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Mass tourism and human settelment in protected areas Mass tourism and human settelment in protected areas Document Transcript

  • MASS TOURISM AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN PROTECTEDAREAS (CASE STUDY OF SIMIEN MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK,ETHIOPIA) AUTHOR: AYSHESHIM TIRUNEH MENTOR: ASTRID RÖSSLER (PHD) SUBMITTED ON: APRIL 12, 2010 KLESSHEIM, APRIL 2010
  • Abstract IAbstractAysheshim, Tiruneh. (2010). Mass Tourism and Human Settlements in Protected Areas (acase study in Simien Mountain National Park, Ethiopia)Key Words: Protected Areas, National Park, Settlement, Mass Tourism, Sustainability, andBio-diversity.Mass tourism and human settlement have tremendous negative effect on Simien MountainNational Park. This study presents the current situation of settlement and populationgrowth in the mountain and its effect to the biodiversity aside from analysing the rapidgrowth of tourism and its effect on the sustainability. The effects of mass tourism andhuman settlement in the area have been studied since decades ago. Accordingly, secondaryresources like Books, a lot of theses, international environmental organizations reportabout protected areas and regional office documents are used for the study. Unlike humansettlement, mass tourism in the area is a current and rapped phenomenon. Mass tourismand human settlement contributed a lot to make the park one of the endangered heritages inthe world.
  • Table of contents IITable of contentsAbstract ............................................................................................................ ITable of contents...............................................................................................IITable of figures ................................................................................................ IVPreface............................................................................................................. V1. The Problem and Its Background................................................................... 11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 11.2 Study Area .............................................................................................. 21.3 Statement of the problem ......................................................................... 21.4 Objectives of the study ............................................................................. 21.5 Research Question ................................................................................... 31.6 Significance of the Study........................................................................... 31.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study ............................................................ 31.8 Definition of Key Terms............................................................................. 42. Methodology............................................................................................... 62.1 Research Design ...................................................................................... 62.2 The Research Instruments......................................................................... 63. Related Literature........................................................................................ 73.1 Protected Areas ....................................................................................... 73.1.1 Global Overviews ..................................................................................... 73.1.2 Problems in African Protected Areas ........................................................... 83.1.3 Protected Areas in Ethiopia........................................................................ 83.2 What is National Park? ............................................................................ 103.2.1 Tourism and National Parks ..................................................................... 113.2.2 National parks in Ethiopia........................................................................ 113.2.3 Overview of Tourism Development in SMNP............................................... 123.2.4 Tourism Development Treats to SMNP ...................................................... 143.3 Settlements and National Parks ............................................................... 15
  • Table of contents III3.3.1 Settlements in SMNP .............................................................................. 163.3.2 The effect of settlement to Tourism .......................................................... 173.3.3 The effect of settlement to biodiversity ..................................................... 184. Conclusion and Recommendation ................................................................ 194.1 Conclusions ........................................................................................... 194.2 Recommendations.................................................................................. 204.2.1 Recommendations to Amhara Tourism Board (Government) ........................ 204.2.2 Recommendations to Tourists .................................................................. 21Annex ............................................................................................................ 23Bibliography.................................................................................................... 27
  • Table of figures IVTable of figuresFig. 1 Number of tourist/visitors flow to SMNP..................................................... 13Fig. 2 Farming in Simien Mountain National Park ................................................. 15Fig. 3. Human Population Growth Trend in & around SMNP ................................... 17Fig. 5, Threatened species, 2002-03 .................................................................. 18
  • Preface VPrefaceThis study is significant to understand the problems met by Simien Mountain NationalPark especially, related with Human Settlements and Mass Tourism. I have beenauspicious to visit the park more than five times which made me to think about theproblems in and around the area.It has been my pleasure to conduct this study on the topic, Human Settlements and MassTourism on Protected Areas (a case study on SMNP, Ethiopia). The study is based up onsecondary resource. I have been fortunate enough to be surrounded by a lot of people tofinish my study. In this section, I will thank them.I would like to send my sincere gratitude to my leading supervisor Dr. ASTRIDRÖSSLER. With out her advice and unique support this study would never becomereality. Further, I would like to thank Dr. Endulkachew Teshome, University Professor inEthiopia, for giving me invaluable information about the topic.I would like also to thank Mr. Bamlaku for passing information from the University ofGondar, Ethiopia and for reading my study for comment.Finally, I would like to express my greatest thanks to my family, friends and colleagueswho have supported me, especially for my girl friend Fasika Zerfu for her patience to letme learn abroad.
