UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION- EVERYTHING ABOUT UNITED NATIONS
FLAG OF UNITED NATIONS EMBLEM OF UNITED NATIONS
The 20th Century witnessed two world wars, which were highlydestructive of life as well as material. These two wars shook theconscience of the people of the world and highlighted the needfor peace and cooperation among the nations. The first attempttowards achieving this aim of world peace was in the form of theLeague of Nations after the first world war. This was, of course,a failure, as it could not avert the Second World War.The League‟s Headquartersfrom 1929 until itsdissolutionThe League of Nations’assembly buildings inGenevaMembers of League during1920-1945
The search for peace culminated in the formation of the UNITEDNATIONS after World War II. From April 25 to June 26,1945,delegates from 50 nations met at San Francisco to draft a charterfor the United Nations. Later, many other countries joinedUnited Nations. The United Nations officially came intoexistence on October 24, 1945, when its charter had been ratifiedby China, France, the USSR, the UK and US, and by a majority ofother signatories. This day every year is celebrated as the UNday the world over.
The purposes of the United Nations are:-1. To maintain International peace and security.2. To develop friendly relations among Nations.3. To cooperate in solving International economic, social, culturaland humanitarian problems and in promoting respect forhuman rights and fundamental freedoms.4. To protect Earth and Environment.
The main principles of the United Nations:-1. It is based on the sovereign equality of all its members.2. All members are to fulfill in faith their charter obligations.3. They are to settle their international disputes by peace.4. They are to refrain from the threat or use of force against otherstate.5. They are to give the United Nations every assistance in everyaction it takes in accordance with the charter.6. Nothing in the charter is to authorize the United Nations tointervene in matters which are essentially within the domesticjurisdiction of any state.
UN HEADQUARTERS:-The permanent headquarters of the UN since 1952, are New York. The firstmeeting of the General Assembly was held here in October 1952.UN FLAG:-The white UN emblem is superimposed on light blue background. Theemblem consist of the global map projected from the North Pole andembraced in twin olive branches (symbol of peace). The UN flag is not to besubordinated to any other flag of the world.UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERSFLAG OF UNITED NATIONS
UN OFFICIAL LANGUAGES:-There are six official working languages recognised by the United Nations.They are Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Arabic.UN FINANCES:-Contributions of member states constitute the main source of funds for theregular budget. A state‟s share is primarily determined by its total nationalincome in relation to that of the member states.MEMBERSHIP:-Membership of the United Nations is open to all peace loving nations whichaccept the obligations of its charter and in the judgement of the organization,are able and willing to carry out these obligations. Members may besuspended or expelled by the General Assembly on the recommendation ofthe Security Council.
ORGANS OF UNITED NATIONS:-The UN has six main organs:1. The General Assembly2. The Security Council3. The Secretariat4. The Trusteeship Council5. The Economic and Social Council6. International Court of Justice
The General Assembly (Headquarters- New York):-The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ. The GeneralAssembly is like a World Parliament. It ordinarily meets once a year unlessthere is some emergency for a special session. Decisions are taken by a two-third majority. Composed of all United Nations member states, the Assemblymeets in regular yearly sessions under a President elected from among themember states. The first session was convened on 10 January, 1946 in theWestminster Central Hall in London and included representatives from 51Nations.UNITED NATIONS GENERALASSEMBLY HALL
Security Council (Headquarters- New York):-The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security amongcountries. The Security Council has the power to make binding decisions thatmember Governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter.The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security CouncilResolutions. The Security Council comprises five permanent members-United States, Britain, France, Russia and China- and ten non-permanentmembers, who are elected for two years by General Assembly. Thepermanent members have the power to veto any of the decisions of SC.UNITED NATIONS SECURITYCOUNCIL CHAMBER
Secretariat (Headquarters- New York):-The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary- General, assistedby a staff of International Civil servants worldwide. It provides studies,information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meeting.It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council, The UNGeneral Assembly, The UN Economic and Social Council and other UNbodies. The United Nations Charter provides that the staff be chosen byapplication of the “highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity,”with due regard for the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis.The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions fromany authority other than the UN. Each UN member country is enjoined torespect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influenceits staff.
