hygiene are fundamental to all the MDGs and deliver broad development outcomes (Swann et al 2007). In 2007, the situation was that 83% of the world's population have access to drinking water while only 58% have access to improved sanitation facilities (De Bruijne et al, 2007). This can be translated into the fact that two million impoverished children die each year of diarrhea due to poor sanitation and hygiene (Coates et al 2004). On the other hand, evidence shows that girls and women are those who suffer most for lack of sanitation as they are responsible for fetching water, to look after the sick and are often at risk when using shared toilets or when looking for a secluded spot to release themselves (Worldwater week, 2008:11) In 1995, a review of the Sanitation Program Evaluations in Developing countries considered that investment in sanitation was inadequate for several reasons (La Fond, 1995): • The demand for sanitation was often low • Promoting demand consumed time and money • Development institutions were not attuned to demand-led programming which could explain an unenthusiastic approach to investing in sanitation. • Key decision-makers were not clear about an overall strategy for sanitation programming • No consensus on the optimal role for governments, NGOs, communities, the private sector, and external donors in program implementation. The review found that projects were heavily promoting technologies, such as latrine construction, without the same emphasis in changing consumer attitudes to general hygiene as well as latrine operation and maintenance. Regarding program success, the review found that projects implemented by NGO's or the private sector with the communities had sometimes a better outcome than programs implemented by the government alone. Five years later, in 2000, sanitation was not included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's), however, the same year the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) held a meeting where sanitation was extensively discussed and from where the Bellagio statement on environmental sanitation was developed (Reed, 2008). In 2002, during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), powerful arguments about the relevance of sanitation as an igniter of human development resulted in the adoption of the international sanitation target which is to halve the people without access to sanitation by 2015. However, the global MDG sanitation target will be 3
    • missed by more than half a billion people if the trend 1990–2004 continues up to 2015 (WHO & UNICEF, 2006). Therefore, due to human growth and urbanisation, there is a need in the Sanitation sector to challenge conventional thinking (Lüthi et all, 2007; Narain, 2003; Konukiewitz, 2003; WSSCC & WHO, 2005; Sanitation 21, 2006). 2.1.1. Urban sanitation The urban areas of the world are expected to absorb all the population growth expected over the next four decades. Furthermore, most of the population growth expected in urban areas will be concentrated in the cities and towns of the less developed regions. Asia, in particular, is projected to see its urban population increase by 1.8 billion, Africa by .9 billion, and Latin America and the Caribbean by 0.2 billion (UN, World Urbanization prospects, 2008:1). The lack of basic amenities and job opportunities in rural areas contributes to the exodus of the rural folk to towns where slums mushroom without protected water, drainage or adequate toilet facilities (Ganapathy, 2003). The living conditions in slums can be very difficult for dwellers that have to live in very space restricted sheds or houses in densely populated settlements, sometimes without any land tenure which can legally allow governments and utilities not to provide services to these communities. Diseases can spread easily due to the unsafe disposal of all human, animal and solid waste that attracts rats and insects that contribute with further health risks. Furthermore, their living conditions and their nutrition are far worst than the rural poverty that most of them abandoned for a better life in the city (Bruijne et al, 2007). Western cultures tried to solve their urban sanitation problems with the concept of “Modern” sanitation which started in Great Britain in the 19th century. In 1851, half of Britain’s population lived in cities and the living conditions were desperately unhealthy, with death from sickness, such as Cholera and Typhus among other diseases, at a level not seen since the Black Death (Daunton, 2004). The solution to this problem was the combination of toilets with a collective sewerage system requesting large amounts of water to remove and transport human excreta from homes to water sources away from the urban areas. After London had its sewerage system, New York followed in 1860 and then Calcutta in 1870 (Sulahb, 2008). However, the widespread application of wastewater treatment plants only took place during the 1960's and 1970's (Sanitation 21, 2006). The urban sewerage coverage that could have London or New York is yet not comparable to the coverage in low and middle-income countries. According to Sulahb (2008), in India out of over 4,800 towns/cities only 232 have the sewerage system and that too partially. He also considers that in the developing world neither the central government, local authorities or beneficiaries can cope with the operational nor maintenance cost of a conventional sewerage system. There is then a global concern regarding sustainable sanitation and how to reach the best results in the 4
    • increasing urbanised cities for all stakeholders and the environment. However, the software, such as hygiene promotion and behavioural change remains an important contribution to the success of urban and peri-urban water and sanitation projects, especially in areas not well deserved such as informal settlements. 2.1.2. Hygiene promotion Clean water alone only leads to minor health improvements and, as it has been mentioned previously, agencies have done far too little work on sanitation compared with what has been done with water (Vision 21, 2000:7). Nevertheless, proper sanitation alone does not either improve the overall health situation as much as the right combination of hygiene, sanitation or clean water. Within the health sector, hygiene is a behaviour that serves to prevent infections and also helps to maintain people and the environment clean and attractive (Curtis, 2005). Effects to promote hygiene focus on the following three areas which have demonstrated strong health benefits (Curtis, 2005): • Hand-washing with soap; if not available, ash or earth is nearly as effective (Bolt, 2005) • Removal of stools from the household environment • Home treatment drinking water De Bruijne (2007) agrees on the importance to motivate Community hygiene to achieve sustainability, however, many people still do not understand the link between disease and poor sanitation and hygiene as well as why a healthy environment can improve health. The cause can be that nobody has explained that to them or because the habit does not exist (Vision 21, 2000). In fact, one of the challenges remains to make hand washing with soap a habit and a social norm on a worldwide basis (World Bank, 2004). This is not simple because behavioural change is difficult, takes time and requires resources and skills (Curtis 2005). By acknowledging the importance of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) plans it should be understood how relevant the enabling environment is. 2.1.3. The enabling environment Changing the enabling environment could optimize investments in sanitation and hygiene promotion; however, this is a challenging task because legal and regulatory instruments may require to change policies, financial instruments and organizational arrangements (WSCC & WHO 2005). All countries have a national policy and legislation to guide the provision of water and sanitation services, however, not all local governments have developed local policies and by-laws for the local provision of services within the national framework. Policies and by-laws create an enabling environment for the provision of WASH services. By-laws are the ‘rules of the game’ and specify, for example, how new water projects are prioritised, how tariffs are determined and what happens when customers do not pay, then, they provide the framework within which services are regulated (De la Harpe 2007:11). In that respect, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) approach for planning and implementing water and sanitation services considers that the preconditions showed in figure 2.1 have to be addressed for the success of such approach. 5
    • 2.1.4. Demand for sanitation Further to the lessons learned from the International Water Supply and Sanitation decade, the “Water Decade” (1981-1990), a shift has been necessary from promoting technology to involve community participation and management (Reed, 2008). Promoting technologies via a supply driven approach in the 70's and 80's ended up having the following typical problems (Reed, 2008): • A large number of systems were not maintained over time • Levels of technology were selected which could not be sustained • In implementing water systems, sanitation and hygiene were missed Nevertheless, even in the current decade the demand for improved sanitation does not always exist (Scott et all, 2003), therefore, generating and satisfying a demand can confirm that only wanted technologies get used (DFID, 2009). Further to Table 2.1. below we can see that different reasons for demanding sanitation exist and vary from country to country. For that reason, the social marketing of sanitation studies what particular factors the users identified being more relevant and focus on them. The case below is quiet straightforward as it shows that health improvement has been considered as a 5th priority in the demand for sanitation in the Philippines while in rural Benin it is not even mentioned in the table as it only achieved the 13th rank (Swann et al, 2007). Rank Benin Philippines 1 Avoid discomfort in the bush Smell and flies 2 Prestige Cleaner surroundings 3 Insecurity at night Privacy 4 Snakes Less embarrassment when visitors came 5 Reduce flies Reduce gastrointestinal disease Table 2.1. Reasons to demand sanitation (adapted from Swann et al, 2007) Moreover, promoting a behavioural change should be included while selling sanitation “hardware” (Bruijne et all, 2007) as promoting health improvements or hardware alone would not be effective (Swann et al, 2007:4). 6
    • 2.1.5. Willingness to pay To assure a financial sustainability of a project the demand created has to be supported by a willingness to pay (WTP) for a chosen service by the user (Bruijne et al, 2007; Sansom et al, 2008). WTP can be estimated as follows (Sansom et al, 2008:86): • Observing the prices that people pay for a service • Observing local expenditure of money, time, labour or exchange of goods to obtain a service • By asking people directly what they are willing to pay for services in the future However, in some countries willingness to pay can be difficult to assess if the user is very poor or if it considers that housing, water and sanitation services should be provided for free by the government as a constitutional right. This is the case in South Africa where a free basic sanitation policy exists. Section 26 (1) of the constitution states that everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing and section 27 (1.c) guarantees that everyone has access to sufficient food and water (SAGI, 2008). Examples of sanitation as a business Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions in Peru When the objective is to create or increase a demand for sanitation the supply side has to follow. Taking the Peruvian example, half of the population lack of basic sanitation, however, an important part of the population is willing to pay for safe and low-price services. In this context, 50 private and public partners are seeking to develop sanitation markets in five communities that represent a potential market of 44,000 families (roughly 200,000 individuals), under the initiative "Alternative Pro-poor Sanitation Solutions in Peru". If the initiative succeeds in building sustainable and inclusive markets in poor areas, consumers will gain access to sanitation products and small business will grow along with the community demands (WSP, 2009) DMT Mobile Toilets – Nigeria As an African example we have the Nigerian company DMT Mobile toilets that provides this hardware to bus stations and in densely populated areas in major cities in Nigeria, until 2002 they used to import their plastic toilets, nowadays, after acquiring the technology and the know-how they manufacture their own plastic mobile container Photo 2.1. Slogan DMT Mobile toilets (WASH toilets (DMT, 2004). news Finance (2009)     7
    • DMT’s innovative model offers a decentralized, Community -based waste management system that privatises public toilets and economically empowers women and young men who struggle with high rates of unemployment. The women and youth who franchise a toilet from DMT keep 50 percent of the profits from usage charges-paying the rest to DMT for operational services-and after three years own the toilets they manage. Charging US$ 0.25 a visit, DMT faces little competition from the poorly maintained municipal public toilets in capital Lagos. It has become the second largest toilet manufacturer in Africa. WASH news Finance (2009)  2.1.6. Gender Better hygiene and sanitation is gender specific, men decide on major investments and they do not attach the same importance to sanitation and hygiene as women whom along with girls can seldom change practices of men (Casella, 2004). Women have a central role in Water, Sanitation and hygiene programs as they take the main responsibility to socialize children on how to use the latrines while providing them health and hygiene education. In addition women take care of the sanitation needs from the elder and the sick (Hannan et al 2002:3). Different research demonstrates that women are concerned with safety and privacy. Safety for their children not to fall in the pit hole and privacy, for instance, in the sense of having toilets with doors so for not to be seen while using such facilities (Hannan et al 2002:3; Burra et al, 2003:22). Regarding public toilets, women interests and concerns have to be considered when locating, building and designing the facilities as these details can make the difference between the use and non-use (Andenyang, 2008). The results from a sustainable sanitation implementation project in Tanzania showed that full benefits only accrued when women have more influential role in management committees and maintenance of installed facilities, and men are encouraged to become more involved in activities such as hygiene education and sanitation (Chaggu et al, 2002:13). In the case of communal toilets, in most countries separate toilets are needed for men and women, therefore, it is important to consider the distance between men’s and women’s toilets as this can be a sensitive issue (Reed et al 2004:3). Regarding urine male urinals in public facilities it has to be evaluated whether a physical separation is needed for the urinals to be used as maybe men cannot feel comfortable while using non screened urinals. With regards to waterless urinals, Münch (2009:15) considers that conventional urinals or waterless urinals enjoy the same level of user acceptance since there is no change in behaviour requested for men and regarding privacy it makes no difference whether the urinal is water flushed or waterless. 2.1.6.a Children Toilet facilities have to be designed including children requirements so for them to use such facilities. With regards to schools, inadequate water and sanitation facilities not only have a negative effect on 8
    • hygiene and health but also contribute to retention and limit the attendance and the performance of students at school (UNICEF 2009:33). Girls are particularly affected by inadequate toilets when these do not assure that washing facilities are private and safe (Casella, 2004; Varghese et al, 2005; UNICEF 2009:34). An assessment on urine diversion toilets in the Kathmandu valley shows that in some cases it was hard for children to keep urine out of the faeces hole due to the pan being too large for them (WaterAid, 2008:35). In Mumbay, observation of public toilets in slums during the morning queues showed that children in the queue were pushing out of the way as people were rushing to use the toilets before going to work. At that time of the day women had no time to accompany their children to the public toilets so they let them defecate outside their houses (Burra et al 2003:15). Furthermore, many young children are scared of using conventional latrines because they are dark, often smelly and have big holes in which they are frightened of falling into. In slums in Mumbay, young children under the age of seven are a significant part of the population, often one quarter of the total, for that reason, the SPARC model designed Community chosen children facilities with smaller squat plates, handles to prevent overbalancing and smaller pit openings into a shallow trench that is washed Photo 2.2. Community -designed children's toilets regularly (Burra et al 2003:15). in Byanapalli settlement, Bangalore (Homeless International) 2.1.6.b Elderly, disables and overweighed It is not always possible to do anything about the individual impairment of a disabled person, however, most of the time the problems for disabled people to access water and sanitation facilities are caused by the following external factors (Jones et al, 2005): External factors Examples Natural barriers Muddy or flooded paths Physical infrastructure Narrow platforms, high steps, steep steps, slippery floors, no handles Institutional factors Lack of knowledge about disability issues Social barriers Overprotection from the family, isolation Table 2.1. Examples of obstacles faced by disabled people (Adapted from Jones et al, 2005) Therefore, if a water and sanitation project aims to include everybody, accessibility has to be considered. Disables do not expect more than other groups but they equality in terms of access (Jones et al, 2005). On the other hand flexibility should be considered when choosing the location of a new 9
    • toilet or water tap, in the sense that the option to be build in an easier access or at a short distance from a disable house should be included. Fg Figure 2.1. Major barriers for disable and disadvantages people (Jones et al, 2005) 2.2. Sustainable sanitation Every day in urban and peri-urban areas of low-income countries thousand of tonees of human excreta from either open defecation or collected from on-site sanitation such as unsewered household and communal toilets, septic tanks and aqua privies are dumped into open drains, open land or landfills and in some cases used in agriculture and aquaculture without any treatment (Strauss et al, 10:2003). In the case of conventional sewerage systems only 5% to 10% of the worldwide wastewater is treated (Werner, 2000). As a result in the case of shallow water table or unprotected water resources highly contaminated matter can end up polluting groundwater and open waters causing a serious health and environmental burden. Conventional centralized systems for treating wastewater are unsuitable for developing countries as a blanket solution due to the high energy consumption, O&M and water consumption involved (Werner, 2000; Morel, 2002, Sulahb, 2008). Do we (the Indians) build huge dams and irrigation systems to bring in water only to flush it down into an expensive sewage system, all ending up polluting our rivers and ponds? (Sulabh 2008) Photo 2.3. Wastewater discharge (USGS, 2009) In this research the term reuse oriented technologies, sustainable sanitation or ecological sanitation is mentioned, however, the author prefers to refer to sustainable sanitation. In that respect this study will understand sustainable sanitation as a system that is accepted, financially sustainable, durable, and easy to operate and maintain at a low cost by the users or a caretaker and that system is not harmful to the environment while it provides the opportunity to safely reuse the generated end-products. 10
    • Eco-sanitation is a niche with great potential in the following different situations (Snel, 2006): • High ground water table • Water scarce areas • Rocky soil However, Münch et al (2006) consider that within a supportive enabling environment this concept could be adaptable to high density areas, slums and emergency areas having benefits for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s). On the other hand, Mara (2009) claims that ecological sanitation is too expensive and therefore not viable to meet the MDG’s until it is a financially viable option. 2.3. Urine-diverting toilets A Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) is an on-site system that operates without water and has a division so for the user, with little effort, to be able to divert urine away from faeces. Therefore, the aim is to maintain faeces as dry as possible so for to encourage the dehydration process. Urine is then collected separately through a urine channel located in the front of the toilet bowl or squatting pan, while faeces drops in a larger drop hole in the back. In that respect urine and faeces are stored on-site this makes this system independent from a sewer connection. It is important that the urine and faeces separation is well defined in order not to clog the urine channel with faeces or letting urine into the faeces hole which would not allow the process to perform adequately (Akvo, 2009). The major difference with other conventional sanitation systems is that there are two outlets and two collection systems (Kvarnström et al 2006:3). In the case of water being used for anal cleansing an extra outlet for wash-water would be needed. Figure 2.3 below shows two models of urine diverting toilets, the squat pan and the toilet bowl. Figure 2.2. Different models of UDT (Sandec/Eawag, 2008) 11
    • UDDT allows performing primary and secondary treatment based on storage time and addition of products such as lime, ash or sawdust to encourage pathogen destruction. Nevertheless, the final quality of the material would depend on the operation and maintenance of the system. The quality standard for reuse will depend on what the end product will be used for. Advantages Disadvantages Does not require a constant source of water Requires education and acceptance to be used correctly No real problems with odours and vectors (flies) if Urine diversion channel is prone to clogging with used and maintained correctly (i.e. kept dry) faeces and misuse Can be built and repaired with locally available Special child seats have to be provided to keep their materials urine and faeces separate. Low capital and operation costs Large scale nutrient recovery is a realistic possibility. Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters, washers, wipers) Table 2.2. Advantages Vs Disadvantages of UDDT (Akvo, 2009) 2.3.1. Maintenance A UDDT is slightly more difficult to keep clean compared to other toilets because of both the lack of water and the need to separate the solid faeces and liquid urine. For cleaning, a damp cloth may be used to wipe down the seat and the inner bowls. Some toilets are easily removable and can be cleaned more thoroughly. No design will work for everyone and therefore, some users may have difficulty separating both streams perfectly which may result in extra cleaning and maintenance. (Akvo, 2009) Again education and demonstration is needed for new users to maintain and operate properly. Then, the fact that men can have access to urinals reduces the chances of liquid getting in the faeces container; this is a disadvantage for women that commonly used the same toilet for urinating and defecating. 2.3.2. Reuse Sustainable sanitation englobes different aspects of sanitation ranging from rainwater harvesting, stormwater, greywater and excreta management. Each of these fields has a potential to provide a resource, it can be in the form of raw material to produce energy trough the conversion of excreta to biogas or reused on land for agriculture, aquaculture, gardening or ornamental purposes among others. The quality of these resources would dictate where there should be reused and what treatment would allow to get the requested quality standard. In terms of reuse the scope of this research will be on end products from UDDT, namely urine and dry faeces. 12