  • The Problem and Its Background 11. The Problem and Its Background1.1 Introduction“Centuries go; massive volcanic eruptions covered Ethiopia with a thick layer of volcanicrocks. In some areas of North Ethiopia highlands, this layer is claimed to be 3000m thick.Then came water, and through extensive erosion processes carved dramatic cliffs and deepravines in the rock, leaving majestic jagged landscape where the Simien mountain nationalpark is located” (Abebe, E. 2000)According to Nievergelt, et.al, (1996) some 2,500 Amhara1 people lived in the area, wherethe people around are very poor but the conditions favour agriculture. On nomination 53-80% of the Park was said to have been grazed or farmed.Before the unrest2, there were 100-200 international visitors annually and access routes andfacilities were poor. From 1983 to 1999 the region was barred to visitors by war. Touristnumbers increased from 655 in 1999 to 1,000 in 2000 and about 7,000 in 2007 accordingto Martin, 2008. Construction of new park infrastructure including the Debark visitorcentre, entrance gate camp, outpost camps, and visitor facilities at campsites was funded bythe Austrian-funded Integrated Development Project3 (Nievergelt, 1996). By 2006 a highquality 60-bed private tourist lodge had been built at Buyit Ras4 just outside the Park(Debonnet et al, 2006). All the facilities result in mass tourism and the number of visitorsincreased to 11,000 in 2008 (Amhara Regional Tourism Office Annual Report, 2009).In 1996, the Simien Mountain National Park (SMNP) was inscribed on the List of WorldHeritage in Danger (www.unesco.org). This paper will recommend solutions for theproblem related with settlements and mass tourism (current phenomenon) in the park.1 Amhara people are one of the ethnic groups those who lives in the northern part of Ethiopia (African Affairs, Volume 109)2 The political unrest during Ethio - Eritrea war as SMNP is located in the border (Conflict Profile, University ofMassachusetts Amhrest, Page 2).3 It is the project funded by Austrian Development Cooperation for the sustainability of the mountain (Amhara regionaltourism office)4 Buyit Ras is the name of the village and is the gate of the park (Amhara regional tourism office)
  • The Problem and Its Background 21.2 Study AreaThe Simien Mountain National Park is located in Amhara National Regional State, NorthGondar Zone, 850 kms North of Addis Ababa. SMNP is known for its rich biodiversitywhere unique botanical and zoological combination of species have been able of resisthuman interface because of the extreme topography and altitude range. It is a place wherethe highest mountain in Ethiopia, Ras Dashen, with an altitude of 4620 meters above sealevel is located. Among the species that are fond in the area that worth mentioning theWalyia Ibex (Copra ibex Walie), the simien Fox (Canis Simensis ) endemic to Ethiopia,Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus Gelada), bird species like White Colored Pigeon(Columbia Albitorques), Abyssinian Long- Claw (Macronyx Flavicollis) and AbyssinianCat Bird (Parophasma Galiner). More than 170 bird species also live in the park of whichfour are endemic to Ethiopia. There are also more than 70 species of butterfly and morethan 27 species of aquatic invertebrates living in the park. (Hurni, 1986; Nievergelt et al.,1998; Endalkachew, 1999, Bekabil F., Anmuet B., 2003)1.3 Statement of the problemThe main problem of the this study is to determine the problems met by Simien MountainNational Park related with settlement and mass tourism in the area. Specifically it attemptsto answer the following questions • What are the problems met by SMNP in relation with settlement and mass tourism? • What is the effect of settlement and mass tourism in biodiversity of the mountain? • What has been done so far and what has to be done for the sustainability of the mountain?1.4 Objectives of the studyThe main purpose of this study is to identify the problems related with settlement and masstourism in SMNP. Specifically it attempts to deal with the following objectives • Identifying the current situation of settlement and population growth in the mountain and its effect to the biodiversity
  • The Problem and Its Background 3 • Analysing the rapid tourism development in the mountain and its effect to the sustainability • Identifying the influence of settlement and mass tourism to the sustainability of tourism activities in the area. • To let know the concerned body about the situation of the park.1.5 Research QuestionWhat are the effects of Human Settlements and Mass Tourism in Simien MountainNational Park?1.6 Significance of the StudyThis study has the following important significances • Solving the problem of SMNP related with human settlement and mass tourism • Recommending the government for further reaction against the problem • Creating awareness for the local community who lives in and around the mountain • Giving directions to make the tourism activity in the area environmental friendly. • Enriching research instruments and resources for the fellow researchers in the area.1.7 Scope and Limitations of the StudyThis study is limited to the problems met by Simien Mountain National Park in relationwith settlements and mass tourism. It involves analysis of the secondary data made bydifferent researchers, scientific journals and documents from different environmentalfriendly organisations.This study focuses attention only in Simien Mountain National Park in relation withsettlements i.e. the local people living in and around and mass tourism in the park. Findingof the study would be therefore true only for the subjects concerned.
