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AZERBAIJANI AS ONE OF THE ALTAICLANGUAGESAytekin Aliyeva
Words were monosyllabic. Words could be formed by linking root words andsuffixes. (agglutinative) Made out of strong velar and dental consonants joined to8 different vowels. The vowels were grouped into twogroups of 4, according to an internal sound harmony.The thick vowels are a , ı, o, u. Thin vowels are e, i, ö, ü. Vowels and consonants can be transferred: k => g, d =>t, u => a etc.Some Characteristics of Proto-Altaic Language:
ExamplesOkhuz is formed of a root “Okh” and a suffix –uz. “Ok” (h can be omitted) means an arrow.So Ok(g)uz means : “We are the arrowpeople and move as fast as an arrow”Oghlan, meaning “acquire an arrow” orequivalently “become an adult” and that’swhy “Oksuz” (öksüz-in Turkish) means anorphan, a young one who has no adultperson for protection.
Azeri Turkishayaq ayakyarpaq yaprakbuynuz boynuzulduz yıldızTurkmenayagyapragbuynuðyïldïð65-90% 72%GagauzayaqyapraqbuynusyïldïsMutual IntelligibilityDialects of Azeri Turkic:1. Seljuk, Gashgai (both are spoken in Iran)2. Kumyk (spoken in Dagestan)
Alphabetical Reform• After Arabian Occupation till the end of1920s (Arabian)• From 1928 to 1939 (Old Latin)• From 1940 to 1991 ( Cyrillic)• From 1991- nowadays (New Latin)
Changes in LanguageFirst Period (XIII-XVIII centuries)1. Vocabulary was rich with loan words: Persian and Arabic words Ottoman Turkish words (şu, şöyle, kendi etc.)2. Changings in affixes: from -is rə to -acaq, - c kə ə accusative case -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü to -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü3. Defining word comes not first but last:(daxili- hli-kamalə , f sli-gülə ) Example:Gül-i ruxsârına qarşı gözümdən qanlı axar su,Həbîbim fəsli-güldür bu axar sular bulanmazmı? (M.Fuzuli)
Second Period (XVIII- nowadays)1. Nationalisation of language- (XVIII century)2. Formation and development of the national language- (beginning ofXIX-XX centuries) There were 3 movements from the beginning of XXtill 1930: Creating a simple, understandable language based on dialect. (Followers ofthe magazine “Molla Nasraddin”: J. Mammadguluzadeh- “The Postbox”,“Gurban Ali bey”, M.A.Sabir “Plougher”etc.) Creating a complicated, literary language (Followers of the magazine“Fuyuzat”: A. Huseynzade- “Concern of Motherland”) Creating a simple but dialect-free language (A.Shaig- “Undelivered Letter”,“Heroes of Our Century”, A.Sahhat- “Poverty is not Shameful”, J.Jabbarly- “Sevil”,“Almas”)3. New period: Azerbaijani was an official language from 1969 till 1977 Official Language of The Republic of Azerbaijan from 1995 till now.
The Village of Jek (Kuba)• Belongs to NortheastCaucasian languagefamily, Dagestan group,Lezgin subgroup• Users11,000 people• Spoken in The Villageof Jek (Kuba)
Avars- Avar Language• Belongs to the Avar–Andic group of theNortheast Caucasianlanguage family.• Spoken in Balaken,Zaqatala
Tats- Tat Language• Belongs toSouthwestern Iranianlanguage family• Three group- MoslemTats, Christian Tats andJewish Tats (or MountainJews)• Users in Azerbaijan-18,000 people• Spoken in some villagesof Absheron, Khızı,Siyezen, Devechi andKuba
References PhD. Haluk Berkmen, Diversification of Languages Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages The Turkic Languages in a Nutshellhttp://turkiclanguages.scienceontheweb.net A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesishttp://linguistics.byu.edu/classes/ling450ch Presidental Library of the Administrative Department of the President of theRepublic of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia. 25 volumes. "Azerbaijan". Baku, 2007, pages147, 150, 151, 152.