    • Both urine and faeces content nutrients, however, most of the nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, are found in urine while faeces content high organic matter that aids water retention and is a good soil improver (Waste, 2005; WELL, 2006). Figure 2.3. Nutrient content in different media (Snel, 2008) Historically, the reuse of human excreta for agricultural purposes has been widely used for hundreds and even thousands of years since the early Chinese history (Smet et all, 2006). An example of one of the first contemporary UDDT is the Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet. In 1956 the Health Authorities of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam started a campaign to construct latrines, after several experiments the peasants of the Quang Ngai Province developed “the double septic tank for on-the spot composting of excreta”, however, the term septic tank is confusing as it was dry double vault latrine with urine diversion. In the period 1961-1965 the Vietnamese Ministry of Health concentrated in the three major installations for rural hygiene, namely, the double pit latrine, the lined well and the bathroom (Winblad, 1985:18). Figure 2.4. The Vietnamese double vault urine diversion toilet (Winblad et al,1985) In 1978, a variation of the Vietnamese latrine was introduced in Guatemala; and lately in the rest of Central America; by the CEMAT in consultation with the local population, because of the volcanic rock, the lack of space and the interest in turning excreta into fertilizer (Winblad et al, 1985). Even though urine-diversion systems allow the reuse of nutrients such a technology can be chosen to extend the life of a simple pit latrine in emergency situations when there is no interest in reuse (personal communication with Andy Bastable, 2009). Another example of UDT with no interest in reuse of urine comes from eThekwini municipality in South Africa where 75.000 double vault urine diversion toilets have been installed in peri-urban and rural areas and the urine is infiltrated into the ground (personal conversation with Rebecca Scott 2009). The aim of these UDDT is to reduce the high cost involved in emptying VIP latrines (Macleod 2005). End products from UDDT in urban and peri-urban does not always have the opportunity to be re-used on-site because of space restriction, the distance to the farmlands or because further treatment that cannot be done on-site is necessary. In any case, when the pit or urine tank is full and no on-site reuse 13
    • or infiltration is possible, transport is definitely needed, therefore increasing the operating cost of the system. Nutrient removal processes The researchers from the CSIR believe that prevention is better than cure, i.e. remove the nutrients with urine rather than dilute with the rest of the waste stream (email communication with Jac Wilsenac, Wastewater specialist, 2009). In that sense a pilot project is on-going about effects of urine-separation on the wastewater effluent quality. The study is piloting different processes that could be upscalled at the WWTW level by the end of 2010 (CSIR, 2009). Improving the effluent quality entering the WWTW could extend the design capacity and reduce the corrosion in the pipes. Moreover, it could diminish the energy consumption in WWTW and would contribute to a better quality effluent released to the environment which would cut the discharge taxes to be paid. Nevertheless, it has to be considered that for this to be accomplished the demand for UD toilets should be created. Of the total concentration in wastewater urine contains ±70% of the nitrogen and ±50% of the phosphorus while making less than 1% of the total of urban wastewater volume (Mac Millan, 2009). In figure 2.6 below, it can be observed the required processes to treat waste water, however, if nutrients are removed before diluting raw urine into the waste stream, then energy could be saved and an income could be generated out of the recovered nutrients. Figure 2.5. Wastewater treatment recreation at sewage works (New scientist, 2008) Some of the biological processes that are being tested to reduce the amount of nutrients getting to the WWTW are the following (Mac Millan, 2009): Nitrification: NH4+ + 1.5O2 NO2- + H2O +2H+ NO2- + 0.5O2 NO3- 14
    • Denitrification: 2NO3- + 10e- + 12H+ N2 + 6H2O On-site systems With regards to on-site systems, one way to reduce frequency in transportation from the source to the destination is by increasing the volume of the storage tank but this will increase the investment cost. Concerning transport, urine takes much more volume and requests more frequent emptying than faeces but in terms of nutrients it is more valuable. On the other hand, crops do not need to be fertilized all year round which means that urine should be stocked until the suitable time for fertilization arises. For that reason research is going on ways to extract urine nutrients while reducing its volume. One option which is currently studied is struvite precipitation as it is seen as a method to transform liquid fertilizer from urine into a crystallized form which would allow an easier distribution, stock and acceptability by the user. Potential drawbacks to urine handling systems are the risk of ammonia evaporation and the relatively large volumes to be handled. In that situation struvite technology has been established to trap the phosphates in a solid fertilizer. Using the technology could reduce the huge volume of urine and transporting cost. However, struvite production also generates effluent. Struvite effluent reuse has significant potential benefits on both a local and global scale, such as re- circulating plant nutrients like nitrogen and potassium back to agriculture Figure 2.6 Struvite production process in Siddhipur, Nepal (Etter (Kashekya 2009). 2008) Policies for the reuse of human excreta Although guidelines on the reuse of urine, excreta and greywater in agriculture exist such as the one published by the WHO, laws, policies or by-laws that enforce the use of treated human excreta remain non-existent except in Sweden and Finland. Consequently, reuse of human excreta in sustainable sanitation is often not taken seriously or takes place only in small scale pilot schemes which are not converted into large-scale sustainable projects (Snel, 2008:2). 2.3.3. Acceptance, behaviour and attitudes towards UDDT The UDDT is not intuitive or immediately obvious to some users, therefore, education and demonstration projects are essential for the correct use of the system (Akvo, 2009). Concerning human excreta, it is a taboo topic in most of the cultures about which little is known outside 15
    • epidemiology (Tanner, 2000:1). However, human society has developed different attitudes towards the reuse of human excreta ranging from abhorrence through disaffection and indifference to predilection (WHO, 2006:109). Within the African context, its societies are faecalphobic due to its history (Chaggu et al, 2002:2). In fact, African societies were used to live in relatively small tribes spread over large areas where open defecation or burying excreta was the common practice. On the other hand, the most common agricultural method was the slash and burn, therefore, when the soil started to became infertile communities just moved to another place (Missar 1997 in Chaggu et al 2002:9; Winblad et al 2004:100). Contrary, in Asian countries such as Japan and China the food demand to cover an increasing population converted human excreta in valuable fertilizer (Winblad et al, 2004). In 1956, an estimated of 90% of all human excreta produced in China was collected and reused in agriculture, representing one third of all fertilizers used in the country (Dorozynsky, 1975, in Winblad et al, 1985:13). The results from a project in Tanzania show that the inhabitants of Majumbasita area, an unplanned settlement at the peri-urban of Dar-es-Salam, don’t have problems handling human excreta, provided that it is dry, as they consider it as cow dung. However, they refuse to get in contact with wet faeces (Chaggu et al, 2002:10).Therefore, to achieve sustainability on the implementation adequate training, follow up and education is needed (Terrefe, 1999) to make clear that the end product is no longer faeces but nutrient rich fertilizer without odours and impurities (Snel, 2006). Then, the relative novelty of the closed-loop approach to sanitation is implying that education should be a mixture of teaching and promotion at all levels (UNESCO/GTZ, 2006:32). A study involving the social perceptions of the users of urine diversion systems in three provinces of South Africa showed that 86% of the users did not like to empty the vaults and that the implementation process by the local authorities was very poor contributing to too little training on how to operate and maintain the systems. In fact, 16% of the UDDT installed in the area of study were not used at all or used for unintended purposes such as storage, bathing and animal pen (Matsebe 2005:4). Regarding social acceptance on UDDT the following barriers are highlighted (adapted from Münch 2009:7) • Odours (only happened if incorrect design and operation) • It is difficult for the poor to see UD as a solution when they know the rich have only flush toilets • Users have to understand how the system works and the importance of keeping liquids (urine and/or anal wash water) out of the faeces vault • Users cooperation is needed • Taboos related to human excreta In addition, user acceptance will depend on what people had before and what they are expecting to get. (Morgan 2004; Münch 2009:7) 16
    • 2.3.4. Technical issues Depending on the country the quality of the construction materials of the toilets built can be a problem, as an example, in the Ethiopian market often plastic items such as toilet seats or plastic pipes produced locally are of low quality and this is reflected on the quality of the toilets built (Terrefe et al, 1999). However, common technical issues with UDDT are faeces chambers getting too wet because of wrong operation due to lack of investment in software; i.e.: people urinating in the faeces vault; and blockages in the urine pipe caused by the quantity of precipitates as well as narrow diameters and prolonged residence of urine in pipes and siphons (Larsen at al 9:2007). These technical problems can lead to offensive odours which can influence the user acceptance and satisfaction. 2.4. Communal sanitation Scott (2006) considers that improved sanitation at the household level can have a direct impact on health by reducing risks from contaminated faeces as it breaks down the faecal-oral transmission of disease while increasing social standing and dignity. However, individual sanitation is not always possible due to financial, space or land tenure issues. When such constraints do not allow adequate sanitation, communal systems can be evaluated as a viable solution. Public toilets serve the needs of anybody that can afford the fee, if any. These facilities are often found in markets, stations and other public areas, however, there are also needed in schools, hospitals and institutions (Reed at al 2004). Some practitioners consider that lots of public toilets, the majority in slums and peri-urban areas just don’t work right and are really horrible (WASH helpdesk 2007). The MDG indicator does not consider shared sanitation - whether fully public or only available to some - as “improved” facilities. In addition, serious concern has also been expressed about the accessibility throughout the day and about the security of users, especially at night (WHO, 2008). Some of the possible reasons for none in use of community toilets are listed as follows (UN-HABITAT India and Madhya Pradesh Government, 2005:7 and 8): • Poor construction and planning • Lack of water supply • Lack of operation and maintenance • Lacking in special provision to children • Lack in safety and security for women and handicapped • Insufficient funds for running/upgrading • Lack of public health and hygiene the system education among poor sections of society • Lack of sensitisation of gender issues Besides the common problems found in public toilets, the following examples acknowledge that in some cases public toilets do work. UN-HABITAT and Madhya Pradesh Government (2005:5) confirm that public toilets in India are particularly useful in densely populated areas where there is no space for individual household toilets; in addition, this concept has a demonstrative effect as the people using communal toilets become used to toilets and can realize the need for individual household facilities. Therefore, community toilets can have a positive impact on behaviour change among the public living in slum areas and can generate demand for sanitation. The side effect of poor management of public 17
    • toilets instead can lead to a widely use of open defecation in the surrounding area of the public facilities (Burra et al 2003:15). Devolving responsibility for operation and maintenance is growing in popularity. An organisation built the communal toilet, usually the government, and hand over the O&M to the private contractor which charges the user for a fee for using the service. Conversely, when the government manage the O&M it has been proved that communities might have little sense of pride in government structures and feel free to vandalise them and steal components (Reed et al 2004:12). 2.4.1. Examples of communal toilets 2.4.1.a Contractor- built toilet blocks in Mumbay The legacy of contractor-built public toilet blocks in Mumbay’s slums had ended up in unhygienic facilities with a short lifespan of two to three years and 80% of the these toilets not working properly (Scott et all, 2005). In fact, most of these toilets had broken doors, and many had overflowing septic tanks, latrines clogged with excrement and sites covered with garbage (Burra et al, 2003:16). Moreover, signs of open defecation were found in the surrounding of the toilets due to the poor management (Burra et al, 2003:14). Other reasons for the failure of that legacy were the lack of water supplies, electricity and privacy particularly for women confirming that this model required a serious revision. 2.4.1.b The SPARC model Burra et al (2003) describes the ten year programme of Community design, built and managed toilet blocks in eight cities in India including Mumbay, Pune and Bangalore that in 2003 served more than half a million of low-income urban dwellers. These toilets are managed by urban poor federations, women's cooperatives and the Society for the Promotion of Area Resources Centres (SPARC). The SPARC model shows how urban poor communities that have taken steps to improve their sanitation through community toilet blocks are a good example for other communities and can change the attitudes from the local authorities by providing an alternative to the conventional approach of service delivery. This model makes a distinction between public toilets and community toilets in the sense that a Community toilet belongs and is managed by the community and not the government. The SPARC model started as an alternative to public toilet blocks build by contractors using rarely any type of community consultation regarding the location, design, construction and operation and maintenance. On the other hand it was also an alternative to “toilets for the poor” projects from charitable trust funds or NGO’s that often build “pay and use” toilets where the users pay every time they access to the toilet. This fee will cover the caretaker and cleaner’s salaries as well as the cost of operation and maintenance (Burra et al, 13:2003). However, these public toilets are too expensive for a poor individual that would like to use it every day. Consequently, SPARC integrates a model in which the city pays for the initial capital cost of constructing the toilets while the local community is involved in the design, supervision and construction. Once the toilet is build, the community will take care of the expenses of operation and maintenance (SPARC 21:2005) by integrating a monthly charge to the users which are usually 18
    • community members. This monthly fee is certainly a cheaper option than the “pay and use” model which could be efficient in large concourses such as bus or railway stations but which are not a solution in slums because of the high prices involved. The SPARC model aims to empower poor communities by managing their toilet blocks and allow the improvement of the sanitation situation in informal settlements. 2.4.1.c . ACTS eco-friendly public toilet centre in Bangalore Rajendra Nagar slum was the location of a pilot UDDT public toilet started in 1999 in Bangalore. The objectives of the project were to improve the sanitation situation, the development of the slum and to stop soil and water pollution by faecal contamination. Income was generated by charging for the use of the toilets which was serving around 500 persons a day and by recovering nutrients from human excreta to fertilize a banana plantation as well as by the selling of compost produced (gtz 2007:1). In 2005, it was decided to upgrade such public toilet as the original logistics concept was often questioned as it constituted a cultural and a hygienic problem. The initial collection of urine and faeces was done in barrels that were stored in compartments below the toilets. Once a day the barrels were transported with a truck or cart to the ACTS Rayasandra Campus where urine, after storage, was applied as a nitrogen rich fertilizer into the mentioned banana plantation and faeces were composted with waste paper and biodegradable waste which involved the workers to be in contact with the wet excreta. In order to achieve a more sustainable and culturally accepted system, the collection, transportation and further treatment was modified by equipping the existing truck with a vacuum suction unit and by changing the drums by holding tanks. Photo 2.4.Barrels for excreta storage Photo 2.5.Upgraded system to empty Photo 2.6. Upgraded vacuum system for before upgrading (Baier, 2005) urine collection tanks (seecon faeces (seecon gmbh,2007) gmbh,2007) The treatment process for faeces was changed from composting to biogas because composting turn to be a complicated process to achieve a proper degradation at a large scale. Therefore, for treating the faecal matter more hygienically a 40m3 biogas digester was built at the Rayasandra campus. Operation and maintenance including collection, transport and final disposal was done by a group of six to eight trained workers. Lessons learnt on that project state that a strong local organizational embedding and a good long term management of the technology are key prerequisites for a successful and sustainable project operation and that strong local project partner and manager remains crucial (gtz 2007:4). 19
    • After more than three years of operation of the nutrient transport scheme and the composting facility, many recommendations are no longer strictly adhered to. The workers motivation and awareness of their own role as nutrient managers has somewhat faded away. Without their proper sense for horticulture, agriculture, and nutrient management, it was sometimes easier to dump a whole drum of urine at the foot of one single banana tree instead of storing and "managing" the nutrients. A lack of understanding of the basic principles of composting led to "workload minimization" rather than process optimization. Care for personal Photo 2.7.Salt deposits from urine safety precautions is easy to neglect if not under the sharp eyes of the over-fertilization (Baier,2005) supervisor (Baier 2005). The ACTS public toilet was discontinued due to the following reasons (conversation with Michael Kropac, Project Manager India, Seecon, 2009): • Lack of funds to finance the project • Logistic involved with the treatment and disposal • The municipality did not want them to continue as another solution was wanted • No space for on-site treatment increased logistics and made this option economically unsustainable (the implementation of four or five of these toilets would have made the project economically viable) • A sanitation upgrade plan in Bangalore increased the number of individual toilets in Rajendra Nagar slum up to 60% so fewer customers were using the toilets. • People living close to the toilets or on the way to the disposal site did not accept the high emptying frequency (every day or two). Unfortunately, this project could not assure a long term management as a prerequisite for the success of their initiative. Municipal support, funding and logistics were an issue as well the lack of space for on- site treatment and the community acceptance. 2.4.1.d Ecotact’s Ikotoilets in Kenya Ecotact is a social enterprise that sees sanitation as a business opportunity. Eleven public toilets called “Ikotoilets” are already operational in Kenya, 13 are under construction and contracts have been signed with the local authorities for the first 100 units. Photo 2.8. Ikotoilet in Nairobi business district (ecotoilet.org, 2009) 20
    • These public toilets do not open at night, use a “pay and use” model and besides toilet facilities incorporate other revenue generating products and services such as showers, cold refreshments with snacks, shoe shinning, newspaper vending and the new models can even include an ATM machine. The toilets are located in public areas like markets and parks and by August 2009 the first two units will be implemented in slum areas. These two units would be different from the ones in Nairobi city centre because a monthly daily fee can be evaluated, there is no connection to sewer and the employees would be youth from the community, chosen by the community, to encourage the ownership of the facilities. In that respect, the toilets are connected to a biogas digester and the effluent is sucked out using a vacuum truck when requested (conversation with David Kuria, 2009). Corporates are interested in sponsoring this model in slums; which is expecting to serve 500 users a day, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (conversation with Wendy Mukuru, 2009). Ecotact takes advantage of the human circulation rate (700 users per day in the business district of Nairobi), and tries to implement The reuse of human excreta is considered as a source of energy as well as a way to recover nutrients, in that respect biogas is produced from the digestion of human excreta and they are exploring the conversion from urine harvested from their waterless urinals to be used as fertilizer instead of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate, which is beyond the reach of most farmers (sanitation updates 15/05/2009). Local universities are involved in the training of capacity development of the employees working in the toilets. Ecotact uses a Build-Operate-Transfer model of public-private partnership, entering into long-term contracts with municipalities to secure use of public lands. In exchange for the use of public land, the company agrees to bear all facility construction costs but relinquishes ultimate ownership of the facilities to the municipalities. The contracts give Ecotact the right to operate the toilet and shower facilities for a certain number of years and charge user fees. Because it is a Public-Private Partnership one of the constraints is that nobody knows who will be in power in five year time during the transfer period and whether the contracts could be extended. Also, the Municipality or City Council; depending if the toilet is located in urban or rural areas, decides where the facilities should be established having an impact on the profitability of the business itself which is highly dependent on the location (conversation with Wendy Mukuru 2009). Figure 2.7. Ecotact model (ecotact.org)   21
    • 2.4.1.e . Biocentres in informal settlements in Nairobi Umande Trust, a Kenyan rights-based organisation has developed the BioCentre concept. This is a biogas generating public toilet located in informal settlements and managed by the Community that treats human excreta on-site through a biogas digester, its effluent is further treated through reed beds when space available, however, this is difficult in informal settlements so buffler filtration is being tested. The sludge is dried in the sun and then composted and the liquid is directed into the soakaway. These toilets consist of ten cubicles, 9 pour flush toilets using one to two litres per flush and one toilet using a 15 litres cistern that can help flushing solids found in the pipe. It serves around 600 users per day and the biogas generated can be used as an alternative to GPL, wood or charcoal. The building ground floor is used for the toilets and showers to optimize accessibility and the upper floor, which maximizes restricted urban space, has implemented a hall for community activities and a room for a community health promoter (Audrey, 2009). The project is supported by the provincial administration and the City Council of Nairobi. Twelve BioCentres are up and running in Kenya and four extra are under construction. The aim of the project is to have 20 BioCentres in the next three years serving 12.000 people/day (www.challenge.bfi.org). Further to a BioCenter user survey research on Gatwekera Village in Kibera based on a questionnaire administrated to 500 residents living within the vicinity of the BioCenter, 458 respondents found no objection for using the facility. There are two caretakers from the community chosen by the committee during the opening hours who are collecting the fees, providing toilet paper and cleaning the facilities. The toilets are closed at 9pm, although, spontaneously hawkers have requested the permission from the community to use the gas generated and the kitcken at night to cook their dishes. The constraint of that model is the lack of space available in informal settlements to assure a proper tertiary treatment trough reed beds and therefore the quality of the effluent which can be up to 80% free of pathogens and that at the moment is directed to a soakaway (conversation with Dyfed Aubrey, 2009). Figure 2.9. Ground floor BioCentre Photo 2.9. BioCentre Figure 2.8. BioCentre design (challenge.bfi.org) (seedmagazine.com) (challenge.bfi.org) 22