  • The Problem and Its Background 41.8 Definition of Key TermsSettlements; A settlement is a general term used in archaeology, landscape history andother subjects for a permanent or temporary community in which people live, withoutbeing specific as to size, population or importance. ..(United Nation Human SettlementProgram, 2003)Mass Tourism: mass tourism is the transport of large numbers of people in a short space oftime to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy thebenefits of leisure time. (Wikipedia; Tourism)Protected Areas: These are areas considered to be of national interest, classified in thecategories of “national park”, “nature reserve”, “natural park” (Nigel Dudley, AdrianPhillips, 2006)IUCN: the International Union for Conservation of Nature helps the world find pragmaticsolutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges.CBD: The Convention on Biological Diversity was inspired by the world communitysgrowing commitment to sustainable development. It represents a dramatic step forward inthe conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fairand equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. (www.cbd.int)UNWTO: The World Tourism Organization, based in Madrid, Spain, is a United Nationsagency dealing with questions relating to tourism. (www.wto.org)UNEP-WCWC: The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre is a collaborationbetween the United Nations Environment Programme, the worlds foremostintergovernmental environmental organization, and WCMC 2000, a UK-based charity.(www.unep-wcwc.org)Biodiversity: The relative abundance and variety of plant and animal species andecosystems within particular habitats. (Dorothy Hinshaw Patent, William Muñoz, 2003).Sustainability: Sustainability means meeting the needs of present generation with outcompromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. As the sustainableassessment of the University of Michigan in 2002, sustainability has three spheres i.e.
  • The Problem and Its Background 5economic (focus on economic growth, research and development, long term profit), social(focus on standard of living, education, community development, and equal opportunity),environmental (focus on natural and human made resources, energy utilization, pollutionand prevention).Heritage site: There are a number of heritage registers around the world, which keep listsof natural or man-made objects deemed to be of heritage value. (wikipedia.org/Heritage).Eco-tourism: “is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbednatural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying culturalfeatures, both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low negative visitorimpact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of localpopulations.” (IUCN now called the World Conservation Union)
  • Methodology 62. Methodology2.1 Research DesignThe researcher has chosen a case study design for conducting this study. It is because toanalysis this topic with respect to the global situation of protected areas. But the design ishighly limited with the scope of the study.2.2 The Research InstrumentsThe investigator used secondary sources to analysis the topic such as books, magazines,office reports, published and unpublished research papers, thesis and dissertations invarious topics related with Simien Mountain National Park. The latest informationreferred from the above sources is in the year of 2009.
  • Related Literature 73. Related Literature3.1 Protected AreasThe World Conservation Union (IUCN) defines a protected area as an area of land and/orsea especially dedicated to the safety and preservation of biological diversity and of naturaland associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.Effective means might include the respective local people formal dedication to preserve thearea. “The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) describes a protected area as a geographically defined area which is designated of regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objective.” (Nigel, D. et. al, 2005)3.1.1 Global OverviewsToday there are more than 100,000 designated protected areas in the World Database onProtected Areas covering around 11.4 percent of Earth’s land surface along with more than1,300 marine protected areas covering less than 0.5 percent of the oceans. They exist innearly every country. The majority of protected areas were identified and gazetted (i.e.formally created) during the 20th century, in what is one of the largest conscious land usechange in history (Nigel, D. et. al, 2005).The World Convention Union (IUCN) subdivides protected areas into six categories basedon management objectives as: I: Strict nature reserve/wilderness protection area II:National parks III: Natural monuments IV: Habitat or species management areaV: Protected landscape/seascape VI: Managed resource protected area. The researcher willfocus on one of the above categories that is National Park on this study. And national parksare the dominant categories of protected areas.In terms of administration types, protected areas may be managed directly by government,co-managed with other actors such as non-governmental organizations which is local andinternational, or even declared and managed collectively by indigenous people and localcommunities, or by the relevant individual or corporate land owner. (Nigel, D., 2005).
