ELT Methods• Presented by:• Ayesha Bashir (03)• Maryam Bashir (04)• Ayesha Bashir (01)• Wajeeha Jamal (33) .Ammara Qasim (34) Students of AWKUM English Department
ELT Methods • There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have had their heyday and have fallen into relative obscurity; others are widely used now.• Many methods have been proposed but this presentation will cover only four major methods i.e: • Grammar-Translation method • Direct Method • Audio-lingual Method • Silent Way Method
Grammar Translation Method "a method of foreign or second languageteaching which makes use of translation andgrammar study as the main teaching andlearning activities." ---Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman Dictionary ofLanguage Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Pearson Education Limited.pp.231.
Background• The Grammar Translation Method was the traditional way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe.. In the 19th century it began to be used to teach “modern”languages such as French, German, and English, and it isstill used in some countries today.• A typical lesson consists of the presentation of a grammatical rule, a study of lists of vocabulary, and a translation exercise. Personal understanding of this point: up with end grammatical rules + vocabularytranslation or
Background• Because the Grammar Translation Method emphasizes reading rather than the ability to communicate in a language, there was a reaction to it in the 19th century (see NATURAL APPROACH, DIRECT METHOD), and there was later a greater emphasis on the teaching of spoken language.
Language and Learning TheoryLearning Theory:• Deductive learning is essential. First, the teacher gives rules explicitly then the rules are reinforced with examples and exercises. 2. Language Theory:• Language is for understanding the literature. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior to spoken language. Students also learn the structure of their own native language.
Characteristics Teachers Role:• Teacher is the strict authority. Classes are teacher centred.
Students Role:• Students are the passive receivers of the new information. The teacher starts the activities and directs them. Students are supposed to memories the rules and the new vocabulary with their meanings in their native language.
Interactions:• Very often “Teacher –Student” interactions occur. Rarely “Student – Student”interactions also occur.
Error correction• The teacher corrects the error strictly.Errors are not tolerated.
Culture:• Culture is limited to literature and fine artsVocabulary Teaching:•The most common vocabulary teaching technique is “the memorisation of long listsof vocabulary with their equivalents in the students’ native language. Othertechniques are Teaching “cognates” (i.e., “cinema –sinema”, “theatre – tiyatro” ...,etc).- Using synonyms and antonyms
Grammar Teaching:• The teaching of grammar is deductive. The teacher introduces the rules explicitly and wants the students to apply these rules to new examples in exercises. Students are supposed to memorise the rules. In order to explain the rules, the teacher uses comparison the meanings and contract between the students’ native language grammar and target language grammar.Translation is a common way to clarify of the new grammar patterns in the target language. Materials:• Texts from the target language literature are used. The teacher may either write the text or use an authentic literary text.
Syllabus:Structural syllabus (i.e., list of structures to be taught during the course) is used.Theorder of structures starts from the easiest.Role of L1:L1 (i.e., students’ native language) has an important function in teachingvocabulary and grammar. Since oral communication in the target language is notimportant,classroom instructions are given in L1.
Student’s Feelingsit doesnot deal with student’s feelings
Evaluation:Translation is an important technique to test students’ progress in thetarget language. In addition, “fill-in-the-blank” type test items are also used.Synonyms,antonyms, and cognates can be asked to test vocabulary in formaltests. Reading passages and comprehension questions about the passagescan also take place in tests as the reading section.
Objectives of GTM• To be able to read literature written in the target language• To be able to translate from one language to another• To develop reading and writing skill
Typical Techniques• (1) Translation of a Literary Passage• (2) Reading Comprehension Questions• (3) Antonyms/Synonyms• (4) Cognates• (5) Deductive Application of Rule• (6) Fill-in-the-blanks• (7) Memorization• (8) Use Words in Sentences• (9) Composition
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODTranslation of a literary passage:• The translation may be written or spoken or both.• The class focuses on vocabulary and grammatical structures.• Students should not translate idioms and like the literary, but rather their understanding of the meaning is important.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODReading comprehensionquestions:• There are three kinds of group of questions:• First group of questions, students ask for information contained within the reading passage.• Second group of questions, students will have to make inferences from the passage.• Third group of questions, students are required to relate the passage to their own experience.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODAnonyms/Synonyms:• Students might be asked to find anonyms or synonyms in the passage.• Students might be asked to define a set of words based on their understanding in the passage.• Students might be asked to work with the vocabulary of the passage.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODDeductive application of rule:• Grammar rules are presented with examples.• Later students are asked to apply grammar rules to some different examples.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODCognates: (similar spelling andsound patterns that correspondin L1/L2.)• Students are taught to recognize cognates in the passage.• Students are asked to memorize cognate words and their meaning in target language.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODFill-in-the-blanks:• Students are given a serios of sentences with words missing.• They fill in the blanks with new vocabulary idioms or with items of a particular grammar type such as prepositions or verbs with different tenses.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODMemorization:• Students are given lists of target language vocabulary words and their native language equivalents.• Students are asked to memorize the given words.• Students are also required to memorize grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as conjugations.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODUse words in sentences:• Students make up sentences in which they use new words.