    • 3. CASE STUDY: MOBISAN IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN CAPE TOWN 3.1. Water and sanitation in South Africa Here below there is a brief description history of Water & Sanitation in South Africa One sector of the economy of South Africa has developed from a rudimentary settler level through an agricultural phase plagued by droughts and depressions into that of a sophisticated, mining and industrialised economy using modern techniques in keeping with those of the western world. The other sector of the economy is poverty-bound, its poverty aggravated by the systematic destruction of traditional subsistence economies. This sector enjoys little of the services and advantages of the wealthy sector which was developed largely at the cost of the poor. The development of South Africa’s water resources has been linked more with supporting the progress of the country’s wealthy sector than with alleviating the position of the poor, particularly in the rural areas. By the end of the 19th century most of the water used in South Africa was for white commercial agriculture. Water for irrigation was generally diverted directly from rivers, since few dams had been constructed. Legislation enacted in the early years of this century protected the water rights of farmers along rivers and the State concentrated on the construction of works to benefit irrigation. Later, the emphasis on irrigation in the legislation proved to be inadequate for the water requirements of an expanding industrial base. Accordingly, in 1956 a new Water Act (Act 54 of 1956) was passed, which was intended to ensure an equitable distribution of water for industrial and other competing users, as well as to authorise strict control over the abstraction, use, supply, distribution and pollution of water, artificial atmospheric precipitation and the treatment and discharge of effluent. With the introduction of Grand Apartheid and the balkanisation of the country into the homeland territories and the tri-cameral parliamentary “own affairs” administrations, it became very clear that virtually all of the vast investments mentioned above served the white sector of South Africa and the rest were left to fare for themselves. Within white “RSA” the black townships were placed under the authority of the “Black Local Authorities” and also largely left to fend for themselves. The history of the development of sanitation services closely parallels the history of water service development in South Africa. In the wealthy municipalities and towns the development of water supplies generally made provision for the greater quantities of water required for water borne sewage services. Black local authorities in some areas undertook water borne sewage development but in many places the bucket system was used. Extracted from Water supply and sanitation policy, White paper (DWAF, 1994) 3.1.1. Urbanisation and poverty Regarding poverty and rural exodus, South Africa is not an exception within the African context. The country is currently experiencing one of the highest rates of urbanisation in the African continent, with the population of urban dwellers anticipated to reach some 33 million people by 2015 which would be 62.7% of its total population (WRC 2009:1). This high rate of urbanisation increases the number of people in informal settlements making of these settlements part of the landscape of every city in South Africa which makes it more difficult for the municipalities to reduce the backlog in housing and sanitation provision. The definition of informal settlements is context-specific, however, the UN Habitat Program defines it as follows: i) Residential areas where a group of housing units has been constructed on land to which the occupants have no legal claim, or which they occupy illegally; 23
    • ii) Unplanned settlements and areas where housing is not in compliance with current planning and building regulations (unauthorized housing). In South Africa, when almost any land is occupied for more than 24h, the law protects squatters until a resolution is issued deciding on relocation or non-eviction. Consequently, when an informal settlement is recognized basic services have to be provided by the Municipality, consisting of 6m3 of water per person and month along with basic sanitation such as a VIP or similar. Generally, the occupied land faces physical barriers which limit the sanitation systems to be implemented. Photo 3.1.Improvised stormwater Photo 3.2. Water ponding next to the Photo 3.3. Unplanned and dense drainage shacks settlement Informal settlements are a result of social and economic contradiction (Huchzermeyer et al, 2004). In 2000, the richest 20% of the South African population earns 52.5% of the income, while the poorest 20% earns just 3.1% (ISS 2009). A recent research from the University of South Africa reveals that during the period 2007 to 2008 differential growth rates with respect to the number of adults in the different income categories were evident. It was a 58% increase in the adults earning more than R750.000 pa from 2007 to 2008 while only 0,8% of adults were earning more than R 50.000 pa compared to the previous year (Aardt et al 2008). The situation in Cape Town The Cape Town area has around 240 informal settlements spread mainly in the Cape flats, an expansive, low-lying flat area situated to the southeast of Cape Town. HGHGH Figure 3.2. Adapted from the general household survey Figure 3.1. Cape Flats area (Wikipedia, 2009) (Huchzermeyer et al, 2004) and Muller (2009) According to the 2008 general household survey there are 128.146 dwellings out of which only 80.487 24
    • are serviced with the free basic sanitation policy (6m3 of water/pp/month and a VIP or similar). Then, in theory the difference between these figures is the sanitation backlog (47.659 households). The sanitation coverage is calculated using a ratio of one toilet per five families. Therefore, in theory the number of toilets installed will provide the household coverage number. However, this coverage is just a figure that does not state whether the sanitation is accepted as well as if one toilet is really serving five families. This is particularly difficult to control due to constant human migration in informal settlement as well as the cohesion issues that may arise between dwellers sharing a toilet. This sometimes turns up in one household changing the lock of the toilet for its own use making the ratio 1:5 not always reliable. On the other hand, the technologies to be implemented in informal settlements are heavily dependent upon physical barriers as it is shown in the figures below representing the typical characteristics found in unplanned settlements in Cape Town. Figure 3.3. Flooding prone areas Figure 3.4. Land accessibility Figure 3.6.Housing density distribution Figure 3.5. Land ownership Source: Castellano (2007) 3.2. Existing sanitation systems in informal settlements in Cape Town The following table provided by the WSIS shows the different technologies implemented in Cape Town, as well as the households served. 25
    • Dwelling Total Sanitation Serving Households % of households number of technology Capacity Serviced serviced units (Ratio) Container toilet 1:5 7.500 37.500 40,8% Flush toilet 1:5 4.800 24.000 26,1% Chemical toilet 1:5 3.600 18.000 19,6% Porta potti 1:1 3.107 3.107 3,4% Bucket 1:1 3.915 3.915 4,3% Pit liner 1:5 497 2.485 2,7% Conservancy tanks 1:5 370 1.850 2,0% Urine diversion toilets 1:5 174 870 0,9% Anaerobic (Nowac) 1:2 48 96 0,1% Total 24.011 91.823 100% Table 3.1. Sanitation technologies in informal settlements of Cape Town (adapted from Muller, 2009) As it has been mentioned earlier in page 26, the estimations of the ratio 1:5 are not always reliable; therefore, the household services data from table 3.1 above should be taken as an approximate figure. The main sanitation systems implemented in informal settlements of Cape Town are briefly described as follows: Chemical toilets They were first introduced in Cape Town’s informal settlements as an emergency health solution but since then have become a standard option. It consists in a 100 litre plastic bucket that is attached to the plastic superstructure These are generally served three times per week but in highly populated settlements the service is requested five times a week (see appendix 9.1, p.92). Photo 3.4.Chemical toilets (CPT, 2009) The contractors pump out the content and clean the toilet on-site. Although a chemical is added to neutralize odours, this toilet can smell and the contents are noticeable. Container toilets These toilets are similar to chemical toilet except that the plastic container is independent from the single or panel cast structure, therefore, the container itself has to be removed and replaced by a clean one at every service. Photo 3.5. Prevalent toilet conditions in Pook se Bos (container toilets) 26
    • Flush toilets Flush toilets are owned by the Cape Town’s water services department and maintained either by their own staff, if available, or outsourced on a service provision contract basis. The main problem faced by this system is the frequent clogging due to the use of bulky anal cleaning material and the heavy use of drinking water for flushing (±12litres/flush). Appendix 9.4 (p.96) shows the maintenance problems related to this system along with the cost involved. Photo 3.6. Clogged flush toilet (Muller, 2009) Porta-potty This is a portable flush unit allocated to each household in high density settlements. This toilet was first designed for caravans, however, its characteristics such as privacy, small space requirements and lack of smell can be applied in informal settlements. It consists of an upper portion comprising the seat and a small flush tank which sits on top of the lower detachable tank that Photo 3.7. Porta-potti (CPT,2009) collects the excreta. The system is serviced twice a week; the user has to dispose the lower tank in a collection point where a clean tank is provided in exchange. In addition, each household receives a spare lower tank to increase the storage capacity of the system. Even though this technology provides individual sanitation, users don’t like to carry their own excreta to the disposal site which is generally located no more than 150m from the household (Personal communication with Lawrence Grootboom, Functional Operations Manager, WSIS, 2009). In addition, some users are not satisfied because the storage tank is to small and sometimes their needs for an empty tank do not match with the service provider schedule which is twice a week, therefore, the content might be thrown in the sewerage canal if they cannot wait for collection days. For that specific reason and as an act of protest Porta Potties has been set alight by angry residents in Gugulethu informal settlement on July 21st 2009 after only two months from their implementation (Prince, Cape Argus News, 2009). 3.3. Decision support tool for the selection of adequate sanitation systems In 2005, a collaboration between Wageningen University (Netherlands), Vitens International (Netherlands), the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of South Africa (CSIR) and the Water Services Department of the City of Cape Town, lead to a decision support tool for the selection of adequate sanitation systems. Such a tool that was developed and tested in the informal settlements of 27
    • Cape Town and took into consideration the following constraints (Castellano 2007): • Access tracks • Type of soil • Population density • Flooding prone area • Water availability • Terrain inclination • Water table depth • Land type and ownership • Sewer availability • Anal cleansing material During the development of the decision support tool, an inventory of the sanitation situation in the informal settlements was undertaken and showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are the following (Mels et al 2008): • Unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land, wetlands and flooding prone areas) • High settlement densities (55%) • Non-permanent status of the informal settlements • Distance to existing sewerage networks Figure 3.7.Assessment of the feasibility of various sanitation options for the ‘average’ informal settlement in Cape Town (Castellano,2007) (Green box indicates a not-limiting constraint, a red box a limiting constraint and a white box a none differentiating constraint) 3.4. The Dutch Consortium The above decision support tool found that under such a circumstances only chemical and container toilets were technologies that could be applied at a large scale. However, due to the high operation and maintenance cost involved in chemical and container toilets a communal mobile sanitation unit was 28
    • developed by a Dutch Consortium, the Cape Town Water Services Department. The community was approached during the design period but was not actively implicated at the initial stage of the project. The Consortium described below involves Vitens-Evides International, Landustrie Sneek BV and Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF) and was started with the support of the Dutch government through Partners for Water (PvW) funding (€342.948). Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF) Lettinga Associates Foundation is a not-for-profit organization, established in 1997 by researchers of Wageningen University, with the goal of advancing the development, implementation, and application of integrated environmental biotechnology for municipal sanitation and industrial applications. LeAF provides designs, project management, consultancies and trainings. LeAF is very experienced in process design of sanitation systems and wastewater treatment processes and has a special focus on systems that are based on anaerobic conversion processes. Vitens-Evides International Vitens-Evides International BV (VEI) was established in 2006 as joint venture of the international activities of the two leading Dutch Water Companies Vitens and Evides. Vitens is the largest public water utility of The Netherlands with approximately 2,3 million connections in the northeast. Evides is the water company of the south west of The Netherlands with approx. 1 million connections. Together they serve approximately 7,7 million people (40 % of the Dutch households). VEI has signed partnership in 2005 with the Cape Town Water Services Department to help supplying water and sanitation facilities to the informal settlements in Cape Town. VEI supports the Water Services Department with knowledge on appropriate facilities and on how to implement these facilities. It supports in finding additional financial resources (i.e. the Dutch Ministry of Development Cooperation, Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. VEI also supports the Water Services Department in building institutional capacity to operate and manage water services. VEI has been cooperating with LeAF and Wageningen University since 2006. Landustrie Sneek BV With almost 100 years of world-wide experience Landustrie has become a leading company in the field of sewage and waste water treatment. In addition, research, development and innovation remain part of their business and development strategy. Landustrie Sneek BV was found as a partner to help building and implementing a first MobiSan facility and to cooperate in larger-scale application in a later stage. 29
    • 3.5. The MobiSan unit The MobiSan unit consists of a communal toilet built in a former sea shipping container. The unit is equipped with 13 toilets. Seven UDD toilets for women and tree for men. The designers preferred not to divert urine from the children toilets as they might have more problems to operate properly the system than adults, increasing the unit’s maintenance. The system includes 12 Urimat waterless urinals (Compact plus model) in the back of the unit, three hand washing basins and a night soil disposal access. These features makes this technology non dependent on water, sewerage or electricity connection to be operational. Obviously, the hand washing basins require water which is supplied from the public stand post connection and drain to a nearer marsh land. The South African basic water and sanitation policy requests a water tap to be installed within 200 meters of any dwelling. Figure 3.8.Cubicles distribution (Adapted from Landustrie, 2009) Following the double vault UDDT principle, the faeces are contained in one chamber until that one is full, then, a dividing wall is opened and using a mixing device, the content is manually transported to a second chamber using a mechanical mixing device that is installed all along the tank (see figure 3.9). Besides transportation the mixing device contributes to the aeration and homogenization of the contained faeces. A gearbox is incorporated into the mixing device to reduce the requested strength to be generated when mixing the content of the faeces chamber. Photo 3.8.Manual mixing device in care-taker Photo 3.9. Second faeces chamber (separation panels room can be seen in the left hand side) 30
    • The wind driven ventilators create a positive extraction that contributes to increase the natural airflow getting in the MobiSan through the toilet bowls and getting out through the ventilation pipes to the atmosphere. Such a positive extraction keeps any offensive odour away from the cubicle. In addition, it catches as much moisture as possible in the way from the faeces tank to the ventilation pipes encouraging to the Figure 3.9. Airflow recreation (adapted from Landustrie drawing, 2009) dehydration process. 3.6. Pook se Bos informal settlement Pook se Bos is located at 15km from Cape Town in private land in an industrial area. There is neither sewerage connection nor storm water drainage within the settlement. Even though the MobiSan system does not need electricity to be operational, electricity has been provided to the unit, especially for the caretaker room. The provision of electricity created controversy among the dwellers that, since the creation of the settlement, are still waiting for electricity. This settlement was chosen due to its poor sanitation and also because its total population could be served with one single MobiSan unit. The MobiSan unit is designed to serve a community of about 500 people. It is understood that such a community has an average of ± 25% of children and, even though informal settlements are characterised by high unemployment rates, some dwellers might use a toilet at work or at the school. For design purposes it has been calculated that in a community of 500 people only Figure 3.10. Map of Pook se Bos including toilet location 70% use it full time. (Adapted from CPT, 2007) The existing sanitation in place before the MobiSan implementation was composed of 33 container toilets - only 23 were operative - organized in different rows and each toilet intended to be shared by five families. As it can be seen in figure 3.10, due to the housing density and to make things easier for 31
    • the service provider, the container toilets are located around the settlement. At the MobiSan implementation in April 2009, eleven of these superstructures (having only two operational container toilets within) were removed from the back of the settlement in order to locate the MobiSan instead (See photo 3.10). 3.7. Project Management and implementation The prototype unit has been offered to the City of Cape Town. Nonetheless, two researchers from LeAF and Vitens-Evides as well as the author, acting as an intern for LeAf, have been involved in the testing and monitoring of the MobiSan until the end of the project period in September 2009. Photo 3.10. Line of container toilets before removal in April 2009 (Kraaijvanger,2009) 3.8. MobiSan O&M From April 2009, two workers from the City of Cape Town were provided as caretakers until the procurement for two or three members of the community would be accomplished. The community decided that they wanted the unit to be fenced, closed at night and lighted, to prevent vandalism. The opening hours were established from 5am till 9pm, seven days a week. The caretaker interacts with the community promoting the correct use of the facilities through a daily monitoring. Consequently, the main concern of the implementers has been to provide a full-time clean and hygienic toilet with no smells, where the users feel safe and dignity is enhanced among the community. As the project comes to an end in September 2009, the Dutch consortium has organized the hand-over of responsibilities to different stakeholders. The Community Water Supply & Sanitation Unit (CWSS) of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology has been approached as they have developed the Water Research Commission (WRC) guidelines for O&M of Water & Sanitation facilities (WRC project K5/1714/3). Therefore, they would be responsible for the O&M monitoring of the unit. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed between the Dutch Consortium, the Water & Services Department of the City of Cape Town and the CWSS and a research proposal has been submitted to the WRC. Nevertheless, the funding for the CWSS project proposal will only be available on April 2010. Concerning the technical monitoring, the Scientific Department of the City of Cape Town has agreed to take over the work undertaken by the researchers from the Dutch Consortium. The procurement will be organized by the WSIS and the on-site responsible for the caretakers will report to the Operations Manager at the WSIS. 32
    • 4. METHODOLOGY The aim of this research is to assess the impact of the first MobiSan pilot unit in order to evaluate the potential for replication of the concept to other informal settlements in Cape Town and even beyond. This methodology has been adapted from the research “PPP and the Poor in Water and Sanitation” (Sohail & Cotton, 2000). That case study analysed the situation in water and sanitation in Cato Crest, an informal settlement in Durban, South Africa, having similar conditions as Pook se Bos. Although, the Cato Crest case study is more focused on water rather than sanitation, its methodology can be adapted to this research. The methodology used in this study will answer the following research questions: 1) What socio-cultural, technical, financial and environmental aspects inhibit and encourage communal urine-diverting toilets from going to scale in the informal settlements of Cape Town? 2) What are the priorities from the user perspective for a toilet to be considered acceptable? To what extent does the MobiSan fulfil those requirements? 3) What is the on/off-site potential reuse of treated urine and faeces? 4) What are the managerial, operation and maintenance requisites for the MobiSan system to be considered as a long term solution? The study comprises two phases: Phase one includes a desk study about sustainable sanitation with a clear focus on communal UDDT, acceptance, reuse and O&M. In addition, a description of the case study will be included and further on, the identification of key informants from the Cape Town Water Services Department, the CSIR and users from the informal settlement itself, the Dutch Consortium, the caretakers as well as fertilizer and organic compost dealers. Phase two involves in the first place, the preparation of the household survey along with the key informant questions and the observation schedule. Secondly, meetings with the key informants had to be arranged. Nevertheless, some of the data obtained through observation or key informant interviews was spontaneous. Therefore the data collected in Cape Town would be described, as follows: 33