  • Related Literature 8The National Park which this study focuses on is managed by directly by government andco-managed with some local and international non-governmental organizations. But thelocal people participation in terms of preservation for the park is very insignificant (Hurni,2000).3.1.2 Problems in African Protected AreasIn Africa, the major problem facing protected areas today is the increase in humansettlement of adjacent lands and the unauthorized harvesting of resources within theprotected areas (Newmark, et al., 1993, Mesele, Y. 2006). The human settlement hasincreased continuously in and around the SMNP (see fig ). This high number of humansettlement has its own impact on the biodiversity and tourism development indirectly.As the number of human settlement increases, encroachment also increases. Then theextent of resource exploitation increases. This can easily be observed by increase inlivestock grazing in the park and intensive agricultural practice. (Mesele,Y. 2006)3.1.3 Protected Areas in EthiopiaFalling under the NRCDMD (Natural Resources Conservation and Development MainDepartment) is the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organisation (EWCO), which isdirectly responsible for the establishment, administration and management of nationalparks, sanctuaries, wildlife reserves and controlled hunting areas. There are a number ofnational and international non-governmental organisations involved in the conservation,management and development of protected areas in Ethiopia. Protected areas in Ethiopiahave a huge amount of resource to be preserved for the next generation and for theenvironmental protection at large.Resources have been directed to the development of national parks and sanctuaries, which,in practice, are treated almost equally, since sanctuaries are set up to conserve threatenedwildlife and the production of harvestable animals is not permitted. While still more or lessrecognized, wildlife reserves and controlled hunting areas exist on paper only. Somenational parks and sanctuaries are getting worth and worth. Gambella National Park hasvirtually ceased to exist as a conservation area, Yabello Sanctuary has been taken over fora livestock project, and Bale Mountains National Park has suffered from uncoordinateddevelopment in and around its boundaries. Further more, Simien Mountains National Park
  • Related Literature 9is listed as threatened by the IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas.(UNEP-WCMC, World database in protected areas). The researcher will analysis the mainproblems related with Simien Mountain National Park in this study.3.1.3.1 Bio diversity and protected Areas in EthiopiaAccording to IUCN 3,036,000 ha is protected for national parks, nature reserve andwilderness areas from the total land area of 110,430,000 ha in Ethiopia. This protected areais a refuge for higher plants, mammals, breeding birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. Asthe researcher finds out, the number of known species and endemic to Ethiopia arestipulated by the following diagram. Higher plants 4% Mamals 4% Breeding birds 3% Reptiles 88% 1% 0% Amhipians Fish Fig. 6, Biodiversity in Protected areas in Ethiopia Sourse, Earth Trend Country Profile3.1.3.2 List of Protected Areas in EthiopiaAccording to the World Database on Protected Areas Ethiopia has the following protectedareas stipulated in the table below:National Parks Wildlife Reserves SanctuariesAbijatta-Shalla Lakes Alledeghi Babile ElephantAwash Awash West Kuni-Muktar Mount Nyala
  • Related Literature 10Bale Mountains Bale Senkelle Swaynes HartebeestGambella Chelbi YabelloMago Mille-SardoNechisar GewaneOmo Shire TamaSimien MountainsYangudi Rassa Fig, 1 List of Protected Areas in Ethiopia Source 1 World Database on Protected Areas3.2 What is National Park?The Victorian legislation defines a national park as: “Certain Crown Land characterised by its predominantly unspoilt landscape and its flora, fauna and other features, that should be reserved and preserved and protected permanently for the benefit of the public” (parks Victoria, education kit, p5)In 1971 the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and NaturalResources) declared a national park to be: • A minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence • Statutory legal protection • A budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection • Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams) qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_park#Definition)