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODComposition:• The teacher gives the students a topic to write about in the target language.• The topic is based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson.
Conclusion It is an easy method in which the child proceeds from the known to unknown. It helps in building vocabulary and saves teacher labour but it is an un natural method and does not follow the natural order of learning a language. It neglectsspeech and teaches English by rules not by use.
Direct Method of Language Teaching “Teach the Language Not About the Language” “No Translation” No Use of Native Language
Direct Method is also known as:Natural Method Phonetical MethodAnti-Grammatical Reform Method Method
Background• In the mid and late 19 century, Europe experienced a wave of increasing opportunities of communication, due to industrialization and international trade and travel.•• A need was felt to develop oral proficiency in foreign languages.• Language teachers had already found Grammar-translation method inadequate and ineffective in developing communicative ability in learners.
Background• They strongly advocate an alternative method in which language was presented in contexts and the mother tongue was avoided.• Its principal advocates were Pendergast and Sauveur who proposed what they called Natural Method that suggest radical change from Grammar- translation method. It is this method that later on came to be known as the Direct Method
Direct MethodThe Direct Method is named “direct” because meaning should be connected directly with the target language without translation into the native language. Concept/ Target Meaning language L1 Target concept language
Theoretical Assumption:• Language can be learnt only through demonstration. Instead of analytical procedures of explaining grammar rules, students must be encourage to use language naturally and spontaneously so that they induce grammar.
Theoretical Assumption:• The learning of second language was seen as parallel to the acquisition of the childs first language.• This method therefore emphasize the importance of sounds , simple sentences and direct association of language with object and person of immediate environment- the classroom, the home, the garden, etc.
Basic Principles• 1. Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language. The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate.• NEVER TRANSLATE:• DEMONSTRATE
Basic Principles2. Only everydayvocabulary and sentencesare taught.• BASIC VOCABULARY IS GIVEN FIRST3. Vocabulary is taughtthrough known words,demonstration, authenticobjects (realia), pictures.
Basic Principles4.Grammar is taughtinductively. There maynever be an explicitgrammar rule given.• DO NOT GIVE RULES: MAKE THEM FIGURE OUT THE RULE.
Basic Principles5. New teaching pointsare introduced orally.• ORAL TRANSMISSION6. Both speech andlistening comprehensionare taught.
Basic Principles7. The teacher, by asking thestudent to make a choice, getshim to correct his own error.• LEARNING BY SELF- CORRECTION8. The syllabus is based onsituations or topics• CONTEXTUAL/TOPICAL TEACHING
Basic Principles9. Correctpronunciation isemphasized.• 10. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible
Basic Principles11.The purpose oflanguage learning iscommunication; thereforestudents need to learnhow to ask questions aswell as answer them.• COMMUNICATION-FIRST PREFERENCE
Techniques• Q & A: The teacher asks questions of any nature and the students answer.• Dictation: The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads the text• aloud. Teacher reads the passage three times
Techniques• Reading Aloud: Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialogue out loud.
Techniques• Map Drawing: Students are given a map without labeled then the students label it by using the directions the teacher gives.• Paragraph Writing : The students are asked to write a passage in their own words.
Advantages• One of its positive points is that it promises to teach the language and Not about the language.• It is a natural method which teaches language in the same way the mother tongue is acquired. Only the target language is used and the learning is contextualized..• Its emphasis on speech made it more attractive for those who have needs of real communication in the target language. It is one of the first methods to introduce the teaching of vocabulary through realias.
Criticism• In spite of its achievements, the direct method fell short from fulfilling the needs of educational systems. One of its major shortcomings is that it was hard for public schools to integrate it. As R. Brown (1994:56) points out, the Direct Method “did not take well in public schools where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background (native speakers or native like fluency) made such a method difficult to use.”• After a short popularity in the beginning of the 20th century, it soon began to lose its appeal because of these constraints. It then paved the way to the Audio-lingual Method.
AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (ALM)• The audio-lingual method was widely used in the United States and other countries in the 1950s and 1960s. It is still used in some programs today.• Also known as Oral Method/The Army Method/ The New Method
The Audio-Lingual Method• Similar to the direct method: Ø They both are oral-based approaches – pronunciation and ability of speaking in the target language is superior to other skills Ø Grammar is learnt inductively• Different from the direct method: Ø Not only vocabulary but also grammatical sentence patterns Ø Stronger theoretical base in linguistics (structural linguistics) and psychology (behavioural psychology)
Introduction• Founded around 1950’s and 1960’s, AL was based on structural linguistic an behavioral psychology : the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the target language is repetition of dialogues about every day situations that are imitated and drilled to make the response automatic.