    • 4.1. Household survey One hundred and sixteen household surveys, covering almost all shacks, were held between June 10th and July 10th 2009 in Pook se Bos. Before starting with the questionnaire, the author introduced himself and explained briefly the aim of the household visit. A survey has been used during the visits; it consists of a structured questionnaire; the questions were read to the interviewee and fulfilled by the author acting as the interviewer. The data collected was transcript into different excel sheets and grouped to allow a better understanding and representation of the results Some questions are open-ended as the information obtained is more likely to reflect the full richness and complexity of the views held by the respondent (Denscombe, 2007:165) such as “What don’t you like about the MobiSan? What would you like to change? The household survey has helped to understand the socio-dynamics of the settlement, the living conditions as well as attitudes and practices concerning environmental health. As the settlement size was not too big, no sampling procedures were undertaken as it has been possible for the author to survey mostly all the shacks. This allowed checking thoroughly to what extent the Government’s ratio of one container toilet per five families (1:5) was respected. Furthermore, it contributed to see how many bucket toilets are in use in the settlement. In that respect, the household survey has been used to answer part of the socio-cultural and environmental issues of the research question One and the majority of the research question Two (see page 34). The household survey is divided into the following four parts: Part 1: Basic demographic information. 11 questions (see appendix 9.5, p.92) In that section, information about the household itself is gathered through mainly closed questions such as the number of dwellers in the shack, sex, age, occupation, weekly income, nationality, diseases and number of years in the settlement. This information has provided valuable data about the shacks, on how the age groups are divided in Pook se Bos as well as the unemployment rate, the average income and migration patterns. Part 2: Sanitation information and MobiSan acceptability. 10 questions (see appendix 9.6, p. 93) The second part of the survey would contribute to the quantification of MobiSan users and non-users, their concerns about the system and the sanitation system used at night along with the disposal of it. The end of the second part aimed to assess user’s satisfaction by asking, based on a scale, about the cleanliness, aesthetics, safety and accessibility of the facilities. Part 3: Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable. One question (see appendix 9.7, p. 94) Visual aids were used for these questions to improve understanding. The aim of the second set of images was to gather information on the priorities for a user to consider a toilet acceptable. Nonetheless, only three groups of characteristics were shown to the respondents: 34
    • • Cleanliness • Safety/privacy • Proximity to the shack. Part 4: Knowledge about UDDT. One question (see appendix 9.8, p.95) The knowledge on the proper use of a UDDT was tested by showing a picture of a urine diversion system and then asking about the use of the separation channel. 4.2. Observation Participatory observation has been used because it contributes to the understanding of the culture and processes of the group being investigated (Descombe, 2007: 207). Furthermore, observation of various sanitation options (Chemical and container toilets, vacuum sewer) in three informal settlements (Pook se Bos, Kosovo and Khayelitsha) have contributed to the understanding on issues related to O&M. Moreover, observation of the daily O&M of the MobiSan facilities as well as the user’s behaviour has contributed to the social, environmental, financial, health & hygiene as well as economical and technical aspects of this study. Consequently, observation has contributed to answer to the research question One and Four (see page 34). 4.3. Key informant interviews Key informants are people that have a particular knowledge or opinion on something relevant to this research, they might be ordinary people and not specialists. The interviews were divided in the following groups depending on the data to be collected. It consisted of semi-structured interviews as the author wanted to let the interviewee to develop ideas and speak more widely on the issues raised by the researcher (Desconmbe, 2007:176). Due to the amount of data requested to answer the research questions, the key informant interviews tend to be short and specific. Key informants from the following fields have participated in this research. Key informant interviews would contribute to answer question One, Three and Four (see page 32). Financial data Officers and Managers from the Cape Town’s Water & Sanitation unit for informal settlements have provided data on the operating and capital cost of different sanitation options found in informal settlements. 35
    • Borchard’s Quarry WWTW Operations Manager has provided data on the waste water treatment cost from on-site and off-site systems. Cape Town’s Water Services Department has contributed with the reticulation and bulk water cost. Social and Health data • Silver Town Clinic doctors have provided data on the main health related problems in Pook se Bos. • Dwellers and community leaders have provided data on their feelings concerning the Mobisan Operation & Maintenance data • The caretakers have given information on O&M involved in the MobiSan system. • The Functional Operations Manager, the Senior Sanitation officer and the Monitoring & Evaluation Officer from Cape Town ‘s Water & Sanitation unit for informal settlements have provided their opinion on the MobiSan’s O&M related issues. Economical data • Organic compost producer made out of primary sludge • Chemical fertilizer dealers • Organic compost producer’s made out of poultry manure and organic waste Technological data • MobiSan designers • CSIR wastewater specialist 4.4. Analytical measurement data The analytical measurement data can be divided into three main areas, dehydration process, urine and faeces chemical characteristics and nutrient content. The Method of Analysis (MoA) has been included in appendix for possible replication purposes. In that respect, the analytical measurement data has contributed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the different MobiSan’s technical aspects during winter, which is the worst scenario for testing due to the climatic conditions. Therefore, the analytical measurement data results would fit in the technical part of question One and Four. 4.4.1. Dehydration process A portable measurement instrument contributed to monitor the dehydration efficiency through the installation of different sensor probes inside the ventilation pipes and on the roof to obtain atmospheric data. Therefore, the following data has been gathered and analysed on page 55-57: 36
    • • Wind speed inside and outside the tank • Temperature inside and outside the tank • Moisture of the airflow getting out of the tank In addition, a sample from the mixture in the first tank was taken to the CSIR and later on to the Scientific department in order to test the moisture content. The data obtained would be taken as the initial moisture values that will serve as a base to compare dehydration efficiency once the end-product will be removed from the tank. The Methods of Analysis are included with the CSIR analysis. 4.4.2. Characteristics and nutrient content Faeces The first analysis on N,P,K content from a sample from Pook se Bos has been done by the CSIR with the aim to get indicative data to compare with the end-product quality values. The N,P,K results are included in appendix 9.9 (p.96). This data would contribute assessing the nutrient content after the requested storage period. Urine The CSIR is undertaking a study about the effects of urine-separation on the wastewater effluent quality, Moreover, they regularly analyse urine from their recently installed NO MIX toilets, therefore, they have accepted to analyse urine from the UDDT evaluated in that study to compare both results. The results are included in page 68 and the Method of Analysis is included in appendix 9.14, p.102). 4.5. Triangulation of data The data obtained in the survey was validated through field observation and interviews. 4.6. Limitations Time has been a limitation because the end of this research has come before the end of the operation’s full cycle. On the other hand, the container toilets have been removed just one week before the end of this research which has not provided enough time and data to assess the impact of such an important decision. During the household survey, in some occasions the language has been a barrier; though, a community member was always around to assist with the translations. Concerning the dehydration process results, only one moisture sensor probe was available and it was located in the ventilation pipe to measure the moisture of the airflow going out of the tank. It would have 37
    • been useful to have a second moisture sensor probe located in the roof, to compare the RH% difference in the natural airflow getting in and out of the tank. Nevertheless, atmospheric RH% data was obtained through the Cape Town International airport weather station, which is located at only ten kilometres from the area of study. No capital cost for the MobiSan is available because at the moment it is too early to define the industrial design cost. The capital cost from the chemical toilets is also not available since the City rents this system and no costs have been provided by the contractor. 38
    • 5. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS Even though the sanitation situation at night remains in general unchanged, the author highlights that since the implementation of the MobiSan, the sanitation situation in Pook se Bos has been greatly improved and the community is really grateful for that. The following findings are divided into different sections that would help to answer the research questions. The sections would be related to O&M, management, unit’s acceptability, environmental and health aspects as well as financial and technical issues. Moreover the finding on the potential for reuse will be analysed. 5.1. Managerial and O&M requisites for the MobiSan to be considered as a long term solution Unfortunately, it is generally very common in informal settlements of Cape Town to find toilets that look dirty and unhygienic regardless the type of technology involved. Some of the following pictures have been taken by the author and the rest have been provided by Jaco Muller, Senior Sanitation Officer from the WSIS unit, who agrees that lack of adequate O&M leads to the following situations: Photo 5.1. Oversused container toilet Photo 5.3. Overused & not maintained Photo 5.2.Vacuum truck unblocking (Muller, 2009) chemical toilet (Muller, 2009) vacuum sewer The MobiSan approach is characterised by a full time community caretaker; thus, it is less likely that the facilities suffer vandalism or misuses while a hygienic and clean toilet is continuously provided for all dwellers, visitors and newcomers. Even though the full time community caretaker approach can be applied to any other sanitation system used in Cape Town, the MobiSan is the only one that uses this O&M approach and provides a caretaker room. This caretaker room was initially designed as a sanitation kiosk where toilet paper, nappies, condoms, soap and sanitary pads among other items could be supplied. However, during the initial phase it was preferred to concentrate just on the operation and cleaning activities. Therefore, the full time caretaker approach seems to be more efficient than other O&M options that provide a service on call or twice or three times a week. The evaluation of the current sanitation technologies implemented in informal settlements in Cape Town has found that the technical 39
    • innovations often lack of efficient operation and maintenance provision (Personal communication with Lawrence Grootboom, Functional Operations Manager, WSIS, 2009). The WSIS is in charge of around 240 informal settlements with its own sanitation options and related problems. Basically, the WSIS relies on service contractors, however, some O&M issues are undertaken by the WSIS itself. The author has observed that generally contractors do not interact efficiently with the users in terms of proper use of the facilities serviced (promotion of toilet paper instead of bulky anal cleansing material). Additionally, it is difficult for the WSIS to control and monitored the quality and frequency of the services provided to informal settlements. Concerning container toilets, the contractor is meant to undertake around 11.000 services/week (see appendix 9.2, p.93). Furthermore, part of the services are performed at night which can make the control and monitoring even more difficult for the WSIS (Personal communication with Nashieta Leukes, Monitoring and Evaluation officer, WSIS, 2009). Therefore, the WSIS’s O&M model is dependent on contractors that are not always controlled properly, thus, contributing to a poor service delivery. It has been found that the WSIS act as a firemen brigade, which means that they act when the fire is already set alight. For instance, when a flush toilet is blocked, due to vandalism or the use of bulky anal cleansing material, a vacuum truck is sent on site and the problem is temporarily solved but the anal cleansing issue is not emphasized. In the case that the cistern from a flush toilet would be stolen, a new cistern is brought and installed. In Kosovo informal settlement a vacuum sewer technology has been implemented since April 2009 and the author had the chance to visit the site when a vacuum truck was unblocking the system. This piece of high technology serves around 15.000 dwellers; however, again no promotion on the use of toilet paper instead of bulky material like newspaper has been efficiently undertaken by the WSIS Consequently, on the second month of operation the whole system had to be stopped and unblocked twice, costing resources such as a vacuum truck and eight workers being on-site almost the whole day, resulting in a system that does not work properly (personal communication with Lawrence Grootboom, Functional Operations Manager, WSIS, 2009). Concerning container toilets, a subcontractor manages the maintenance; generally three times per week. The maintenance consists in removing the container and replacing it by a new one. Though, if the toilets are overused they will get full or unhygienic before the next routine cleaning service, thus providing a poor sanitation service. On the one hand, the contractor only replaces the container by a new one, which means that the cubicle is not generally cleaned. On the other hand, the continuous hygiene condition of the toilets will depend on the cohesion between the assigned users; which is very difficult to assess. This can lead to disputes between assigned users and locks changed for the benefit of an individual rather than for all the assigned users (personal communication with Rachel Mafolo, Pook se Bos inhabitant, 2009). Consequently, the ratio 1:5 might not be respected creating social justice issues. Furthermore, Pook se Bos container toilets cleaning frequency has not been guaranteed. In fact, the contractor was supposed 40
    • to service the toilets three times a week but they usually come twice a week (personal communication with Willy Fontain, community member, 2009). Further to the contractor’s invoice revision for June 2009, three services per week have been rigorously charged to the WSIS unit when only two were done. As a result, any technology lacking of an adequate O&M strategy is likely to fail. Obviously, this could also be applied to the MobiSan. For instance, right after the unit was installed and inaugurated on April 25th 2009, the responsible for the implementation from the Dutch consortium had to go back to Holland for ten days. Due to a lack of previous communication with regards to the proper maintenance of the facilities, the caretakers did not undertake all the duties they were supposed to do. Upon his return, the researcher found that the system was in a poor state. Users were throwing the toilet paper in the urine channel rather than in the faeces drop hole, thus blocking the protection grid of the urine separation channel (see photo 5.4). In addition, the urinal siphons were not cleaned and urine precipitate started to build up (see photo 5.5). Photo 5.4. Protection grid blocked with toilet papier Photo 5.5.Urine built up in non Photo 5.6.Toilet paper in the properly maintained urinal siphons urine channel and foot prints on the toilet pan (Kraaijvanger, 2009) Further to this experience, an O&M routine (see appendix 9.13, p.101) was designed tackling all duties to be performed by the MobiSan caretakers. Furthermore, the caretakers were trained on how to interact with users. Daily observation has shown how important is the presence of a well trained full- time community caretaker, however, the caretaker duties have to be controlled by a WSIS member who is not frequently on-site. Internal policies within the City of Cape Town had obliged to follow a long administrative procedure before hiring the community caretakers. The size of such an entity (25.000 employees) might contribute to slow down the decision making. In August 2009, the final procurement of the two caretakers from the community was not yet been finalized (the unit was installed in April), and the caretaker from the City Council, who is the responsible for the community caretakers training is still not assigned permanently to the post. 41
    • 5.2. Survey findings in Pook se Bos The household visits have provided a useful baseline data to understand the Pook Se Bos social dynamics along with the MobiSan approach acceptability . Figure 5.1 shows how the existing 21 container toilets are distributed among the community. It can be seen that 52% of the container toilets are shared by two families or less whereas they should be serving five families according to Figure 5.1. Distribution of the exiting 21 container toilets in Pook Se the ratio 1:5. Bos In other words, this can seriously question how was the situation for the people not having the privilege of a locked toilet before the MobiSan was installed. The socio demographic data obtained through the household survey can explain these privileges and differences among the dwellers. Even though Pook se Bos can be considered as a relatively recent informal settlement recognized since the year 2000, part of the dwellers were evicted from a settlement located only 300m away on the other side of the marsh where they were squatting since around 1984. The household survey has found that more than 60% of the current Pook se Bos inhabitants came from the other side of the marsh which makes this settlement for its dwellers more like a neighbourhood rather than a township with high human migration rates. There are very few non-South Africans in the settlement and the main language spoken is Afrikaans. Pook se Bos can be divided in two main groups. One group supports the committee and consists mainly of the families living in the settlement for several years. This group lives in bigger and better off shacks located generally in front of the road with closer access to the stand posts and container toilets and less flooding related constraints. In addition, some of the front shacks have their own generator. The other group is generally not well organized and normally consists of dwellers living in smaller shacks in the low lying areas of the settlement which are more vulnerable to floods. This last group is generally characterized for having more alcohol abuse and drug related problems as well as less income than the committee supporters group. The household survey has been done in almost all shacks except a few that were inhabited or where the dwellers were not available. Women were more easily found at home as they are in charge of all domestic tasks. Out of the 116 shacks visited, 66% respondents were women and the remaining 34% were men. 42
    • Figure 5.2. Age distribution Over 28% of the settlement is under 12 of age and only 3.5% are older than 60, in fact there is only one person older than 70 in Pook se Bos. This confirms that the life expectancy is lower and birth rate is higher compared to wealthy neighbourhoods in Cape Town. The unemployment rate is extremely high, reaching 64%. Out of this figure 16% can be considered as casual workers generally in the construction field for men and normally in the domestic cleaning field for women. The typical daily salary found in the research for casual jobs or full time jobs can go from R40 to R120. Obviously, casual jobs do not always follow any regulation in terms of minimum rates per hour which along with the possibility of eviction contributes to the socio-economic instability of the dwellers. Based on these figures it can be difficult to understand how the majority of the dwellers obtain their basic needs. With regards to food, many dwellers beg for money or food in the nearby neighbourhoods. Otherwise, they tend to rely on different organizations or people that provide free meals three times a week in the settlement or distribute bread and sometimes fruit and vegetables. This situation contrasts dramatically with the situation found in other wealthier parts of Cape Town. Regarding the health perspective the situation is dreadful, the biggest problem being HIV/AIDS. The exact figures of HIV positive in Pook se Bos have not been provided by the nearest clinic (Silver Town Clinic), however, the statistics from the Department of Health show that the HIV prevalence in the Western Cape in 2007 was around 15% and in some informal settlement like Khayelitsha this figure could raise up to 34% (e-mail communication with Dr. Karen Jennings, HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Manager, City of Cape Town, 2009). What has been found is that the biggest HIV positive groups in Pook se Bos are between 14 to 25 years of age (Personal communication with Dr. Shanaaz. TB and AIDS manager, Silver Town clinic, 2009). HIV /AIDS encourage TB infections which is an important disease in the settlement. During the household visits some of the respondents informed that they were under TB medication but nobody mentioned to be HIV positive. Therefore, it can be assumed that AIDS is generally a taboo among dwellers. Observation has confirmed that skin diseases, such as ringworm, are common among children in Pook se Bos. Ringworm is easy to identify by its patches of baldness in the head. This can be caused by the 43
    • lack of personal hygiene. In fact, dwellers have to bathe with buckets and generally children share beds. Furthermore, observation has confirmed that alcohol abuse is normally prevalent in the Pook Se Bos settlement, especially during the weekend. 5.3. MobiSan acceptability Even if the sanitation situation has changed in Pook Se Bos, the household survey realized after eight weeks of operation of the MobiSan facilities showed that one third of the total population was still using the old system because they had their own container toilet for their own use. ( 21 container toilets were still being serviced by the City of Cape Town at the time of the survey). Figure 5.3.Users and non-MobiSan users distribution per groups by July 10th 2009 The children below five have not been included in the above graph because it has been assumed that generally they can’t go to the toilet on their own. Women are the biggest group of MobiSan users, because they cannot urinate almost everywhere as men do and are less likely to defecate in the open. Additionally, women feel safer using the MobiSan than the container toilets as they go to the MobiSan on their own compared to the container toilet where it has been observed that in some cases they need to be accompanied (no locks, no doors, location in the outskirts of the settlement). Elderly are the smallest group of users. Elderly has been classified as people older than 60, there are 14 “elders” in Pook se Bos and out of them, nine do not use the MobiSan. Even though, three elder do not use it because of the stairs (accessibility issue), the rest do not use it because they have their own and locked toilet near. Further to the survey 51.2% of children between six to eleven are non-users, nevertheless, it is assumed that this figure is lower than before the MobiSan implementation, because children did not generally liked the container toilet because they were smelly, dirty and not adapted to children requirements (too high). 44
    • The following figures describe the objections among the Non-MobiSan users in Pook se Bos. Figure 5.4. Women’s reasons for not using the Figure 5.5. Men’s reasons for not using the MobiSan MobiSan Figure 5.6. Elder’s reasons for not using the MobiSan Figure 5.7. Children’s reasons for not using the MobiSan As it can be seen, the main reason for not using the MobiSan in all the groups is generally because another toilet system is nearer and/or shared with other three families or less. 5.3.1. Objections from MobiSan users The survey found that 89 out of 116 shacks were using the unit regularly; however, within the 89 shacks not all the household members might be using the MobiSan The objections from users are disclosed as follows. 45