  • Related Literature 11As the researcher finds out many organizations share the concept of IUCN for NationalParks description as stipulated above.3.2.1 Tourism and National ParksNational parks around the world are increasingly attracting visitors to experience spick andspan and unique natural environments. While an increase in national parks tourismprovides business opportunities both in the park and in adjacent communities, there areseveral economic, social and ecological aspects that need to be monitored in order tosustain high quality visitor experience. Increasing visitation may cause negative impacts onthe environment, conflict between different user groups or with in groups (Peter, F. 2005).Tourism that does not degrade natural and cultural environment of the national parkprovides economic, environmental, and social benefits to the local communities and thecountries at large and offers a high quality experience for the visitors. But there are dangersin promoting national parks for ecotourism, especially if there is no strategic focus on thetype and intensity of activities to be promoted, the benefits and the beneficiaries, control,and regulations. Some of the major environmental impacts in many national parks aroundthe world including Simien Mountain National Park with direct implications for localcommunities and the biodiversity in and around include overcrowding, noise pollution,extraction of valuable resources (collection of firewood and rare plant specimens), packstock grazing, fire hazards, etc.3.2.2 National parks in EthiopiaEthiopia is home to several national parks. National parks are generally understood to beadministered by national governments (hence the name), in Ethiopia national parks are runby Governments and some by UNESCO (Hurni, 2000).Ethiopia has been very forward-looking in its provision of national park areas and there areat present a dozen regions within the country that have been designated as national parks.(Philip, B. 2005). In the following picture national parks and their respective size is listed
  • Related Literature 12NO Name Size (KM2) Location1 Semien Mountains National Park 220 Amhara Region2 Abijatta-Shalla National Park 887 Oromia Region3 Awash National Park 225 Afar Region4 Gambela National Park 5061 Gambela Region,5 Bale Mountains National Park 2,200 Oromia Region6 Mago National Park 782 SNNP Region7 Yangudi Rassa National Park 4730 Afar Region8 Omo National Park 4,068 SNNP Region9 Nechisar National Park 514 SNNP Region Table 1, List of National parks in Ethiopia Source, Amhara Regional Tourist Office3.2.3 Overview of Tourism Development in SMNPThe Amhara Region, and northern part of Ethiopia in general, have very high tourismpotential, not the least because of the two cultural World Heritage properties with inAmhara Region, Gondar and Lalibela, and SMNP, at present the only national park in theregion, as well as a third cultural property, Aksum, in the neighbouring region of Tigre(Regional Tourism Office Annual Report, 2007).The Simien Mountain National Park is endowed with endemic organism and uniquelandscape. Both these aesthetic values attract domestic and international visitors.According to UNESCO, since the creation of the national park up to 1977 over 500 visitorswere recorded per annum. After 1977 there was decreasing number of visitors until thebeginning of the 1990s. Recent study by Martin, 2008, shows as tourist numbers increased
  • Related Literature 13from 655 in 1999 to 1,000 in 2000 and about 7,000 in 2007. The regional tourism officeannual report shows as number of tourists increase to 12,000 in 2009.According to the park office report in 2008, the numbers of tourist are getting increasedevery year. And there was a small number of tourist flows in the year during 1997 to 2000.During these years the country was in war with Eritrea where the national park borderswith. The detail number of tourist to the park during 1991 to 2009 is stipulated in thefollowing diagram: 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1991/2 1994/5 1997/8 2000/1 2003/4 2006/7 Fig. 1 Number of tourist/visitors flow to SMNP Source, Simien Mountain National Park Tourism OfficeConstruction of new park infrastructure including the Debark visitor centre, entrance gatecamp, outpost camps, and visitor facilities at campsites was funded by the Austrian-fundedIntegrated Development Project (IDP). The visitor centre has an information desk, entrancefee office, conference hall, park warden and staff offices, a library/museum (not yetfunctional), and souvenir shop, cafeteria and guide association office. Guides, porters andcooks are now provided by private concessionaires. The entrance gate at Sawre camp willhave an information desk, office and four solar-powered scout houses; the Sankaber andChennek camps have basic camping facilities such as toilets, springs, showers, recreationhuts and recreation benches. The usual method of travelling is on mule back with hiredguides. A 4WD road built to the Park from Debark has caused erosion and increased localtraffic as well as tourist development (Nievergelt, 1996). By 2006 a high quality 60-bed
