Azerbaijani as one of the altaic languages

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  • 1. AZERBAIJANI AS ONE OF THE ALTAICLANGUAGESAytekin Aliyeva
  • 2.  Words were monosyllabic. Words could be formed by linking root words andsuffixes. (agglutinative) Made out of strong velar and dental consonants joined to8 different vowels. The vowels were grouped into twogroups of 4, according to an internal sound harmony.The thick vowels are a , ı, o, u. Thin vowels are e, i, ö, ü. Vowels and consonants can be transferred: k => g, d =>t, u => a etc.Some Characteristics of Proto-Altaic Language:
  • 3. ExamplesOkhuz is formed of a root “Okh” and a suffix –uz. “Ok” (h can be omitted) means an arrow.So Ok(g)uz means : “We are the arrowpeople and move as fast as an arrow”Oghlan, meaning “acquire an arrow” orequivalently “become an adult” and that’swhy “Oksuz” (öksüz-in Turkish) means anorphan, a young one who has no adultperson for protection.
  • 4. Azeri Turkishayaq ayakyarpaq yaprakbuynuz boynuzulduz yıldızTurkmenayagyapragbuynuðyïldïð65-90% 72%GagauzayaqyapraqbuynusyïldïsMutual IntelligibilityDialects of Azeri Turkic:1. Seljuk, Gashgai (both are spoken in Iran)2. Kumyk (spoken in Dagestan)
  • 5. Alphabetical Reform• After Arabian Occupation till the end of1920s (Arabian)• From 1928 to 1939 (Old Latin)• From 1940 to 1991 ( Cyrillic)• From 1991- nowadays (New Latin)
  • 6. Changes in LanguageFirst Period (XIII-XVIII centuries)1. Vocabulary was rich with loan words: Persian and Arabic words Ottoman Turkish words (şu, şöyle, kendi etc.)2. Changings in affixes: from -is rə to -acaq, - c kə ə accusative case -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü to -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü3. Defining word comes not first but last:(daxili- hli-kamalə , f sli-gülə ) Example:Gül-i ruxsârına qarşı gözümdən qanlı axar su,Həbîbim fəsli-güldür bu axar sular bulanmazmı? (M.Fuzuli)
  • 7. Second Period (XVIII- nowadays)1. Nationalisation of language- (XVIII century)2. Formation and development of the national language- (beginning ofXIX-XX centuries) There were 3 movements from the beginning of XXtill 1930: Creating a simple, understandable language based on dialect. (Followers ofthe magazine “Molla Nasraddin”: J. Mammadguluzadeh- “The Postbox”,“Gurban Ali bey”, M.A.Sabir “Plougher”etc.) Creating a complicated, literary language (Followers of the magazine“Fuyuzat”: A. Huseynzade- “Concern of Motherland”) Creating a simple but dialect-free language (A.Shaig- “Undelivered Letter”,“Heroes of Our Century”, A.Sahhat- “Poverty is not Shameful”, J.Jabbarly- “Sevil”,“Almas”)3. New period: Azerbaijani was an official language from 1969 till 1977 Official Language of The Republic of Azerbaijan from 1995 till now.
  • 8. National Minorities and the Languages They Use
  • 9. • Lezgins 2,2%• Talyshes 1,0%• Udis 0,05%• Tats 0,13%• Avars 0,6%• Khinalug People• Haputs• Jek
  • 10. Lezgis- Language LezgianBelongs to NortheastCaucasian languagefamily, Dagestan group,Lezgin subgroup784,000 speakersSpoken in- Kusar, Kuba,Kabala, Oghuz, Ismailliand Khachmaz
  • 11. Locations of Lezgins Azerbaijan
  • 12. Talyshes-Talysh Language• Belongs toNorthwesternIranianlanguage family• Spoken inLankaran,Astara, Lerikand Masallı
  • 13. Haputs- Haput Language• Belongs to NortheastCaucasian languagefamily, Dagestangroup, Lezginsubgroup(“Shahdagh Group”)• Spoken in the villageof Mollaisaglı (Kuba)
  • 14. Khinalug- Khinalug Language• NortheastCaucasianlanguage family,Dagestan group,Lezgin subgroup• Users- more than1500• Spoken in thevillage Khinalug(Kuba)
  • 15. Khinalug People Now and Then
  • 16. Udis- Udi Language• NortheastCaucasianlanguage family,Dagestan group,Lezgin subgroup• Users - about5,000 people• Spoken in thevillage of Nij(Kabala), Oghuz
  • 17. Jeks- Jek Language
  • 18. The Village of Jek (Kuba)• Belongs to NortheastCaucasian languagefamily, Dagestan group,Lezgin subgroup• Users11,000 people• Spoken in The Villageof Jek (Kuba)
  • 19. Avars- Avar Language• Belongs to the Avar–Andic group of theNortheast Caucasianlanguage family.• Spoken in Balaken,Zaqatala
  • 20. Tats- Tat Language• Belongs toSouthwestern Iranianlanguage family• Three group- MoslemTats, Christian Tats andJewish Tats (or MountainJews)• Users in Azerbaijan-18,000 people• Spoken in some villagesof Absheron, Khızı,Siyezen, Devechi andKuba
  • 21. References PhD. Haluk Berkmen, Diversification of Languages Robert Lindsay, Mutual Intelligibility Among the Turkic Languages The Turkic Languages in a Nutshellhttp://turkiclanguages.scienceontheweb.net A Brief Exploration of the Altaic Hypothesishttp://linguistics.byu.edu/classes/ling450ch Presidental Library of the Administrative Department of the President of theRepublic of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Encyclopedia. 25 volumes. "Azerbaijan". Baku, 2007, pages147, 150, 151, 152.