    • Figure 5.8. Objections among MobiSan users Among MobiSan users the most common objection is the air suction in the toilet bowl which is generated by the roof ventilator. It creates a positive extraction removing odours and increasing the air flow to encourage the dehydration process in the faeces tank. Regarding the air suction, one of the fears among a group of users was that it could cause urinary infections in women. Further to these results, a meeting between a nurse from a nearby clinic and around 25 women from the community was arranged in order to explain what can cause an urinary infection. Photo 5.7. Nurse explaining reasons of urinary infections to a group of women in Pook se Bos Although the women in the meeting agreed that the airflow cannot make them sick, they still considered that the airflow is not very comfortable, nonetheless, they did prefer the MobiSan rather than the previous container toilets. As it has been mentioned earlier in page 17, the user acceptance will depend on what people had before and what they are expecting to get. Another major objection is the walking distance to the facilities which can’t be more than ±100m. The MobiSan was located in the back of the settlement as space was available there. Although it would have been more logical to place the MobiSan in the middle of the settlement to reduce walking distances for everyone this would have required a displacement of some shacks. In order to avoid displacements the MobiSan was located in the back of the camp. 46
    • Awareness on the use of UDDT The household visit has provided the opportunity to know about the social dynamics in the settlement as well as the existing sanitation situation. Furthermore, it has been very useful to understand why the majority of the dwellers did not know how to use a urine-diversion toilet. The first reason is because of the non implementation of software techniques before the installation of hardware. As mentioned in the literature review (see pages 5 and 6), this is a common weakness found in this type of projects. The second reason for this lack of awareness is because the designers made the interior of the toilet bowl as dark as possible to prevent users from being confronted with the faeces tank underneath. This was one of the main community complaints in the case of chemical and container toilets. The previous remark has been assessed by testing the user’s knowledge on the urine separation system. Consequently, a picture of a toilet with a urine separation device was shown to the respondents that were using the MobiSan unit (see appendix 9.8, p.95). Only 15,3%of the respondents using the MobiSan did know that the separation channel in the front of the toilet bowl is meant to divert the urine from the faeces tank. Consequently, the household visits were used as an individual basic training on UDT systems. In that respect a UDT pedestal used as a demonstration sample was borrowed from the WSIS unit and has proven to be an efficient tool to create awareness on UD toilets. As 84% of MobiSan users were not aware of the urine separation system, the author asked what the real awareness about the system was. Around 25% of them answered that the toilet paper has to be thrown in the back of the toilet bowl and that the toilet lid has to remain closed after every use. These answers demonstrate the lack of previous up front education and community involvement in the initial phase of the project. Removal of container toilets Further to the Pook se Bos container toilets distribution results and the evidence that the ratio 1:5 was not respected, the community leaders were asked whether they would accept the removal of container toilets from Pook se Bos. This would give better results in terms of piloting the full MobiSan capacity as well as providing one single sanitation option fair for almost everybody in the settlement. At the same time the sanitation servicing cost in Pook se Bos would be reduced. The Counsellor representing Pook se Bos approached the community leaders. The Counsellor offered to remove all the previous container toilets except three located in the main road in front of the church. The community leaders who live next to the church, preferred to remove all container toilets in order to use only the MobiSan. A document was signed by the committee on July 31st (see appendix 9.14, p.109). This decision is interesting because it shows that people that were reluctant a month earlier to walk to the MobiSan are now ready to get their container toilets removed for good. Consequently, this demonstrates that the community feels proud of the new facilities and are ready to walk a farther distance than before in order to use a clean and tidy toilet. The only condition from the leaders has been to improve the MobiSan accessibility, in particular, the stairs. Finally, the container toilets were removed on August 13th, 15 weeks after the MobiSan implementation. 47
    • Further to the removal of all the container toilets it has been possible to triangulate the data obtained through the household survey with the caretaker counting. CARETAKER COUNTING   Total  Total  population in  Total  DATE  Women  Men  Boys   Girls  Visitors  without  Pook se Bos  users  visitors  (under 5 are  not included)  26/06/2009  178*  WD: Week day (WD)  65  75  14  24  ‐‐  178   10/08/2009  186*  WE :Week end (WD)  61  75  23  27  ‐‐  186   14/08/2009  230*  * Container  (WD)  toilets 93  75  25  37  ‐‐   230  ±337   still in use 15/08/2009  376**  **Container  (WE)  toilets  removed  136  111  35  53  41  335  16/08/2009  345**  (WE)  102  121  29  33  60  285  Table 5.1. Caretaker counting To simplify the task to the caretakers and to obtain reliable results, the counting was divided only in four categories. Women, men, girls and boys were counted by the caretakers on different days of the week. Although, the following data does not make the difference between adults and elderly, neither between children under five and the rest of children, it is by any means relevant as it assess that after the removal of all container toilets, the majority of the settlement is using the MobiSan, in addition, observation, conversations with dwellers as well as with the caretakers confirm that the removal has been widely accepted. However, three disabled are concerned with the walking distance. In that respect, the WSIS has provided Porta-Potties for this group. During the week-end all the dwellers are likely to be in the settlement compared to the week days when some dwellers are more likely to use another toilet (e.g. at work or school). Therefore, the week-end counting is the most reliable if the visitors are counted separately. 5.4. Environmental & Health aspects Based on key informants interviews and observation, the following section would like to first highlight the differences between the MobiSan and the container toilet system in terms of environmental impact and health improvements. Container toilets have been chosen because this system count for 40% of all technologies implemented in informal settlements. In addition, container toilets are serviced manually. The disposal and treatment of effluent from on-site sanitation systems will be briefly described. Moreover, lack of O&M of chemical, container toilets and the vacuum system observed in three informal settlements has proved open defecation signs next to the toilet facilities. Finally, the impact on hygiene promotion through the caretaker will be discussed. Furthermore, the household survey results show 48
    • that the bucket system is massively used in Pook se Bos at night due to security concerns. Consequently, the use and disposal of buckets toilets is another cause of environmental concern that has been evaluated. 5.4.1. Handling and transport The observation during the servicing of the container toilets located in Pook se Bos confirms that there is an environmental risk derived from the way such containers are handled and transported to the WWTW, as per the pictures below. As it can be seen these toilets are transported by hand to a pick-up truck where they are piled up and the contents are dripping on the street, and then all the way to the point of disposal at the WWTW. Photo 5.8. Common container toilets servicing practice Emptying frequency The MobiSan provides a large storage capacity considerably reducing the emptying frequency compared to chemical and container toilets that have to be emptied in general three times a week, and even more depending of the density of the settlement. At the actual usage rate, urine is collected using a vacuum truck every six to eight weeks and disposed at the Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW). It has been observed that many male dwellers urinate wherever they feel the need rather than walking to the toilet. If all the community would urinate in the MobiSan the emptying frequency would be increased. In that respect, an extra storage tank would be required to reduce the emptying frequency rate. Therefore, the co2 emissions and logistics involved created by the constant emptying frequency of chemical and container toilets, around 12 times a month, is more important that the one generated by the MobiSan. Additionally, it has confirmed that the logistics involved in the servicing of container toilet might involve the dripping of excreta on the way to the WWTW (personal communication with Roland Moolan, Operation Manager of Borchards Quarry WWTW, 2009). Unfortunately, at the time of the study, there was no data available on the current volumes of effluent transported to Borchards Quarry WWTW since there is not yet a routine to control the origin and the effluent quantities disposed by vacuum trucks. That means that it is difficult to know the exact volume of effluent generated by on-site sanitation systems in informal settlements of Cape Town. 49
    • The bucket system (night soil) The household visits have contributed to the understanding of the sanitation behaviour among the dwellers at night. It has been found that 84% of the shacks use the bucket system at night due to insecurity, especially for women. During the study the settlement did not have electricity within their shacks neither streetlight inside the settlement. Respondents informed that generally Figure 5.9.Sanitation system used at night in Pook se adults use the bucket for urine only. Bos The majority of the dwellers (55%) dispose of their night soil buckets in the surroundings (marsh land). Thirty-six percent informed that they dispose it in the container toilets. Part of the respondents living in front of the road informed that they disposed their buckets in the storm water drain. Five households living next to the MobiSan respond that they were using the MobiSan night soil gate. The household survey results show that most of the dwellers are not aware about the night soil gate at the MobiSan. The night soil gate was included in the design in case the unit would not open at night, so for the dwellers to have a safe alternative instead of disposing the content of their night buckets into the environment. Empting the buckets is generally a women task. As already mentioned people generally use the bucket for urination. In that case, urine could be disposed in the waterless urinals. If faeces and urine would be mixed in the night soil bucket, wood shavings should be added to reduce the amount of liquid to be disposed in the MobiSan through the night soil gate. Nevertheless, after nearly four months of operation the night soil disposal access has rarely been used, due to the lack of promotion and the dweller’s common habit of disposing their night soil bucket in the marsh or anywhere closer or easier. Ongoing discussions with the community are being held in order to promote the use of the night soil disposal facility available in the MobiSan. Open defecation Open defecation is another cause of environmental concern in Pook se Bos. This has been confirmed by observation of that practice as well as inspection of open defecation spots in the back of the settlement and behind some of the container toilets. The following pictures taken in three different informal settlements where different sanitation options are implemented confirm that open defecation is not reduced by installing toilets, regardless the type of technology, but rather by hygiene education, community acceptance and the proper maintenance of the toilet facilities. When a toilet is dirty, the user will not sit and the excreta might drop outside the toilet bowl or on top of the pan. The result will be a filthy toilet, discouraging the next user from using it and therefore promoting open defecation if no other option is available. On the other hand, after talking dwellers in Pook se Bos it was found that toilets have been installed from the past five years onwards. Before they had two communal pit latrines 50
    • but due to their poor state and overuse, open defecation was at that time a common practice. The household survey found that there is still a reduced number of men in the settlement that prefer to defecate in the open. Photo 5.9. Open defecation behind chemical toilets next to the canal in Khayelitsha Photo 5.10. Open defecation next to container toilets in Pook se Bos Photo 5.11. Open defecation next to the recently implemented vaccum sewer system in Kosovo informal settlement Children confirmed that they preferred to defecate in the open rather than in the previous filthy container toilets. In addition, the container toilets design is not children friendly. Compared to container toilets it has been found that children in the settlement are generally using the MobiSan because of the cleanliness, adaptability and lack of smell personnel to encourage the use of the new facilities. On the other hand it has been observed that only few parents are taking their Photo 5.12. Children defecating near the marsh in Pook Se Bos (May 2009) young kids to the toilet which means that they are not generally taught hygiene practices, outside crèche hours. Nonetheless, further to this research (interviews, observation and caretaker counting) it can be said that after three months of operation the majority of children are using the MobiSan and they do prefer it rather than the previous container toilets. Hygiene promotion Before the MobiSan was installed, no proper hand washing facilities existed in Pook Se Bos, besides the stand posts. In that respect, hygiene promotion remains a central part of the MobiSan approach. The MobiSan is the only sanitation system implemented in informal settlements of Cape Town that provides toilet paper and soap at no cost for the user and, promotes hand washing. Although in the future soap and toilet Photo 5.13. Hand washing basin and laminated children friendly brochure on how to wash hands thoroughly 51
    • paper will not be provided for free, it is acknowledged that by providing it now it can generate demand as well as awareness in hygiene. Observation has confirmed that many women wash their hands after using the bathroom; this is not the case for men and children. However, the habit on kids is increasing little by little. Motivating the kids with visual aids on hand washing (see photo 5.13), and making hand washing after using the toilets something funny, has proved to provide good results. In that sense the caretaker role is crucial since he/she acts as a hygiene promoter. 5.4.2. Community health clubs The Community health club tries to build up a sense of community and organization while tackling hygiene and health related issues.. Each community health club member has a membership card and has to attend to a training based on PHAST activities (ie.personal hygiene, diarrhea treatment, sanitation, solid waste management, etc). Twenty-five activities are taught during three to six months to obtain a certificate. The training has proven to be efficient in certain communities. For that reason, a local NGO, Africaahead, was approached as they have implemented health clubs in poor communities in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Uganda. Cape Town’s environmental health department coordinates the health clubs and were also approached in order to implement them in Pook se Bos. Unfortunately, the demand for these Health Clubs has not been created because at the moment the community leaders are concentrated in getting electricity. 52
    • 5.5. Technical aspects The MobiSan implemented in Pook se Bos is a prototype which has been manufactured with the idea to be monitored and tested on the field. It is therefore a work in progress aiming to improve the industrial design taking into consideration the community feedback and other lessons learnt. 5.5.1. Materials and assemblage The major part of the prototype is produced in stainless steel, involving 800 hours of cutting, painting, welding and coating at Dutch labour rates. The industrial design must be cost effective in order to be competitive compared to other sanitation options. Consequently, the choice of production materials is a crucial decision. Robustness is one of the characteristics requested by the designers to cope better with heavy usage and vandalism. However, steel is vulnerable to rust, especially when informal settlements in Cape Town are close to the sea. In addition, steel is a very heavy material, then transportation and installation is not practical in settlements where access tracks can be a constraint. 5.5.2. Moisture and structure of the faeces mixture The unit has been tested during the worst case scenario, which is the winter season, when the temperatures are lower and the humidity is higher than in summertime. Despite the fact that winter climatic conditions do not contribute to an optimum dehydration process, the technical monitoring determined that the faeces tank was excessively humid (see appendix 9.9, p.96) without this being entirely due to the weather, especially under the women and children toilets where small pools were visible on top of the faeces. The following reasons were considered for the excess of liquid: • Children toilets As mentioned earlier the children toilets do not have any urine diversion channel, thus, all urine from these toilets goes into the faeces tank. However, the quantity is not very important. • Urine separation system The urine separation channel design was taken from an existing UDT, but seemed to be short letting urine, especially from the women toilets, into the faeces tank. This problem was generally not affecting the men’s toilet, since men were using the urinals or the surroundings, and also because the existing urine separation channel measures were adapted to men. Although urine diverting measurements were used in compliance with existing UD toilets, it didn’t match the sitting position of women, and therefore failed to provide a proper diversion. • Condensation It was considered that the condensation within the ventilation pipes, which are in metal, could have been another possible source of liquid but it was discarded as observation at night confirmed that no condensation was taking place in the system. 53
    • • Sitters or squatters? Consideration has been given to the fact that women squatting instead of sitting on the toilet pan could have been another reason for urine going directly into to the faeces drop hole. The interview of a group of 12 women using regularly the MobiSan, aged from 13 to 63 years showed that all women were sitting as long as the toilet pans were kept clean. • Living conditions The diet, living conditions and the alcohol habits can be the reason of the excess of liquid in the faeces. Traces of diarrhea are often found in the pedestals inner walls. Therefore, the most probable reason of excess of liquid could be the women ‘s toilets urine channel being too short and the living conditions encouraging more liquid depositions, especially during and right after the weekend. By having a wet mixture the mixing device cannot efficiently transport the contents from the first tank to the second one. When the mixture is too liquid the spikes can only cut the content without being able to transport it except from what falls by gravity when the separation plate is uplifted (as per left figure the second chamber is lower than the first one). Figure 5.10. Red Plexiglass extension to reduce urine into the faeces tank (Adapted from Landustrie drawings,2009) Ddfd To reduce the amount of urine from the women toilets a Plexiglas extension has been added and, in order to increase the visibility of the urine channel, which was found to be an issue in the household survey, a bright red Plexiglas extension was chosen. Out of the seven women cubicles, four of them have been provided with a five centimetre extension and the remaining three have been transformed into women urinals, by extending the plexiglass plate by 11 cm. Further to this modification, the amount of Photo 5.14.Toilet converted liquid in the faeces tank has diminished to an extend that the faeces tank into women urinal content looks much drier and easier to transport to the second chamber. It has been positive to get an unattended wet mixture into the faeces tank as this has promoted the search of a practical solution to reduce this excessive moisture. Desiccant material At the design stage, the suggested solution to reduce the moisture content was to add desiccant 54
    • material such as wood shavings, sawdust or ash. In that respect, the monitoring team preferred to wait before adding desiccant material and evaluate whether the natural airflow could reduce the excess of liquid. It has been found that when there is a high excess of moisture in the mixture, the natural airflow alone cannot solve such a constraint. Finally it was decided to add wood shavings and the texture changed completely becoming a sort of horse manure which has improved the effectiveness of the mixing and allows the faecal matter to be transported to the second chamber. Airflow To test the efficiency of the ventilation pipes and the dehydration system, three sensor probes have been installed. The results obtained will follow in this section. PROBE 1 PROBE 2 PROBE 3 Inside Inside Outside in Location ventilation ventilation the roof pipe pipe Airflow speed RH% of the Wind speed Analysis & Temp. airflow & and Temp. Temp. Table 5.2. Sensor probes installed Photo 5.15.Moisture and airflow probes within the ventilation pipe Although the natural air flow getting to the faeces tank follows the same pattern as the wind speed does, the airflow within the faeces tank and ventilation pipes is not high. In other words, if the wind speed increases, the natural air flow entering the faeces tank will increase but generally remains low. In order to reach more than 1m/s in the ventilation pipes the wind speed must be strong (above 10m/s). Even if the natural airflow entering the tank through the toilet is not very high, it can be considered efficient as there are no smells within the cubicles. Figure 5.11. Comparing wind speed to natural air flow within the ventilation pipe 55
    • The sensor probes controlling temperature inside and outside the tank have proven that the air temperature in the faeces tank follows the outside temperature pattern. The roof ventilation pipes have been painted in black to increase the temperature which contributes to the natural airflow. The actual model does not take advantage of the solar radiation heating the exterior walls of the unit (see photo 5.16). The container itself acts as an insulator preventing such a solar radiation to heat the faeces tank. Photo 5.16. Exterior walls reducing the solar radiation potential Moisture The CSIR and the Scientific Department have tested samples from the faeces tank to get the moisture content Further to the following figure 5.13 below it can be observed that the Relative Humidity (rH%) is higher when the temperatures get lower and vice versa. To test the efficiency of the moisture removal, a second moisture probe would have been necessary to see the difference in moisture between the air getting in and out the tank through the ventilation pipes. As only one moisture probe was available it was decided to place it in the ventilation pipe as data from the nearest weather station could be obtained for the atmospheric relative humidity. The nearest weather station is located at Cape Town International Airport, just about 10km from the settlement and at the same elevation. Therefore, it is assumed that the rH% will not vary that much between these two sites. Figure 5.12. Comparison of rH% of the airflow in the ventilation pipe and outside temperature Comparison on Relative humidity (rH%) Figure 5.14 compares the rH% results obtained from the Cape Town International Weather station and the results from the sensor probe inside the ventilation pipe. It can be observed that the air flowing out of the faeces tank through the ventilation pipe has a higher moisture content that the atmospheric air. Therefore, a dehydration process might be happening in the tank. Winter, is the worst case scenario, 56
