CHAPTER II HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT1 (HRD)HRD is a profession today. It has a body of knowledge and this knowledge istransferred to younger generations through management institutes in India. By nowHRD is a well-recognized function in organizations. HRD has professional bodiessupporting its knowledge generation, knowledge dissemination and capacity buildingin organizations. HRD has also generated consulting firms which provide exclusiveHRD services for organizations in need. Thus HRD is a well-recognized professionin India today.The subsequent topics of this chapter take the readers through various aspects of thisprofession. A. WHAT IS HRD?HRD is based on the two assumptions: HRD makes sense only when it contributestowards business improvement and business excellence. HRD also strongly believethat good people and good culture make good organizations.HRD means building: Competency in people Commitment in people Culture in the organizationHRD means building competencies. The most important HRD function is to buildcompetencies in each and every individual working in an organization. Competenciesare to be built and multiplied in roles and individuals.HRD means building commitment in people. Competencies will not make sensewithout commitment. Think of an organization where all the employees arecompetent but not willing to put into use their competencies. Hence, competencieswithout commitment will not contribute towards effectiveness.HRD is all about building a development culture in an organization. HRD ensuresthat culture-building practices are adopted from time to time to create a learningenvironment in the organization. It builds such a culture that the built-in culture inturn will build competencies and commitment in the people who work with theorganization.HRD can be defined as the branch of human resources management function thatendeavors to build competencies, commitment and a learning culture in1 MG Jomon (2003). HRD in Real Time
organizations with the purpose of bringing in competitive advantages to achievebusiness excellence in all its operations.B. HRD SYSTEMSHRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has fivemajor systems and each of the systems has sub systems as elaborated below: the firstthree systems viz., Career system, Work system and Development system, areindividual and team oriented while the fourth and the fifth systems viz. Self renewalsystem and Culture Systems are organization based.1. Career system: As an HRD system, career system ensures attraction and retentionof human resources through the following sub-systems. • Manpower planning • Recruitment • Career planning • Succession planning • Retention2. Work system: Work-planning system ensures that the attracted and retainedhuman resources are utilized in the best possible way to obtain organizationalobjectives. Following are the sub systems of the work planning system. • Role analysis • Role efficacy • Performance plan • Performance feedback and guidance • Performance appraisal • Promotion • Job rotation • Reward3. Development system: The environmental situation and the business scenario is fastchanging. The human resources within the organization have to raise upto theoccasion and change accordingly if the organization wants to be in business. Thedevelopment system ensures that the retained (career system) and utilized (worksystem) human resources are also continuously developed so that they are in aposition to meet the emerging needs of the hour. Following are some of thedevelopmental sub - systems of HRD that make sure that human resources in theorganization are continuously developed. • Induction • Training • Job enrichment • Self-learning mechanisms • Potential appraisal • Succession Development
• Counselling • Mentor system4. Self-renewal system: It is not enough to develop individuals and teams in theorganizations but occasionally there is a need to renew and re-juvenate theorganization itself. Following are some of the sub systems that can be utilized torenew the organization. • Survey • Action research • Organizational Development interventions • Organizational Retreats 5. Culture system: Building a desired culture is of paramount importance in today’schanged business scenario. It is the culture that will give a sense of direction, purpose,togetherness, and teamwork. It is to be noted that whether an organization wants it ornot along with the time common ways of doing things (culture) will emerge. If notplanned carefully and built systematically such common traits may not help thebusiness but may become a stumbling block. Hence it is very important to havecultural practices that facilitate business. Some of the culture building subsystems aregiven below: • Vision, Mission and Goal • Values • Communication • Get-togethers and celebrations • Task forces • Small Groups C. HRD PROCESSESHRD is a process-oriented function. HRD functions in many organizations failbecause the processes involving the systems are not adequately addressed. Theconcept of process essentially concerns the question of “how” and to a great extent thequestion of “why “. It emphasises the behavioural and interactional dimensions. Allthe HRD processes are centred around four constituents of an organization viz, theemployee, role, teams and the organization itself. Each of the unit has its ownbehavioural patterns and framework, which, if not addressed adequately may notbring in the desired outcomes. It is through these processes that the HRD systems areeffectively implemented. Implementations of the HRD systems are, in turn indentedto bring in right processes in organizations. Hence HRD systems and HRD processesare closely linked. Their relationships are well explained by Rao (1990).1.Individual: Individual is the basic constituent of an organization. All thebehavioural pattern and dynamisms emerge from individuals. Hence individual basedHRD process explained below are vital for HRD function and for implementation ofthe HRD systems.
• Efficacy • Effectiveness • Styles • Leadership2.Role: Role is a dynamic entity which involves the expectations of significant othersand self from the position of the role holder. A large number of behavioural patternsand dynamism in organizations are centred around the roles. The role occupier and allothers who have some linkage or relationship to that role form a constituent.Following are some of the role related, HRD processes in organizations. • Competencies for job performance • Commitment • Motivation • Frustration, • Stress & Burnout3.Teams: Work in organizations are performed through teams or groups. Whenindividuals begin to work in team, behavioural patterns and dynamisms emerge.Following HRD processes are to be addressed if team work should bring in thedesired results. • Communication • Feedback • Conflict resolution • Collaboration4.Organization: A large number of HRD processes are organization related. Unlessand until these processes are in place, HRD cannot take off. However, in a number oforganizations as a result of implementation of HRD systems, these processes were setright. HRD systems can contribute towards the development and maturity of theseprocesses. • Organizational Climate • Communication • Learning Organization • Organizational Change • Organizational Development D. CONCLUSION In this chapter we have seen the definition of HRD, various systems and subsystems, the HRD processes and the sub processes. The sub systems and sub processes are not discussed in detail since the very purpose of this work is to provide a quick and brief understanding of HRD rather than discuss them exhaustively. It is to be noted that body of knowledge relating to the sub themes mentioned above are already available in some form or the other. The HRD
sources and the Bibliography given towards the end of this book may be used forfurther reading and elaboration.