  • Related Literature 14private tourist lodge had been built at Buyit Ras just outside the Park (Debonnet et al,2006).The beauty of the nature (fauna and flora), facilities in and around the park boosts thenumber of tourists flow in to the park year by year (page 13, fig 1). The park in thesummer season is very green and crowded with tourists which create seasonal masstourism in the park.3.2.4 Tourism Development Threats to SMNPIn Simien Mountain National Park, Tourism is highly depending on landscapes, floras andfaunas. According to Hürni, 1986, several animals might become locally extinct even ifthe Park were fully protected: the carnivores, leopard and Simien wolf, and largerungulates of the lower Afro Montana areas.A further risk for tourism development is the increasing human settlement in and aroundthe national park5 which is impossible to control the immigrants since the zoning6 of thepark is too loos. Tough the park is belong to UNESCO and announced as settlement isforbidden, the people living around do not respect the regulation and they keep settling inthe park since it has good fertile land for agriculture and good grass for their cattle’s.Hunting is also another risk which is practiced by the local people for their daily food eventhough it is banned to do so by UNESCO in 1978. (Amhara regional tourism office report,2006)The road from Debark has aggravated erosion and ecological damage and made accesseasier for the increasing numbers of peasant farmers (Nievergelt et al., 1998; Beltran,2000, UNESCO). The population and its livestock within the Park are still expanding by5 The detail about settlements is found in page 14 under human settlement in SMNP6 Zoning has been practiced but the local people do not have any awareness about sustainability so wheneverthey feel as they will have a good agricultural product, they use it with out respecting the zonings set byUNESCO. (UNESCO annual report 2006)
  • Related Literature 152% per year (Beltran, 2000, UNESCO). The following picture depicts the agriculturalpractice by the local people in side the park. Fig. 2 Farming in Simien Mountain National Park Source, Get image siteA large number of tourists flowing to the park in the same season are another sensitivethreat to the lives of biodiversity and the tourism development indirectly. An increase inmass tourism that is not controlled responsibly can ruin areas of natural beauty. MassTourism can damage flora and fauna, destroy the habitats of wildlife as roads and hotelsare built for tourist facilities, frustrate the life cycle of the biodiversity in the protectedareas, and etc. Ironically, damage to these natural resources is likely to reduce futurenumbers of visitors. Aside from the above listed major threats to the tourism developmentin the park, the researcher finds out the following minor threat to tourism developmentaccording to the annual report of the Tourist office in Gondar; • Budget constraint for conservation process • Unskilled guides working in the park that does not have an idea how to react against some wild animals, does not know the tourist walk ways to see the animals. • Employees turn over(especially, Managers of the park)3.3 Settlements and National ParksHuman settlements have physical, environmental, political, social and cultural elements.According to the UN, these can be divided into “(a) physical components of shelter and
  • Related Literature 16infrastructure; and (b) service to which the physical elements provide support, that is tosay, community services such as education, health, culture, welfare, recreation andnutrition.” In addition, each human settlement exists in a unique environment that affectslife in the community and is affected by that community” (Teton County Model UN,2009).According to Teton County Model UN, the researcher understands that the humansettlement in a unique environment like national parks affect the natural resources in andaround; and the benefits which might come from the resources.3.3.1 Settlements in SMNPThe population in the park area is estimated to double every 20-35 years. The annualgrowth rate during 1964-1975 was estimated at 2.6%, while the estimate for the period1975-1994 was 1.6% (Huni and Ludi, 2000). However the present growth rate is estimatedto be about 2%. The increase in population during the last 12 years (1994-2006) for someKebele 7 Associations or Villages is shown in the table below: Woreda Kebele/village Population 1994 2006 Difference Percentage increaseAdi Arkay Agdamia 2308 2800 492 21 Angukemeja 5060 5560 440 9Janamora Lori 3820 5425 1605 42Debark Adebabay 4500 6728 2228 507 A word to describe the village governmental originations (Hurni, 2000)
  • Related Literature 17 Abergina 3850 4250 400 10 Arginjona 4000 6279 2279 57 Adisgie- 2341 8958 6617 283 Miligebsa Gich 1084 1672 588 54 Fig. 3. Human Population Growth Trend in & around SMNP Source; Management plan of Semien Mountain National Park; 2006At present the population living with in and around the park are estimated to be 88,083 outof which 3,282 resides with in the park territory, while the remaining 84,801 lives on theperiphery of the park with in 17 Kebele Association’s (KAs) bordering the park.3.3.2 The effect of settlement to TourismAccording to Hürni, 1980, Ethiopias highlands are among the most densely populatedagricultural areas in Africa, and wildlife habitats and populations in the Park have beenfragmented by extensive developments as: • Road construction, • Widespread deforestation and grass burning, • Agriculture, • Firewood collecting, • Hunting and domestic livestock grazing.All the above listed frustrating actions are directly related with the people living in andaround the park and they have a direct and indirect impact on tourism development. As thenumber of inhabitants are increasing dramatically (stipulated on page 16, fig. 3) their needwhich is highly depend on flora and fauna, and biodiversities is also increasing. Tourismactivities in the park are built up on the natural attraction but because of the population inand around the park these resources are losing their natural beauty which has a negative