    • which involves high levels of humidity, especially at night. Thus, the dehydration potential is lower as the air getting into the tank is already carrying high levels of humidity. During the rest of the year the temperatures are expected to increase and therefore the dehydration efficiency. Figure 5.12 (p.55) shows that the natural airflow is low. In that respect, on July 28th 2009 the night soil access was left open during the morning, from 6am to 12 noon, in order to create turbulence in the tank through the addition of an extra source of natural airflow from a different point (the main point of entrance of the natural airflow is through the toilet bowls). The result was that the increase of airflow inside the tank from 6am to 12 noon encouraged the removal of moisture (see figure 5.14). Figure 5.13. Comparison RH% getting out the pipes and RH% outside the MobiSan On the other hand, as mentioned earlier, a group of women have complained about the air suction caused by the positive extraction within the ventilation pipes. It is caused by a lower air suction resistance compared to the rest of toilet seats (closed lids) and therefore a higher airflow comes to the toilet in use. Photo 5.17.View of the lid closed Generally, there are no more than two cubicles occupied at the same time, so when a user sits in the toilet the majority of the other lids are closed. By lifting all the toilet lids by one centimetre the difference in the airflow has been reduced as well as the air suction feeling, while maintaining the total volume of airflow through the chamber. Accessibility When the unit was installed there were only two handrails on both extremes of the toilet block making the access difficult. In addition, the steeps are quite steep and narrow (16 cm). In order to improve the accessibility, five handrails have been implemented along the platform and there is a plan to extend the steps from 16 cm to 24cm. Photo 5.18.Steps and platform too narrow 57
    • Children issues The initial measures of the children toilets were identical to the adult toilets, which means that all toilet bowls were are at the same height, thus, not designed for children requirements, which made the access difficult for young kids who needed help to reach the toilet seat. In that respect a pedestal has been provided as well as an adaptable toilet seat in order to reduce the diameter of the toilet pan. It is clear that the industrial design should include toilets more suitable for children as the SPARC approach does (see page 18). Furthermore, children tend to be a large stake of the population in informal settlements, in Pook se Bos almost one fifth of the population is ranged between 3 and 11 years old Photo 5.19. Toilet adapted for children with pedestal and . detachable potty In order to increase the storage capacity of the urine tank the designers placed the urinal siphons at the highest feasible distance from the ground. The siphons are located 75cm above ground which requested two pedestals in stainless steel, however, all urinals were placed at the same height and this again restraints the access for children (see photo 5.20). Photo 5.20.Slab for urinals and hand washing basin not adapted for children To solve the children accessibility issues, a set of wooden pedestals have been produced and are located in the children cubicles (see photos 5.26), at the hand washing basins and at the urinals. Access gates The access to the urine tank is not practical because you have to get rid of 16 screws for each of the five access points before reaching the tank. The access to the faeces second chamber is not very practical as the top urinal pedestal have to be removed as well as four bolts per each of the six access gates. It is clear that the urine gate and the second chamber access gates have only to be opened a few times a year; however, their practicality might be revised to improve the industrial version. 58
    • Photo 5.21. Urine tank access gate Photo 5.22. Second chamber access gates While the urine tank and second chamber gates are accessible from different locations, there is only one access gate to the first faeces tank, which is the night soil gate. Then, for monitoring and maintenance requirements the only alternative besides the night soil gate; which is in one extreme of the MobiSan, is trough the toilet bowls. This is again not practical, because of the depth of the tank and also because the drop hole is narrow, especially after having extended the urine channel with the Plexiglas plates. Gearbox Without the gearbox it would be too difficult for one person to turn the mixing device, however, it is not very efficient as 25 turns are needed for the axe to perform only one full turn. 59
    • 5.6. Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable and how the MobiSan fulfils those requirements The following figures were retrieved from the household survey. Among MobiSan users the acceptability of the unit is very high except for the accessibility which has almost over 10% of reasonably satisfied users and 8% of users that are not satisfied. This percentage corresponds to the households having an elder or a disabled. Figure 5.14.User’s degree of satisfaction It has to be mentioned that some of the respondents were interviewed before the full line of handrails was installed. A set of images (see appendix 9.7,p.94) representing a clean toilet, a safe and private toilet, and a toilet located close to the shack were shown to the respondents in order to know which of the three choices were the most important for them to consider a toilet acceptable. Figure 5.15.Priorities for the respondent to consider a toilet acceptable The results show that the first choice is a clean toilet (76,5%), however, almost 22% of the respondents have considered safety and privacy as their first choice. Regarding the proximity to the shack option, it is interesting to note that all the respondents considering 60
    • it as the first priority are men and over 77% of the respondents considering it as the second priority are also men. That means that generally women in Pook se Bos give more importance to cleanliness, safety and privacy than men. At the time of the survey, comfortability has been found as a characteristic that inhibits the use of the MobiSan unit in Pook se Bos. It is understandable that a family having its own toilet or sharing one with two or three shacks would prefer to use that toilet rather than walking 100 metres to the MobiSan. 5.7. Financial aspects Meanwhile in South Africa basic water and sanitation services in informal settlements are completely free for the user, in Nigeria, India and Kenya the sanitation examples given in the literature review have in common to be based on a pay per use or monthly fee model. In that respect, South Africa is a genuine country where the pressure for improving the lives from the previously disadvantaged during the apartheid years and the abyss between rich and poor has contributed to the free basic water and sanitation services approach. The City of Cape Town has spent in the 2008-2009 financial year R81MM in operating cost. This is divided into 30% in water and 70% in sanitation (personal communication with Lungile Dhlamini, Director Water Services Department, City of Cape Town, 2009). Therefore, the expenditure on basic sanitation in informal settlements is high in the sense that O&M expenditure consumes to a great extend the yearly budget for new infrastructure and upgrading of unplanned settlements. Politicians use basic services as a way to appeal to potential voters, in Cape Town 25 to 30% of households live in informal settlements (Lewis, 2009), then, if services are needed immediately in a specific township, quick and temporary solutions used for emergencies are implemented, but remain indefinitely such as the installation of chemical toilets. If we take the example of chemical toilets, their maintenance costs of R92 per service (VAT incl) makes them the biggest expenditure for the WSIS unit. This system is an expensive option used as a straightforward solution as well as a politically driven solution when sanitation is needed immediately. In Du Noon informal settlement they are 245 units serviced five times a week that cost R 392.000/month just on servicing (Natasha Leukes, Monitoring and Evaluation Dept, WSIS, 2009). Chemical toilets expenditure Chemical toilet can reach an operating cost of around five January '09 R4.715.972,06 Million Rand a month. Furthermore, it does not solve the February '09 R5.288.004,00 problem of families locking a toilet for their own use or March'09 R5.288.004,00 April'09 R5.259.823,20 newcomers that are not included in the 1:5 ratio as well as May'09 R5.556.106,46 children that do not have a toilet adapted to their requirements. Table 5.3. Servicing cost on chemical toilets 61
    • Capital and operating cost data from the majority of sanitation systems was obtained through the Finance Department of the WSIS unit. However, only chemical, container and flush toilet have been chosen for operating cost comparison because they represent the bulk of the sanitation systems providing a service to ± 85% (Muller, 2009) of the households living in informal settlements of Cape Town. On the other hand the capital cost of such systems can help us to define a preliminary MobiSan break-even point. The capital cost of chemical toilets has not been included as this system is rented by the city of Cape Town. The following assumptions would be used to undertake the above mentioned comparisons between container, chemical and flush toilets: • Pook se Bos has around 120 potential shacks that can use the MobiSan. Visitors have to be added to this figure (50 visitors/day during the week end). If 25 containers, chemical or flush toilets can serve 125 shacks (ratio 1:5). Therefore 25 units of the three mentioned systems can equal one MobiSan. • Container or chemical toilets have a storage of 100 litres; which includes 10 litres of chemicals (that are added at every service). The emptying frequency is generally every three days, so twelve time a month. It is assumed that the daily influent per capita is one litre. Therefore, the wastewater generated by 25 users/day in one month is 21,75 m3. • Regarding the flush toilets, the average cistern volume is 11 to 13 litres, so it is assumed that without considering water losses and users flushing more than once, the volume of flushed water including excreta would be 13 litres/flush. • One flush toilet is used by 25 people. It is assumed that they use the toilet twice per day. Then 50flushes x 13litres x 30day = 19.500 litres = 19.5m3/month per flush toilet. • The Water and Sanitation unit for informal settlement spent R 1.715.472 in 12 months (June ’08 to June’09) in unblocking sewers and repairing flush toilets (see Appendix 9.4, p.96). As there are 4800 flush toilets in informal settlements (Muller, 2009),it has been assumed an approximate maintenance cost of R 29,78 that per flush toilet/month . • The MobiSan emptying frequency in Pook se Bos is calculated on the actual usage, twice a year for the faeces and six to eight times a year for the urine. It is important to remember that children count for over 25%. In addition men tend to urinate in the open. • In the case of flush toilets the price per gully is R3000; however, in densely populated settlements the toilets are clustered because there is neither space nor easy access to the sewer, especially in low lying areas. Therefore, as in the majority of informal settlements the density is high, it is consider that one gully serves five toilets. 62
    • 5.7.1. Comparison of operating cost Type of technology OPERATING COSTS (VAT included) Container Chemical* Flush** (FOR 25 UNITS) Waste water treatment Waste water treatment cost/m3 including Not applicable R 6,28 reticulation Waste water treatment cost/m3 without reticulation 2,05 2,05 Not applicable Wastewater generated/m3/month 21,75 21,75 487,5 Total operating cost for wastewater treatment R 44,58 R 44,58 R 3.061,50 Bulk water and reticulation Bulk water cost/m3 including reticulation R 8,49 Not applicable Bulk water used/toilet/month in m3 450 Total cost for bulk water and reticulation R 3.820,50 Servicing cost Servicing /unit R 22,10 R 91,20 R 29,78 Servicing frequency/month 12 12 on call Total servicing for 25 units/month R 6.631,38 R 27.360,00 R 744,50 Total operating cost R 6.675,96 R 27.404,58 R 7.626,50 Table 5.4. Operating cost chemical, container and flush toilets Adapted from Jooste (2009) and Moolan (2009) *The environmental cost and impact of container toilets is not included **The operating cost of flush toilets does not include labour and petrol MOBISAN OPERATING COST/MONTH (VAT included) Full time salary for 3 caretakers (8 hours/day) R 10.044 Cleaning products R 1000 Emptying and disposal of urine and dried faeces to the WWTW/month R 192,37 Treatment cost at the WWTW 3 Treatment cost m of urine* R 2,05 3 Volume urine/month/m 3,66 Total treatment cost urine/month R 7,51 3 Treatment cost m of faeces** R 2,05 3 Volume faeces/month/m 0,33 Total cost for treatment of faeces/month R 0,67 Total operating cost/month R 11.244,55 Table 5.5. MobiSan operating cost. Adapted from Jooste (2009) and Moolan (2009) *Urine is mixed with wastewater at the WWTW so the treatment cost would be the same as for wastewater ** If the content from the second chamber smells or looks like excrement it would be mixed with wastewater and therefore charged accordingly. Nonetheless, if the texture is like dry earth and does not smell it will be added to the sludge at no cost. 63
    • Advantages Vs Disadvantages Before comparing the price difference between the MobiSan and chemical, container and flush toilets it is first recommended to differentiate their advantages and disadvantages. CONTAINER TOILETS Advantages Disadvantages Cheaper than chemical toilets and MobiSan Panel cast structures cannot be transported everywhere No water or sewerage connection requested Contractor does not fulfil the agreement on service frequency Accepts bulky material as anal cleansing Difficult to monitor service provision efficiency by the WSIS unit since there are over 11.000 services/week in Cape Town Provide a good service if properly operated and Emptying frequency is high (3 times/week), therefore maintain high carbon foot print and logistics involved Contractor only replace the containers, thus, the Does not pollute groundwater cubicles are not generally cleaned Very difficult to control that the ratio 1:5 is respected When a toilet is unlocked it leads to overuse and filthiness The emptying, handling and transport of highly contaminated excreta is a cause of health and environmental concern Does not contribute to behavioural change with regards to anal cleansing material and hand washing Generally not adapted for kids, elders or disables Source of smell and flies Excreta is visible by the user Dangerous at night if no proper lighting Table 5.6. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of container toilets FLUSH TOILETS Advantages Disadvantages Cheaper that chemical toilets Requests massive amounts of water that up to now is potable Users might prefer flush toilets Cannot cope with bulky anal cleansing material which is generally used in informal settlements No flies and no smells if properly maintained Often blockages make this system reliable on the availability of municipal or subcontracted vacuum trucks Provide a good service if properly operated and Very difficult to control that the ratio 1:5 is respected mantain When a toilet is unlocked it leads to overuse and filthiness Does not contribute to behavioural change with regards to anal cleansing material and hand washing Generally not adapted for kids, elders or disables Table 5.7. Advantages vs. Disadvantage of flush toilets 64
    • CHEMICAL TOILETS Advantages Disadvantages Fast solution when sanitation is needed Expensive Light and easy to install Difficult to monitor service provision efficiency by the WSIS unit since there are over 8.000 services/week in Cape Town Provide a good service if properly operated and Emptying frequency is high (3 times/week), therefore maintain high carbon foot print and logistics involved Does not pollute groundwater Very difficult to control that the ratio 1:5 is respected When a toilet is unlocked it leads to overuse and filthiness Generally not adapted for kids, elders or disables Source of smell and flies Excreta is visible by the user Dangerous at night if no proper lighting Table 5.8. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of chemical toilets MOBISAN APPROACH Advantages Disadvantages Clean and hygienic all the time due to caretaker The installation in densely populated settlements on-site might require the relocation of some shacks No water or sewerage connection requested Operating cost higher than container and flush toilets Caretaker can act as a hygiene promoter In terms of installation, weight can be a problem if not assembled on-site The unit is mobile, there it can be moved to an Caretakers need to be monitored and controlled new location if the settlement is relocated The majority of the operating cost consists on Closed at night community caretaker salaries Solid and robust People might prefer flush toilets Compared to chemical and container toilets, the If elevated above the ground access can be difficult control and follow up of the service provision is for disables. easier as only one unit is needed for every 500 people It provides an equalitarian service, as tenants, In order to avoid odours it needs an electrical owners, visitors and newcomers can use it ventilator to maintain the airflow when there is no wind. End product can generate income (co- The system request daily maintenance to assure composting treatment, emptying, collection, proper operation marketing, distribution) Adapted to children Air suction in the toilets Less suitable to be vandalised Walking distance can be a problem Creates demand for a safe and clean toilet as well as for the use of toilet paper Emptying frequency lower compared to chemical and container toilets No need to apply and control unreliable ratios (1:5) as there is one unit for a community of 500 people Does not pollute groundwater Caretaker can encourage children to use the toilets, therefore, reducing potential open defecation. He/she also encourages hand washing No flies and no smells Table 5.9. Advantages vs. Disadvantages of the MobiSan approach 65
    • 5.7.2. Capital cost container and flush toilets Type of technology* CAPITAL COST Container Flush FOR 25 UNITS Single Cast toilet Structure R 67.600,25 R 67.600,25 Vent pipe R 2.736,00 Not applicable 100Lt container buckets R 10.000,00 Plumbing supply & installation full flush toilets R 54.750,25 Not applicable Construction of Gullies R 15.000,00 Total capital cost R 80.336,25 R 137.350,50 Table 5.10. Capital cost container and flush toilets. Adapted from Jooste (2009) Even though the full time community caretaker approach can be applied to any other sanitation system used in Cape Town, the MobiSan is the only one that uses this O&M approach. On the other hand by being a communal unit it is easier to operate and maintain. Also, due to the storage capacity the logistics involved will be lower compared to chemical or container toilets. Nevertheless, as the industrial design is not yet finished the capital cost would not be available until the end of the full cycle (April 2010). 5.8. Potential for on-site/off-site reuse The potential for on-site and off-site reuse has been obtained through interviews with key informants along with a desk study. It will answer the research question Three. Although the design of the urine diversion system as well as the double vault provides MobiSan with the possibility of reuse, this would be subjected to the market demand of sanitized human excreta. Nowadays, there are companies selling organic compost in the Cape Town area, however, at this time there is only one company selling organic compost made out of primary sludge from the WWTW in Cape Town. With regards to the reuse of urine there is no company reusing urine in the area. Nevertheless, at the moment there are many studies in South Africa and all over the world on the potential benefits derived from the reuse of human excreta in agriculture and horticulture as well as high-tech and low-cost chemical and biological processes to recover nutrients from urine. Phosphorous recovery through struvite precipitation would be one of the processes reducing logistics and storage constraints as well as the acceptability involved in the reuse of raw urine. The MobiSan approach is willing to promote the reuse of sanitized urine and faeces; however, the alternative of safe disposal if reuse is not possible has to be provided to the Cape Town Water Services Department which at the end owns the MobiSan unit. Before starting with the potential reuse of MobiSan end products, the author would like to comment on 66
    • the concerns created within the settlement about the incidence of HIV/AIDS and TB on the final quality of the end-products. In fact, this should not interfere with the quality of the dried matter in the second chamber as well as in urine, as there is no evidence of HIV being transmitted by environmental routes. Only sexual contact, needlestick wounds, needle sharing, and blood transfusion. Therefore, it can be deduced that HIV is too fragile to get transmitted in faecal compost. Mycobacteriam tuberculosis is normally transmitted in aerosol droplets, or in milk from infected cows, thus, it also seems too fragile to last long in compost (Dr. Sandy Cairncross, Professor of Environmental Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical diseases, e-mail communication, 2009). What it can be found in the content of the second tank will be resilient pathogens such as Ascaris and other pathogens such as e-coli, Salmonella and Giardia among others. At the end of the storage period samples will be taken to test for Helminth eggs and E-coli. 5.8.1. On-site reuse • Urine Even though there is space available along the marsh in Pook se Bos (see map page 31), the volume of urine generated by the MobiSan (5.5m3 every two months) is too big to be reused on–site. Space availability in urban and peri-urban highly populated slums is generally one common limitation as it has been discussed in the Rayandra Nagar and the Biocentre project (see page 19 and 22). In addition, the water table in Pook se Bos is very shallow which limits the use of urine or even the infiltration into the ground (see page 13). Furthermore, there is only one storage tank which means that further treatment on-site in a separate tank is at the moment not possible. By any means, urine should be tested before reuse. Moreover, soil characteristics should also have to be evaluated in order to define the suitability of urine compounds on that specific land. If the land in Pook se Bos could accept certain quantities of urine, trees could be planted since it has been observed that dwellers have to look for firewood every day. In the settlement there is some space available, hence fast growing trees such as thorn or acacia might have a potential. Further to the WSIS unit, the first priority is not the reuse but the practicality of the MobiSan itself and the possible reduction in the operation and maintenance cost compared to other existing technologies found in informal settlements. They consider that the system can be successful if it requires low emptying frequencies using a vacuum truck (Jaco Muller, Senior Officer Water and Sanitation for Informal Settlements, City of Cape Town. Personal communication, 2009). • Faeces Regarding the reuse of dry matter, this will depend on the final quality, nevertheless, it might be difficult to get an end-product 100% free of pathogens in four to six months of storage time. Therefore, the on- site reuse of dried faeces is not recommended without further treatment. Moreover, the community is not currently willing to reuse human excreta for growing vegetables; however, the actual reluctance could be reduced depending on the appearance and smell of the end-product after the storage period in 67
    • the second tank. Also, the end-products can always be used for non-edible products. 5.8.2. Off-site reuse • Urine The urine market is not yet defined in the Western Cape; however, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of South Africa (CSIR) is working on a research project on the effects of urine- separation on the wastewater effluent quality. The study is piloting different processes that could be upscalled at a WWTW level by the end of 2010 (CSIR, 2009). Regarding the MobiSan, what is important about the CSIR research project is that if their process is upscalled, raw urine from MobiSan systems could be disposed of in a specific reactor at the WWTW and nutrients could be recovered and reused safely in agriculture, hence bringing an economical value to human waste in informal settlements. However, one of the weaknesses of urine as a fertilizer is the lower quantity of nutrients compared to the chemical fertilizers. Further to this already known weakness it has to be added that based on a comparative analysis from the CSIR (see table 5.11), the nutrients found in a urine sample from Pook se Bos are very low compared to urine values from the other studies. The low values found in Pook se Bos results could be due to the dwellers poor diet and excess of alcohol (personal communication with Dr. Jac Wilsenach, Senior Researcher and Wastewater specialist, CSIR, 2009). Low concentrations of salts could be explained by the alcohol abuse in the settlement. Alcohol acts as a diuretic, therefore more water is going out affecting the sodium balance in the body. Surprisingly, the COD values are high, thus a second analysis, taking into consideration the appropriate dilution should be undertaken to discard a methodological error (with Charney Anderson, Researcher CSIR, telephone conversation , 2009). The method for the analysis of urine is included in 9.14, p.102). Table 5.11. Comparison of urine characteristics from different origins (Wilsenach, 2009) 68