The Secretary- General alone is responsible for staff- selection.The Secretary General‟s duties include helping resolve international disputes,administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences,gathering information on the implementation on the Security Councildecisions, and consulting with member Governments regarding variousinitiatives. The Secretary- General may bring to the attention of the SecurityCouncil any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten internationalpeace and security.THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARIAT BUILDINGAT THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS INNEW YORK CITY
Trusteeship Council (Headquarters- New York):-Trusteeship Council aims helping countries under foreign rule to attainindependence. There were eleven such countries that had come under thissystem after the second world war. By 1994, all Trust Territories hadattained independence. The last to do was the Palau, which became the 185thMember state of the UN.
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assiststhe General Assembly in promoting internationaleconomic and social cooperation and development.ECOSOC has 54 members, all of which are electedby the General Assembly for a three-year term. Thepresident is elected for a one-year term and chosenamong the small or middle powers represented onECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for afour-week session. Since 1998, it has held anothermeeting each April with finance ministers headingkey committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Viewedseparate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOC„s functions includeinformation gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations.In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence andcoordinate the overlapping functions of the UN‟s subsidiary and it is in theseroles that it is most active.THE ECOSOC CHAMBER
International Court of Justice (Headquarters- Netherlands):-The International Court of Justice consists of 15 judges elected by the SecurityCouncil and the General Assembly for a term of nine years. Each one of themhas to be from a different country.The court gives advisory opinion on legal matters to the organs and specialagencies of the UN when solicited. It also considers legal disputes broughtbefore it by nations.PEACE PALACE, SEAT OF THEINTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICEAT THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS
1. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION2. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION3. UNITED NATIONS, EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURALORGANISATION4. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION5. WORLD BANK6. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND7. INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION8. UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION9. INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION10. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION11. WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION12. WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANISATION13. INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT14. UN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION15. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY16. WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION
1. UNITED NATIONS CHLDREN FUND (UNICEF)2. UN CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD)3. UN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)4. UN INSTITUTE FOR TRAINING AND RESEARCH (UNITAR)5. UN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)6. UN UNIVERSITY (UNU)7. WORLD FOOD COUNCIL (WFC)8. UNITED NATIONS VOLUNTEERS (UNV)9. UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)10. UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME (UNODC)11. UN HUMAN SETTLEMENT PROGRAMME (UN- HABITAT)12. UNITED NATIONS INSTITUTE FOR DISARMAMENT RESEARCH13. UNITED NATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOCIALDEVELOPMENT (UNRISD)14. UNITED NATIONS INTER- REGIONAL CRIME AND JUSTICERESEARCH INSTITUTE (UNICRI)
1. Treaty on cyber Crime:- On November 23, 2001 representatives of 30countries met in Budapost and signed the firstever international treaty on criminal offencescommitted in the internet.2. UN Resolution 1973- Effort to nab terrorism:- Following the Globaldemand to act againstterrorists and states thatsupport or harbor them, theUN unanimously passedthe resolution.3. Millennium Summit:- At the summit, held at UN Headquarters from 6 to8 September, 2000, World leaders established cleardirection for the organization in the new century.The millennium declaration targets for poverty,disease and environment issues.
4. Protecting Children in war:- The General Assembly in 2000 adopted adraft to the convention on the right of thechild, under which state parties agree toraise the age limit for both compulsoryrecruitment and participation in combatfrom 15 to 18.5. UN Secretary General Ban-Ki Moon urges greater efforts to feed world’shungry amid ongoing recession.6. UN refugee agency calls on Kenya to stop forced return of Somali asylumseekers.7. UN rural Development arm to help poor farmers in Tajikistan.
Today, peace and security are not longer viewed only in terms of absence ofmilitary conflicts but the common interests of human- kind. Over the years theGeneral Assembly has helped to promote peaceful relations among nations byadopting several resolutions and declarations on peace, the peacefulsettlement of disputes and international cooperation in strengthening peace.UN played effective peace making role in Afghanistan, Somalia, crisis informer Yugoslav Republics, Kosovo, Middle East (Arabs, Israel conflict),Angola, Congo, Rwanda, and in Gulf crisis.29 May 2008 marks not only the international day of peacekeepers, but alsothe sixtieth anniversary of UN Peacekeeping Operation.