  • Related Literature 18impact on tourism development. As a result, since the tourism development is highlydepending on the natural resource in the park, the resources should be maintained as muchas possible otherwise the expected benefit from the tourism industry will be unrealistic.3.3.3 The effect of settlement to biodiversityExtensive areas both within and outside SMNP are almost devoid of native woodyvegetation. The degradation and its ecological impacts have forced both the walia ibex andEthiopian wolf to vacate some of their original ranges and to move further up in to the lessdisturbed highlands (IUCN Mission Report, 2006).According to the Earth trend country profile the following species are highly threatened inSimien Mountain National Park. 30% 2% Mamals Breeding Birds 4% Reptiles Amphibians 66% 2% Fig. 4, Threatened species, 2002-03 Source, Earth Trends Country ProfileThe different activities of humans have its own impact on wildlife by modifying thebehaviour of animals and species distribution. The disruption of behavioural pattern canaffect their social structure because social structure is the key component in the evaluationof and dynamics of species. Thus, its disruption by human disturbance can have aconsiderable effect on population performance even if the disturbance does not directlyaffect the survival (Manor, Saltz, 2003, Melese, Y. 2006)
  • Conclusion and Recommendation 194. Conclusion and Recommendation4.1 ConclusionsAll protected areas around the world are some how facing different kinds of challenges.The main challenges for African protected areas are disturbance of habitats and ecosystemby human settlement, cultivation, deforestation and fire. Mass tourism is also the currentphenomenon that threatened the protected areas.Tourism in Simien Mountain National Park is rapidly increasing. Even though itscontribution for the national economy is very significant, its sustainability is underquestion. Disturbance of habitats and ecosystem, cultural commercialization with the localcommunities and illegal hunting are the major effects of mass tourism practiced in SMNP.The park management is planning for more tourism development in the area with lessconsideration to its effect in the future.Human settlement in Simien Mountain National Parks becomes less difficult with someinfrastructural developments in and around the park. Large numbers of people live inand close to the SMNP. At the same time more number of livestock is observedgrazing inside the park in addition to the increase in the size of farmlands inside thepark. Farmers expand these farmlands by clearing the nearby vegetation leading tofurther degradation. The National Park is the place where the local communities can havefree agricultural and grazing land for their cattle which result in great negative impact onthe biodiversity. The number of human settlement in and around the park is rapidlyincreasing because of the favourable conditions of the park for the agriculture and grazing.The impact of human settlement is not end with the disturbance of the biodiversity; it hasalso incalculable effect in the tourism industry.In general, mass tourism and human settlement in SMNP are getting increased and theytook the lion share to make the park one of the endangered world heritage site.
  • Conclusion and Recommendation 204.2 RecommendationsThe researcher found out that mass tourism and human settlement in Simien MountainNational Park have negative impact on sustainability of the area. As challenges alwayscome with their solutions; the researcher recommends the following points for thegovernment who owns the national park and the tourists who are visiting.4.2.1 Recommendations to Amhara Tourism Board (Government)A mechanism should be taken which can sustain the biodiversity and the tourism activityin the area. As a result, the following recommendations should be considered forsustainable issues: • The government should transfer those people living in and very close to the park to the area that is comparable in climate and other necessary conditions should be met. • The government should develop a rule to stop the immigration of people to the park looking for fertile land for their agricultural activity. • The park authority and NGOs cooperatively should work hard to increase awareness of the local people about the importance of wildlife conservation. • The government should take consideration to the number of tourist visiting the park in one season when making tourism development strategy on the area. • The government should create the opportunity for the local communities to learn about family planning. • The government should give enough compensation for the resettlement of the local communities to other places keeping their social interest. • Strict enforcement of the rules developed by the government to protect the biodiversity. • The government should demarcate the core areas immediately till the problem will be solved.