    • Dry faeces There is potential for organic compost made out of sanitized human excreta as long as it complies with the South African wastewater sludge guidelines ( Kgotso Thoka, Fertilizer’s Department, Department of Agriculture, email communication, 2009). If the product complies with specifications it should be registered at the Ministry of Agriculture as a fertilizer. However, it can take a year before getting a licence. The only certified organic fertilizer made completely out of primary sludge found in the Western Cape is cheaper than chemically synthesised fertilizers (Raymond Preston, Eco-Grow, telephone communication, 2009). The prices and characteristics are enclosed in the table below. It has also been confirmed that companies producing organic compost in the area would not be likely to accept human waste to add to their compost (Andrie Van de Zyl, Manager of Master Grow, telephone conversation, 2009). He recommended contacting Eco-Grow as they are the only company in the region to use sludge in their product. Selling Price per Composition Packaging Fertilizer brand Origin price VAT Kg in size inc./ unit Rands N P K Kunsmis Fertilizer Chemical 20,60% 5,20% 5,20% 10kg R169,99 R16,99/kg 4:1:1 (31) Super phosphate Chemical 10,50% 10kg R 82,63 R8,26/kg Profert Chemical 22,70% 28,60% 25kg R539 R21,56/kg Kunsmis Fertilizer Chemical 6,30% 9,40% 6,30% 10kg R192,47 R19,24/kg 2:3:2 (22) 100% primary 1 m3 (eq ± Eco-Grow fertilizer 2,50% 1% 0,50% R228 ±R0,45/kg sludge 500kg) Organic from poultry manure, 30 ltr/bag Master Grow 2,15% 2,20% 1,35% R45 ±R3/kg wood chips and (eq ± 15kg) organic waste Table 5.12. Fertilizer comparison prices If the MobiSan approach is upscalled and the organic fertilizer certification obtained a private company or the solid waste Department of the City could be involved in the collection, disposal and treatment process as well as marketing. This study assumes that around four cubic metres of dried faeces could be obtained per MobiSan unit/year. As a result, twenty units, serving 500 people each, could produce ±80 m3 of raw material suitable for the production of certified organic compost a year. The main advantage of the MobiSan end product would be the minimum contents of heavy metals compared to the normal chemical fertilizer or compost made out of primary sludge from a WWTW, receiving not only domestic but also industrial effluent. Nevertheless, these are only speculations as it is still too early to 69
    • predict what would be the quality of the end product, whether the licence would be granted and whether a company would willing to co-compost it. Therefore, further research would be needed to assess the real potential of generating income from organic fertilizer. An alternative to the off-site reuse would be to dispose the dry matter along with the primary sludge at the sewerage works where the company making organic compost (Eco-Grow) could benefit from it. Nevertheless, the previous low heavy metals content advantage would be lost. 5.9. Findings in relation with the research questions 1) What socio-cultural, technical, financial and environmental aspects inhibit and encourage the MobiSan approach from going to scale in the informal settlements of Cape Town? The great majority of Pook Se Bos dwellers are grateful to the MobiSan and have accepted the system. Acceptance remains a crucial criterion for the successful replication of any sanitation technology. Getting to know the community situation through baseline data collection has been an efficient way to understand the community needs and involve them in the project. The MobiSan approach is encouraged to go to scale because it provides a clean and safe toilet for everyone in the settlement without exceptions, thus promoting dignity and social justice. Technology-wise, the MobiSan can be replicated in the sense that the system can transport the faeces from one chamber to the other, the ventilation pipes control odours efficiently and there is moisture removal through the natural air flow during the worst scenario (winter months). However, three electrical fans located in the centre and in both extremes of the unit could maintain a steady airflow. That would assure that smell will not be noticeable within the cubicles when there is no wind. Nevertheless, the transportation system and mixing device should have to be revised. The system has proven to be robust and attractive; however, the materials remain an important issue to be considered on the industrial design. Steel is too heavy, therefore, for transportation purposes it can be unpractical, however, a combination of plastic and steel in modules could be more adapted. The fact of producing the units in Holland can inhibit the competitiveness because of the higher production and shipment cost involved. On the other hand producing locally would contribute to income generation in South Africa and would assure a competitive cost. The advantages in terms of safety, cleanliness, job creation along with adaptability for children, possible reuse as well as the combination of software and hardware can make the difference in the operating cost comparison between the MobiSan and the main technologies implemented in informal settlement in Cape Town. It is ackowledged that the caretaker can be applied to any other technology but so far it is the only option providing this approach. The operating cost from the MobiSan halves the cost of the 70
    • chemical toilets which are the biggest expense for the WSIS unit, however, it is higher than flush or container toilets. With regards to flush toilets the MobiSan does not request any water, thus providing a great advantage. Concerning the container toilet; which is its main competitor in terms of costing, it provides a safer emptying and transporting besides a cleaner and more attractive toilet. Furthermore, it requests to be emptied around eight to ten times a year (twice for the faeces and six to eight times for the urine) compared to the 12 times a month for container or chemical toilets. In that respect, its Co2 emissions related to logistics are lower for the MobiSan than for the chemicals or container toilets. The opening of the MobiSan is limited to daytime to prevent the users, caretaker and the facilities to be at risk. Therefore, bucket toilets at night are massively used due to insecurity, and unfortunately disposed into the environment. So far, the dwellers would not accept to walk with their bucket containing excreta to the night soil gate located in the MobiSan. The main reason is because of the walking distance and the habit of disposing the night soil bucket wherever is easier or closer. Hence, promotion would be needed to change such situation. By any means, in terms of upscaling, the MobiSan approach needs to provide an alternative for disposal to dwellers not willing to walk to the unit with their buckets. 2) What are the priorities from the user perspective for a toilet to be considered acceptable? To what extent does the MobiSan fulfil those requirements? Further to the household survey, the main priority (76,7%) to consider a toilet acceptable is that the toilet should be clean. Privacy is the main priority for 21,6% of the respondents. However, observation and conversation with users has confirmed that the walking distance to the unit can be a constraint. The community has to be involved in the location of the facilities and, when feasible, the toilets should be located close to the people having mobility problems. Nevertheless, the MobiSan fulfils the requirements of cleanliness because the caretaker keeps the facilities always neat. Concerning safety, each cubicle door has a lock and the facilities are fenced and lighted further to the community’s request. It can be said that the community has accepted the unit since they have decided to remove all container toilets and accepted to walk a maximum distance of 100 metres to the MobiSan. Moreover, all the users were very satisfied with the cleanliness, safety and aesthetics of the unit. Looking back to the previous sanitation option in Pook se Bos, it is normal that 100% of the MobiSan users are really satisfied with the cleanliness, safety and aesthetics of the unit. Regarding the accessibility, only 81,8% are very satisfied, 10,2% are satisfied and 8% are not satisfied. This demonstrates that the MobiSan approach fits into the Pook se Bos user’s priorities, except in the accessibility and walking distance, especially for disabled. 71
    • 3) What is the on/off-site potential reuse of treated urine and faeces? The on-site reuse is limited due to the high quantities of urine compared to the land availability. Moreover, the water table is high and the dwellers are reluctant to reuse sanitized excreta. If the evaluation of the soil characteristics accepts the urine nutrients, such reluctance could be reduced by demonstration activities on the effects and benefits of urine as a fertilizer. Concerning the dried faeces, the end product will be analysed before emptying, therefore, the reuse will depend on such a quality assessment. However, further treatment is advised since four to six months of storage in the second chamber will not be enough storage time to kill resilient pathogens. Off-site treatment of the dried faeces can generate a source of income through the treatment, selling and distribution of organic compost. However, a wide range of microbiological and chemical analysis have to be provided to the Ministry of Agriculture and the procedure could be long. It took one year for Eco- Grow to get the licence to market compost made out of primary sludge. Consequently, there is potential for the MobiSan end-product to be certified as organic fertilizer, after further treatment, since there will be almost no trace of heavy metals in the MobiSan raw material compared to the product made out of primary sludge. The CSIR is piloting a project on the removal of nutrients from UDT’s urine. The pilot should be ready for upscaling by the end of 2010. That means that urine from the MobiSan could be treated separately from the regular waste stream and nutrients could be recovered, thus generating an income. 4) What are the managerial, operation and maintenance requisites for the MobiSan system to be considered as a long term solution? O&M is one of the crucial aspects for the MobiSan to be considered a long term solution. This research has found that any technology, MobiSan included, is likely to fail in informal settlements of Cape Town if no adequate O&M is defined and enforced. It has been observed that the weekly servicing does not always provide a basic service because some toilets, especially the unlocked, tend to be misused, vandalised and overused. Therefore, as soon as a user does not behave correctly in the toilet, the next user is likely to find a filthy toilet which can prevent this toilet of being used, encouraging open defecation, if no other option is available. In fact, in Khayelitsha, Kosovo and Pook se Bos informal settlements, defecation signs behind the toilets (regardless the type of technology) have been observed due to the lack of cleanliness of the systems. The role of the caretaker in the MobiSan unit is as important as the technology concerned. If there is no caretaker or if the caretaker is not properly trained and supervised, the MobiSan is also likely to provide a poor service to the community. The caretaker has to be multitasking in the sense that he needs to be 72
    • able to promote the proper use of the facilities as well as hygiene education to women, men, elder and children. In addition, he has to deal with the common social problems found in informal settlements such as alcohol and drug abuse. On the other hand he has to be able to monitor and solve the majority of technical issues that may. Even though, the caretaker role can be applied to other technologies, it can encourage the MobiSan to be considered a long term solution. In terms of management a Public-Private-Partnership could contribute to consider the MobiSan as a long term solution because a private company would reduce the responsibilities that the WSIS unit already has in the 240 informal settlements located in Cape Town. Consequently, the City should only act as a facilitator. The private company would be responsible not only of the service delivery, as all the other contractors do, but also to implement “software” within the settlements. Moreover, there are business opportunities in providing basic sanitation to unplanned settlements. In that respect, a private company would not depend on long procedures that have to be followed by the City’s administrative system. A private company could also motivate the caretakers better than the City by implementing bonus or salary reductions based on results. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH Further to this preliminary evaluation the following recommendations can be discussed: 6.1. Social If the MobiSan approach is going to be replicated in other unplanned settlements in Cape Town, the communities should be included in the planning and implementation process. After consulting the community leaders it is recommended to approach the dwellers through household visits as the baseline data obtained can be very relevant. Household visits should be coupled with observation of existing sanitation facilities and ablution blocks, disposal of night soil as well as signs of open defecation. The MobiSan in Pook se Bos could be used as a demonstration unit where community leaders from other unplanned settlements in Cape Town could visit and request feedback from Pook se Bos dwellers before making a decision on the acceptance of such a technology. So far, the unit has been very well accepted by the community and its benefits, compared to the previous container toilets, are well acknowledged. The approach to the community allows better information on the current needs and what would be the best location for the communal toilet. For a future implementation, more time should be allocated with the community interested before installing a MobiSan unit. This transitoire period before the installation would allow recruiting and training the community caretakers so that they could be involved from day one. Collaboration with NGO’s is advised because these organisations could interact with the community before the hardware would be installed. The MobiSan is now the only communal sanitation option in Pook se Bos but it does close at 9pm. In 73
    • that respect, it is recommended to approach the community and extend the closing hour until 10pm or 11 pm in winter time. During summer, due to longer daylight and higher temperatures, it is advised to close the facilities at 11pm in summer time. Environmental health promotion is needed to increase the use of the night soil disposal gate at the MobiSan rather than into the environment. Nevertheless, further research would be necessary to assess the acceptability of the night soil disposal, particularly by women. Women might not like to dispose their buckets in front of the caretaker. As the MobiSan is now the only sanitation option in Pook se Bos, it is recommended to undertake another household survey by April 2010 on the acceptability of the unit. In the meantime, the WSIS in charge of the unit, would need a constant communication with the caretakers to solve any foreseen problem. 6.2. Technical Materials The choice of materials remains very important for a future version of the MobiSan, a combination of recycled plastic and steel or just plastic would reduce the weight and cost considerably. The fact of designing detachable parts could provide an easier transport and on-site assemblage. Accessibility The industrial design should comply with disable requirements such as handrails, handlers to prevent overbalancing and a ramp. It could also be evaluated whether part of the unit could be buried to improve accessibility. The facilities should include smaller toilet pans or detachable potties and lower seats for children. In addition, some of the urinals should be adapted to children as well as the hand- washing basins, however, fixed pedestals and detachable potties could be as efficient. Urine diversion device The design of the urine separation channel should take into consideration the new measures of the plexiglass extension to avoid urine, mainly from the women toilets, getting into the faeces tank. Also its red colour has proven to be an innovative and effective awareness device for the proper use of the system. Electrical fan The natural flow in the faeces tank is quite low, thus, it could be evaluated whether to install a few electrical fans, connected to a solar panel, maintaining a constant airflow to keep smells under control. However, more information is needed, especially for the hottest months to assess the dehydration efficiency. 74
    • Access to the tanks The access to the first chamber should be included in different parts along the tank which could allow an easier access for observation, sampling and O&M purposes. In addition, the access to the urine tank and the second chamber could also be revised. Solar radiation The actual model does not take advantage of the solar radiation heating the exterior walls of the unit. In fact, the superstructure itself acts as an insulator preventing the solar radiation to heat the faeces tank. Therefore, an improved version should consider the solar radiation in the design. 6.3. Financial / Economical Break-even point Further to the data comparison between capital costs of flush and container toilet it is advised that the break-even point should be between R150.000 and R200.000 for a unit serving a community of around 500 dwellers. The choice of materials and manufacturing the units locally could reduce the capital cost. Moreover, it is recommended to reduce the number of urinals to a number between four and five, as it has been observed that five urinals would be enough. It is advised to get locally manufactured waterless urinals as their price is very competitive, around R1500/unit compared to the Urimat models purchased at a higher price. Replication The City of Cape Town, through the WSIS unit, has an annual budget allocated to investments in Water & Sanitation services for informal settlements. In that respect, the MobiSan approach could be implemented by the WSIS unit once the final cost will be defined. The social, technical, financial and environmental data collected during this preliminary evaluation period could be provided to the WSIS to give a better informed choice for the upscaling of the model in informal settlements of Cape Town and even beyond, as other Municipalities have shown interest in this approach. Value added services Further research is recommended on business generation around the MobiSan such as in the Ikotoilet or BioCentre approach (see page 20 to 22) where other services are supplied besides a clean toilet. However, both models apply a monthly fee for the use of the toilets that in South Africa cannot be applied because of the free water and sanitation policy. In that respect, other business could be created such as shower services. So far the government does not include showers as a basic service, and unfortunately the people in the settlement have to bathe with a bucket. Further research would be needed on the willingness to pay for a shower service in informal settlements. The income generated could pay part of the operating cost and contributing to the economical sustainability of the system. The 75
    • capital cost could be obtained through donors or by involving the private sector. The shower blocks could be produced by the same company manufacturing the MobiSan and another job could be created within the community. 6.4. Reuse If the reuse of end-products is feasible, an extra income could be generated from informal settlements and private companies could benefit from the treatment, packaging, marketing and distribution of end products such as organic fertilizer. On the other hand, promoting the use of local organic fertilizer will reduce the use of chemical fertilizers as well as raw materials to produce them (Phosphate rock mining). 6.5. Gender So far, the caretakers in Pook se Bos are men as this is culturally seen as a men role. It is recommended to try to involve women in the post as they can approach efficiently other women and also children in terms of health and hygiene promotion. 6.6. Strategic planning Based on the current situation, the author considers that for the MobiSan to be seen as a long term solution, a strategic planning should be enforced combining technical, social and financial aspects. Concerning technical aspects in the informal settlements of Cape Town, the decision support tool for the selection of adequate sanitation systems (see page 27) could be applied to assess technical feasibility. Although the technological aspects of the MobiSan had the priority until the implementation period, the participatory assessment including the household survey of all the community and the interaction between implementers and users has balanced the previous tendency between technological and social priorities. It is recommended that for a future MobiSan replication, the end-user should be at the core of the identification, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Full service approach For an upscalled model the management should work on a full service approach. That means that the City would be the customer contracting a full service to a private company. The business model could have many variables, from buying a certain number of units to leasing them. However, at this stage these options are only speculations. The length of the contract could be based on a two, three or five year concession or tender. Therefore, a Public-Private-Partnership is recommended so for the private sector to deliver a better service in the informal settlements and to assure an efficient control, monitoring and evaluation of the MobiSan approach including the selection, hiring and training of community caretakers. Meanwhile, the private sector could also benefit from the City’s support in terms of analysis and certification of the end- products if reuse is possible. The City could also contribute by sharing its city council rates for collection 76
    • transport and disposal into a treatment facility or WWTW in case of no reuse. Even if PPP’s are important, alliances with local NGO’s and CBO’s would also be needed. The following table summarises five steeps that could be taken to implement the MobiSan approach in unplanned settlements of Cape Town. Nevertheless, further research is needed in that field. Figure 6.1. Strategic planning 7. CONCLUSIONS Looking back at the sanitation situation in Pook se Bos before the MobiSan implementation, it is observed that the situation has undergone a tremendous change. This study considers that when well managed, the system can be upscale to other informal settlements of Cape Town. The unit fulfils the purposes it was conceived for, which are to deliver a clean, safe and accepted service; to contain human excreta in a safe and hygienic way for users, the caretaker and the environment; and to comply with its designed technical requirements while reducing the maintenance cost compared to chemical toilets. In addition, there is the opportunity to reuse treated urine and faeces as well as contributing to drinking water savings. The community feels proud of their new facilities as they have accepted to remove all the previous container toilets, even though this requires walking a 100 metres for some dwellers. The household 77
    • survey has confirmed that the MobiSan complies with the priorities of the dwellers to consider a toilet acceptable, which are first cleanliness and then safety. However, due to insecurity reasons the unit is only open during daytime which make the use of night soil buckets and its disposal into the environment a common practice. Communication with the community is being held to promote the use of the night soil disposal access but environmental health issues are yet not seen as priority, compared to electricity provision or better housing. Based on the lessons learnt during the monitoring and evaluation it has been acknowledged that community involvement is needed during the whole project cycle as well as up front education on hygiene and environmental health. Another weakness is the accessibility, especially for disabled; however, this could easily be solved by partially burying the unit and adding a ramp. Additionally, a future design should consider reducing the overall weight by combining modular units and lighter materials to improve its mobility and installation; to produce it locally to reduce cost and create job opportunities; and to review the mixing device system. Even though the community caretaker can be applied to any other technologies, the MobiSan is at the moment the only system following this approach. The role of the caretaker as a hygiene promoter can provide benefits for the community such as the prevention of open defecation, especially among children, and the awareness of hand washing. Furthermore, it should be easier for one caretaker to control and maintain a single unit serving a community of 500 persons rather than several units spread around the settlement that request to be emptied at least three times a week. At the current usage rates, the MobiSan needs to be emptied ten times a year. Therefore, in high density settlements, the MobiSan can be an attractive option that could improve the sanitation situation as well as the service provided. In addition, a communal toilet can be used by anyone in the settlement without restrictions. For that reason, communal sanitation can be adapted to informal settlement where legal, physical and social barriers limit the implementation of individual sanitation (shallow groundwater table, land ownership and high settlements density). Involving private entrepreneurs is needed to create a market for the collection, treatment, marketing and reuse of MobiSan end-products. Nevertheless, other value added services would be needed to contribute to the economical sustainability of the system. Basic Water and Sanitation services in Cape Town are provided for free, however, this does not include shower services. Consequently, implementing this idea is being evaluated with the community as a pay per use service. To maintain the community acceptability is essential for the success and possible replication of this project. Nevertheless, next April 2010 results on process efficiency, end product quality and project management from the City of Cape Town will be also needed. Finally, although an informal settlement might not be seen as a permanent site to live, investing in sanitation and environmental health improvements have a long term effect among poor sections of society. 78
    • 8. List of key informants Pook se Bos informal settlement • Fontain, Willy. Community caretaker • Hofstander, Mieta. Community leader Pook se Bos City of Cape Town • Grootboom, Lawrence. Functional Operations Manager, Water & Sanitation for informal Settlements Unit • Leukes, Nashieta. Monitoring and Evaluation officer, Water & Sanitation for informal Settlements Unit • Muller, Jaco. Senior Professional Officer, Water & Sanitation for informal Settlements Unit • Prince, Shawn. Caretaker, Water Services Department Dutch Consortium • Castellano, David. MobiSan designer, LeAF, Netherlands • Krajvanger, Hans. MobiSan designer, Vitens, Netherlands 79
    • REFERENCES Aardt, C., Coetzee, M., (2008) Personal income by province, population group, sex, age and income group, 2007 and 2008. Bureau of market research. University of South Africa Anderson, C. (2009) Researcher, CSIR. Telephone communication Aubrey, D. (2009) Project Manager Mukuru BioCentres. GOAL Kenya .Telephone communication Aubrey, D (2009). Community-Based Sanitation Entrepreneurship in Mukuru and Korogocho Informal Settlements, Nairobi. 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009 Bayman, F. (2009) Inhabitant Pook se Bos. Personal communication Burra, S., Patel, S., Kerr, T. (2003) Community -designed, built and managed toilets blocks in Indian cities. Environmental & Urbanisation Vol 151 No 2 October 2003.pp 11-32 Cairncross, S. (2009) Professor of Environmental Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical diseases. E-mail communication Castellano, D. (2007) Decision support tool for the appropriate selection of sanitation systems. Master Thesis, Urban Environmental Management, Wageningen University, The Netherlands Chaggu, E., John, E. (2002) Ecological sanitation toilets in Tanzania. A paper to be presented to the 3rd international conference on integrated environmental management in Southern Africa. Johannesburg August 27-30, 2002 Coates, S., Sansom, K., Kayaga, S., Chary, S., Narender, A., Njiru, C. (2004) Serving all urban consumers. A marketing approach to water services in low and middle-income countries. Book 3: PREPP – Utility consultation with the urban poor. WEDC – Loughborough University De Bruijne, G., Geurts, M., Appleton, B. (2007) Sanitation for all? Thematic Overview Paper 20. IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre De la Harpe, J. (2007) Strengthening Local governance for improved wáter and sanitation services, WASHIRKA training, unplublished paper Denscombe, M. (2007) The Good Research Guide for small-scale social research projects. Third Edition. Mc Graw Hill. Open University Press Dhlamini, L. (2009) Director Water Services Department, City of Cape Town DWAF Department: Water Affairs and Forestry (1994) Water Supply and Sanitation Policy. White Paper, Cape Town, South Africa Fontain, W. (2009) Inhabitant Pook se Bos. Personal communication Grootboom, L. (2009) Functional Operations Manager, Water & Sanitation informal settlements, City of Cape Town. Personal communication. Hannan, C., Andersson, I. (2002) Gender perspectives on ecological sanitation. Page 3. EcoSanRes Hofstander, M. (2009) Community leader Pook se Bos. Personal communication Huchzermeyer, M., Baumann, T., Roux, T., Bolnick, J., Wimpey, R., Karam, A., Mohamed, S., Stemela , L., Meyer- Prentice, M., (2004) Department of housing, main Report. Prepared for Department of Housing, Pretoria by the University of the Witwatersrand Research Team, South Africa Jennings, K. (2009) HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Manager, City of Cape Town. E-mail communication Jooste, M. (2009) Finance Department, Officer, Water & Sanitation informal settlements, City of Cape Town. Personal communication. Konukiewitz, M. (2003) Challenges in the sanitation sector after Johannesburg. 2nd international symposium on ecological sanitation, April 2003 80
    • Kropac, M. (2009) Project Manager India, Seecon, Switzerland. Personal communication Kuria, David (2009) CEO Ecotact. Kenya. Telephone communication La Fond, A. (1995) A review of sanitation program evaluations in developing countries. Environmental Health Project and UNICEF. Report No. 5. Leukes, N. (2009) Monitoring and Evaluation officer, Water & Sanitation informal settlements, City of Cape Town. Personal communication. th Lewis, A.(2009) Shock report on the city’s future. Cape Times, July 29 2009 Lüthi, C., Schertenleib, R., Tilley, E. (2007) The Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach. Waterlines Vol. 26 No.2 October 2007 Mafolo, R. (2009) Inhabitant Pook se Bos. Personal communication Miels, A., Castellano, D., Braadbaart, O., Veenstra, S., Dijkstra I., Meulman, B. , Singels, A., Wilsenach, J.A. (2008) Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa Moolan, R. (2009) Head of Operations (North), Wastewater Branch, Utility Services Directorate, City of Cape Town Mukuru, W. (2009) Portofolio Associate, Acumen Found, Kenya. Telephone communication Muller, Jaco. Senior Professional Officer, Water & Sanitation for informal Settlements, City of Cape Town Münch, E., Amy, G., Fesselet, J.F. (2006) Ecosan Can Provide Sustainable Sanitation in Emergency Situations with Benefits for the Millennium Development Goals. Water Practice & Technology Vol 1 No 2. IWA Publishing 2006 Münch, E., ed (2009) Basic overview of urine diversion components (waterless urinals, UD toilet bowls and pans, piping and storage) draft April 2009. Technical data sheet "Urine diversion components" - Draft ecosan program - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Narain, S. (2003) Why the flush toilet is ecologically mindless and why we need a paradigm shift in sewage technology. 2nd international symposium on ecological sanitation, April 2003 Preston, R. (2009) Manager Eco-Grow, telephone communication Prince, N., (2009) Angry residents set new toilets alight. News, Cape Argus. July 21st 2009. Reed, B., Scott, R.(2004) Communal and institutional latrines. Unit S6. Small scale water supply and sanitation. WEDC University of Loughborough: UK. Reed, B.J. (2008) Management for Sustainability. Unit 2: Progress in Water and Sanitation. WEDC, University of Loughborough Sansom, K., Kayaga, S. (2008) Demand and willingness to pay issues. Unit 4. Water utilities management. WEDC, University of Loughborough Scott, R., Cotton, A., Sansom, K. (2005) Achieving sanitation at scale. Innovative approaches to rural and urban sanitation. WELL Briefing note 18. Scott, R., Cotton, A.P., Govindan, B. (2003) Sanitation and the Poor, WELL Shanaaz (2009) Manager TB section, Silver Town Clinic, Athlone, Cape Town. Snel, M. (2006) Drivers and barriers for scaling up ecological sanitation. Sustainable Water Management in the City of the Future SWITCH Integrated Project Global Change and Ecosystems Sohail, M., Cotton, A. (2000) PPP and the Poor in Water and Sanitation. Case study: Durban, South Africa. Water, Engineering and Development Centre. University of Loughborough, Leicestershire. Strauss, M., Montanegro, A., (2003) FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management. EAWAG/SANDEC. Swann P., Cotton, A., Saywell D., Evans, B., Cairncross, S., Newborne, P., Webster, L., Ryan, P., (2007) DFID 81
    • Sanitation Reference Group: Sanitation Policy Paper. Final draft July 2007. Terrefe, A., Edström, G.,(1999) ECOSAN –Ecological Sanitation, Integrated Development for Water supply and Sanitation, 25th WEDC Conference, Addis Ababa Thoka, K (2009) Fertilizer’s unit. Department of Agriculture. E-mail communication Van de Zyl, A. (2009) Manager of Master Grow. Telephone communication. WaterAid (2008). Assessment of urine- diverting EcoSan toilets in Nepal. Water Aid report. Wilsenac, J (2009). Senior researcher and Wastewater specialist, CSIR, South Africa. Personal communication Winblad, U., Kilama, W. (1985) Sanitation without Water. MacMillan. London. WSCC & WHO (2005) Sanitation and hygiene promotion: programming guidance. Water Supply and Collaborative Council and World Health Organization. e-REFERENCES Baier (2005) When Indian Ecology Meets Swiss Engineering. Lessons learnt from Ecosan in Rajendra Nagar slum, Bangalore. http://www.iees.ch/EcoEng051/EcoEng051_Baier.html Bolt, E. (2005) Personal hygiene behaviour. WELL factsheet. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact- sheets-htm/personal%20hygiene.htm Casella, D., (2004) Gender and Poverty. WELL factsheet. University of Loughborough. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/Gender.htm CSIR (2009). CSIR employees use no-mix toilets in pilot study. Media release Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of South Africa. 2 june 2009. http://ntww1.csir.co.za/plsql/ptl0002/PTL0002_PGE157_MEDIA_REL?MEDIA_RELEASE_NO=7522708 Curtis, V. (2005) Hygiene promotion. WELL factsheet. University of Loughborough. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/hp.htm Daunton, M., (2004) London's 'Great Stink' and Victorian Urban Planning. BBC History trails. Victorian Britain. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/social_conditions/victorian_urban_planning_04.shtml DMT (2004) DMT Mobile Toilets. http://www.dmttoilet.com/about.htm gtz (2007) ACTS Eco=friendly public toilet centre in Bangalore, India. Data sheets for ecosan projects N. 023. http://www.gtz.de/en/dokumente/en-ecosan-pds-023-india-bangalore-public-toilet-2007.pdf ISS (2009) South Africa fact file. Development issues. Institute for security studies. http://www.issafrica.org/index.php?link_id=14&slink_id=5304&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3 Kvarnström, E., Emilsson, K., Richert Stintzing, A., Johans-son, M., Jönsson, H., af Petersens, E., Schönning, C., Chris-tensen, J., Hellström, D., Qvarnström, L., Ridderstolpe, P., Drangert J.-O. (2006) Urine Diversion - One Step Towards Sustainable Sanitation. Report 2006-1, EcoSanRes Pro-gramme, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/Urine_Diversion_2006-1.pdf Larsen, T. A., Lienert, J. (2007) Novaquatis final report. NoMix – A new approach to urban water management. Eawag, Switzerland. http://www.novaquatis.eawag.ch/publikationen/final_report_E Macleod, N.A., (2005) The provision of sustainable sanitation services to peri-urban and rural communities in the eThekwini (Durban) municipality, Ecosan South Africa, 2005, Third International Ecological Sanitation Conference. http://conference2005.ecosan.org/papers_presented.shtml th Mara, D. (2009). Sanitation choices in the real world. April, 13 2009. http://www.duncanmarasanitation.blogspot.com/ Morgan, P., (2004) Sustainability. Message No 476 February 26 2004. Ecosanres discussion group. http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ecosanres/message/476 Prince, N., (2009) Angry residents sets toilets on fire, Cape Argus, Breaking News, July 21st 2009 http://www.capeargus.co.za/?fSectionId=3571&fArticleId=nw20090721072724143C207476 82
    • SAGI (2008) South African Government Information. Chapter 2 – Bill of rights. http://www.info.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/96cons2.htm#26 Scott, B. (2006). Health Impacts of Improved Household Sanitation. WELL factsheets. http://lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/Household%20Sanitation.htm Smet, J., Sugden, S. (2006) Ecological sanitation. WELL Factsheet. University of Loughborough. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/Ecological%20sanitation.htm SPARC (2005) Annual report 2004-2005 http://www.sparcindia.org/ UN (2008). World Urbanization prospects. The 2007 Revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2007/2007WUP_Highlights_web.pdf UN-HABITAT & Directorate of Urban Administration & Development Government of Madhya Pradesh (2005) Rejuvenation of Community toilets. Policy Paper 3. http://unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/4180_99251_Policy%20Paper-3.pdf Varghese , G., Beena, G., (2005) What water, sanitation and hygiene can do in India. The Education Millennium Development Goal. WELL country note 2.2. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/Publications/Country%20Notes/CN2.2%20India.htm Vision 21 (2000). Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. A Shared Vision for Hygiene, Sanitation and Water Supply and a Framework for Action. http://www.wsscc.org/fileadmin/files/pdf/publication/vision21.pdf WASH news finance (2009) To you it might be shit, for us it is money. http://washfinance.wordpress.com/2009/01/07/to-you-it-may-be-shit-to-us-it-is-money/ Waste (2005) Fact sheet on Sanitation. Introduction to the main characteristics of human excreta and grey water. http://www.ecosan.nl/content/download/801/5817/file/fact%20sheet%20characteristics%20excreta.pdf WHO (2008) World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation. UNICEF, New York and WHO, Geneva, 2008. http://who.int/water_sanitation_health_monitoring/jmp2008.pdf Winblad, U., Simpson-Hébert, M., Calvert, P., Morgan, P; Rosemarin, A., Sawyer,R., Xiao,J., (2004) Ecological sanitation. Stockholm Environment Institute 2004,Page 100. http://www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/Ecological_Sanitation_2004.pdf World Bank (2004). The hand-washing handbook. http://esa.un.org/iys/docs/san_lib_docs/Hand- washing_Handbook.pdf World water Week (2008). Synthesis Report. http://www.worldwaterweek.org/Downloads/Synthesis_full_version_08.pdf WSP (2009). Partners Build Sanitation Markets to Serve 200,000 in Peru. http://www.wsp.org/index.cfm?page=page_disp&pid=20079#latin1 83
    • 9. APPENDIX 9.1. Chemical toilets servicing frequency 84
    • 85
    • 9.2. Container toilet servicing frequency 86
    • 87
    • 9.3. June 2009 invoice container toilets Pook se Bos 88
    • 9.4. Flush toilets maintenance cost 89
    • 90
    • 91
    • 9.5. Household survey. Part 1 (Basic demographic information) Part 1: Basic demographic information Do you or other Are there Anybody South members of the members Any disabled currently African? Number of households have Members of of the in the employed in Language Weekly Job Yes (1) years in plans to move out the Sex Age same household? the spoken income position No (2) the from Pooke se household familiy? Yes (1) household? if no state settlement bos? Yes (1) No (2) Yes (1) nationaliy If yes (1), when? No (2) No (2) No (2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 92
    • 9.6. Household survey. Part 2 (MobiSan acceptability information) Part 2: MobiSan acceptability information Question Option Code or answer Indicator 1. Are the adults in the household using the MobiSan toilet? Yes 1 No 2, if no why and what are they using instead? 2. Are the children in the household using the MobiSan toilet? Yes 1 No 2, if no why and what are they using instead? 3.What would you would like to change from the MobiSan? Yes 1 4. Are you using the MobiSan urinals? No 2, if no why? What are you using instead? 5. What system do you use at night? If bucket is used where do you dispose the night soil? 6. If infants in the house where do you dispose the nappies? 7 Overall, are you satisfied with the safety (harrasment, Very satisfied (1) Reasonably satisfied (2) privacy) of making use of the facility Not satisfied (3) Why? 8. Overall, are you satisfied with the accesibility (stairs, Very satisfied (1) Reasonably satisfied (2) hand rails) of making use of the facility Not satisfied (3) Why? (check if elder, disabled or overweighted in the HH) 9. Overall, are you satisfied with the way the sanitation Very satisfied (1) Reasonably satisfied (2) facility looks (Aesthetics) Not satisfied (3) Why? 10. Overall, are you satisfied with the hygiene (cleanliness, Very satisfied (1) Reasonably satisfied (2) smell, flies etc) of the sanitation facility Not satisfied (3) Why? 93
    • 9.7. Household survey (Part 3) Priorities to consider a toilet acceptable Out of these three groups of pictures what is the most important characteristic for you to consider a toilet acceptable? What is the second priority? And the third? Proximity to shack Safety (Light and fence) Privacy (Locked door)   Cleanliness  94
    • 9.8. Household survey. Part 4 (Awareness about UDDT)   95
    • 9.9. Certificate of analysis faeces sample CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS Our ref: H:USERSMARLABREPORTSMalr3042 Report Number: MALR3042 / 10 July 2009 Water and Sanitation for Informal Settlements / Water Services Department 39 Durban Road Office 101 Bellvile 7530 Attention Mr Garnett Jeffreys/ David Sekels Tel: 072 4788406 Fax:021 9187385 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: EXCRETA sample (Order No.: ***) Samples received: 08/07/2009 Analysis completed: 10/07/2009 Sample description: Human excrement in sealed glass jars. Results Lab No 36937 Sample ID Mobisan Excreta % Moisture 84 % Volatile Solids 86.8 Total K in mg/kg (dry mass) 14075 Total P in mg/kg (dry mass) 14194 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen as N mg/kg (dry mass) 59669 Andrew Pascall Sebastian Brown MARINE ANALYTICAL SERVICES MARINE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Laboratory Manager Deputy Laboratory Manager Page 1 of 1 This report relates only to the samples actually supplied to the CSIR. The CSIR does not accept responsibility for any matters arising from the further use of these results. This certificate shall not be reproduced except in full without the written approval of the executive director. 96
    • 9.10. Method of Analysis moisture content Sample preparation A sub sample of approximately 50g wet mass was oven dried @ 1050C for 12hrs or overnight and milled to a homogeneous mass using a Fritsch - pulversette laboratory planetary ball mill with grinding balls and bowls made of Zirconium oxide. The % Moisture is determined by the loss of mass after heating @ 1050C. Analysis / Trace Metals Trace metals in the samples were analysed using a Nitric Acid (HNO3) / Perchloric Acid (HClO3)/ Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)/ Microwave digestion (CSIR method MALS 4.5) instead of the more aggressive Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) digestion technique (Loring and Rantala, 1992). Analyses were carried out using a JY Ultima Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. Quality control was carried out by digesting and analysing a marine biota reference material (TORT-2 NCR material) with every batch of 11 samples. The 1st sample in each batch was duplicated to monitor the reproducibility of the analysis. 97
    • 9.11. Moisture content analysis 98
    • 9.12. Care-taker schedule and checklist 99
    • 100
    • 9.13. Community acceptance agreement on the removal of all container toilets from Pook se Bos 101
    • 9.14. Method of analysis urine (CSIR) Methodology The Following analytical methods have been used for the analysis of urine samples. • Calcium, Sodium Magnesium Potassium ( Ca, Na,Mg, K) Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used for the determination of the above parameters (ICP OES). This spectroscopic method employs an Argon plasma gas generated by radio frequency and magnetic flux producing extremely high temperatures which atomizes the sample completely and is detected by photomultipliers. The urine samples require typical dilutions of 10 and 20 times. (Standard Method) • Ammonia & Phosphate NH4 and PO4 were determined using the Flow Injection Analyzer (FIA). This Colorimetric technique is based on the principle of the addition of reagents specific to the analyte which results in color formation. The absorbance measured at the specific wavelength for the particular color is thus proportional to the analyte concentration. (Standard Method) • Chloride The Cl is determined using an Auto Analyser. This is a Colorimetric technique and is based on the same principle as above. (Standard Method) • Sulphate For SO4 determination the analytical method used was an Auto analyser (Turbidimetric technique). This is based on the addition of a chemical reagent which reacts with the SO4 and forms a precipitate, and the measure of turbidity is thus proportional to the concentration of SO4. (Standard Method) • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) A Standard Method is employed for COD determination. Using the Closed Reflux, Titrimetric Method a sample is refluxed in strongly solution with known excess of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). After digestion the remaining unreduced potassium dichromate is titrated with ferrous ammonium sulphate to determine the amount of K2Cr2O7 consumed and the oxidizable organic matter is calculated in terms of oxygen equivalent. (Standard Method) • Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Amino Nitrogen of organic materials is converted to ammonium in the presence of Sulfuric acid, potassium sulphate and copper sulphate catalyst. The free ammonia is also converted to ammonium. After base addition the ammonia is distilled from the alkaline medium and absorbed in boric / sulphuric acid. The ammonia is then determined by titration with a standard mineral acid. (Standard Method) • Total Dissolved Solids. (TDS) TDS is determined gravimetrically whereby a well-mixed sample is filtered into a pre-weighed dish. The filtrate is evaporated and dried to constant weight at 180’C. (Standard Method) • pH and Electrical Conductivity These parameters are determined electrochemically using standard methods. (Standard Method) • Alkalinity Alkalinity of water is its acid-neutralizing capacity. A known sample volume is titrated against a standard acid to a predefined pH endpoint (4.5) and the resultant volume used to calculate the sum of all titratable bases. (Standard Method) Validity of Methods Although the analytical methods described above are suitable/ sufficient for normal wastewater analysis, a few questions were raised regarding the validity of some methods when analysing for certain parameters in this complex matrix solution. The High Cl- concentrations raised some concerns on the reliability of the COD results. The standard method states that Cl concentrations >2000mg/L will interfere with the COD signal. COD values of waste waters with high salinities especially beyond 2000mg/L results in a positive bias. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2008 ). This potential problem was eliminated due to sample dilution which decreased the concentration of Cl in the sample, thus not affecting COD results. References: • Eaton, A.D , Clesceri, L.S and Greenberg, A.E 1995 Standrds Methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington. • Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co,”Determination of real COD in highly Chlorinated wastewaters” Clean,36(12)996-1000 102