  • Conclusion and Recommendation 21 • The government should finance the research organization to conduct a research on the park. • The tourism board should invite and strengthen the cooperation between NGOs (UNESCO; ASDCE) for the sustainable development of the mountain.4.2.2 Recommendations to the local communityAs settlement and human reproduction in the park let the number of the population toincrease dramatically which is affecting the biodiversity and the natural attraction, theresearcher recommends the following measures for the local community to take in toconsideration. • Respect the zonings made by UNESCO though it is loose • Try to Stop hunting during the mating season of the animals • Take lessons about family planning • Make a plan regarding their fire to have a fertile agricultural land.4.2.3 Recommendations to TouristsAs the number of tourists are rapidly increasing in the park which shows some influencingimpact on the biodiversity, the researcher recommends following points to the local andinternational tourists; • The tourists should obey to the regulations of the park. • The tourists should travel in off seasons too as far as they can visit what they want from the park. • The tourists should contribute some how in awareness creation to the local communities. • The tourists should share some ideas from their travelling experience for the park management.
  • Conclusion and Recommendation 22
  • Annex 23AnnexAnnex A) Map of Ethiopia ...................................................................... 22Annex B) Map of SMNP ........................................................................... 22Annex C) Local people in SMNP…………………………………………………………………………23Annex D) Road Construction in the park……………………………………………………………24
  • Annex 24Annex A) Map of Ethiopia Source, getimage siteAnnex B) Map of SMNP Source; Mesele yihunie, 2006
  • Annex 25Annex C) Local people in SMNP Source; Aysheshim Tiruneh (2008)
  • Annex 26Annex D) The mountain overview Source; Aysheshim Tiruneh (2008)
  • Bibliography 27BibliographyAbebe, E. (2000). Conservation status of Simien national park: a personal assessment.Caprinae, August, 2000. University of British Colombia, Canada.Nievergelt, B., Good, T. & Guttinger, R. (1998). A survey of the flora and fauna of Simienmountain national park, Ethiopia. Walia. J. Ethiopian Wild Life & Natural History Society:special issue, Addis Ababa.Mesele, Y (2006). Human Wild life (the Ethiopian Wolf and Gelada Baboon) conflict inand aroung Simien Mountain National Park. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia, July 2006.Martin, D. (2008). Eco-Tourism in Ethiopia. Le Monde Diplomatique. France 08-08-2008.Debonnet, G., Melamari, L. & Bomhard, B (2006). Reactive Monitoring Mission to SimienMountain National Park, Ethiopia. WHC/IUCN mission report, Paris.Guy, D., Lota, M., Bastian, B (July 2006). Reactive Monitoring Mission to SimienMountain National Park, Ethiopia. WHC/IUCN Mission report, Paris.Dorothy Hinshaw Patent, William Muñoz, (2003). Biodiversity. North America, Juvenile,2003.Ben, P. (2010). African Affairs. Volume 109, Issue 434, January 2010Philip Briggs (2005). Ethiopia, the Bradt Travel Guide. The globe Pequot press Inc. USA(October, 2005)Nigel, D., Kalemani Jo, M., Sheldon, C., Sue, S., Charles, V., Sarat, B. (2005) TowardsEffective Protected Areas System. An Action Guide to Implement the Convention onBiological Diversity Program of Works on Protected Areas. Secretariat of the Conventionon Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 18.Peter Fredman (2005). National Park Designation-Visitors Flow and Tourism Impact. MidSweden University, Sweden.URL: http://www.unep.org (Accessed December 18, 2009. 23:35)
  • Bibliography 28URL: http//www.unesco.org (Accessed December 23, 2009. 18:37)URL: http//www.earthtrends.wir.org (Accessed February 17, 2010. 11:10)URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_park#Definition (Accessed February 17, 2010.13:26)URL;http://www.unescap.org (Accessed February, 23 2010.)
  • Declaration 29DeclarationI hereby declare that the whole of this independent study is my own work, except whereexplicitly stated otherwise in the text or in the bibliography.This work has not been submitted in the same or substantially similar version, not even inpart, to any other authority for grading and has not been published elsewhere.Salzburg, Austria, April, 2010 _________________________ Aysheshim Tiruneh Alemu