Structural LinguisticLanguage Theory• Language is a system of structural related elements, like phonological units, grammatical units, and lexical items, for the transmission of meaning. So to learn the target language is to mater the elements of the target language system.
Behavioral PsychologyLearning Theory• Language learning is habit- formation.• Mistakes, the bad habit, should be avoided.• Language skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written form.
OBJECTIVES OF ALM• To enable students to speak and write in target language• To make students able to use target language automatically without stopping to think• To form new habits in the target language
PRINCIPLES OF ALM• Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence.• Use of MT is highly discouraged in the classroom.• The development of language skills is a matter of habit formation.• Students practice particular patterns of language through structured dialogue and drill until response is automatic.• Structured patterns in language are taught using repetitive drills.
• The emphasis is on having students produce error free utterances.• This method of language learning supports kinesthetic learning styles.• Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures. Abstract vocabulary is taught through association of ideas.• The printed word must be kept away from the second language learner as long as possible
Grammar Teaching• Explicit rules are not provided. student induce the rules through examples and Drills.Vocabulary Teaching• Meaning is taught directly. Vocabulary is introduced through Dialogues.The syllabus:• Audio lingual Method uses a structural syllabus.
Techniques of the Audio-lingual method• Dialogue Memorization• Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill• Repetition Drill• Chain Drill• Transformation Drill• Question-and-answer Drill
Techniques of AL – Dialog MemorizationT: Hello. How are you?S: Fine, thanks. And you?T: Fine. Where are you going?S: I’m going to the school. Would you like tocome?T: Sure. Let’s go together.
Techniques of AL – Backward-up drill• Backward build-up drill: to teach long lines of dialogues:• break down the line into several parts• repeat a part of the sentence• follow the teacher, students expand what they repeated part by part until they are able repeat the entire line.
Backward build-up drillT: Repeat after me: post office.S: Post office.T: To the post office.S: To the post office.T: Going to the post office.S: Going to the post office.T: I’m going to the post office.S: I’m going to the post office.
Techniques of AL –Repetition DrillStudents repeat the teacher’s model asaccurately and as quickly as possible to learnthe lines of the dialog
Techniques of AL – Chain Drill• To make students ask and answer questions with each other.• It allows some controlled communication among students and give the teacher an opportunity to check students’ speech.
Techniques of AL – Transformation Drill• To change a certain kind of sentence pattern to another form.• to transform an affirmative S. into a negative S.• to transform a statement into a question.• to transform an active S. into a passive S.• to transform a direct speech into reported speech Statement QuestionActive PassiveAffirmative Negative
Transformation drillT: ‘They are going to the bank.’S: ‘Are they going to the bank?’orT: Giang buys a new car.S: A new car is bought by Giang.
Techniques of AL – Question & Answer Drill• Students practice the target language with answering questions and the question patterns.• Students answer the teacher’s question quickly .
Techniques of AL – Question & Answer Drill• BankT: Are you going to the bank?S: Yes, I am. I’m going to the bank• LibraryT: Are you going to the zoo?S: No, I’m not going to the zoo. I’m going to thelibrary
Other features Listening, speaking Reading, writing-Depending on context.-Overlearning: students learn to answer automaticallywithout stopping to think.-Language cannot be separated from culture.
The nature of student-teacher interaction• Most of the interactions is between teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.Teacher Role/Student Role• The teacher is like an orchestra leader.• Providing students with a good model for imitation.• Students are imitators.
How is language viewed?• Everyday speech is emphasized in the Audio- lingual Method. The level of complexity of the speech is graded, so that beginning students are presented with only simple patterns. Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.
What areas of language are emphasized?• Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the students are mastering the grammatical patterns.• The oral skills receive most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning.
The role of the students’ native language• The target language is used in the classroom, not the students’ native language.How is evaluation accomplished? Students might be asked to distinguish between wordsin a minimal pair, for example, or to supply anappropriate verb form in a sentence.
How does the teacher respond to student errors?• Student errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.The role of instructional materials• Instructional materials in the Audiolingual Method assist the teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. They are primary teacher-oriented.• Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment often have central roles in an audio lingual course.
CONCLUSION• Language is speech, not writing.• A language is a set of habits.• Teach the language,not about the language.• A language is what native speakers say,not what someone else thinks they ought to say.• Languages are different.
The Silent Way: Method of Language Learning by Caleb Gattegno
Introduction The silent way (SW), a method of language teaching, originated in the early 1970s and introduced by Caleb Gattegno in his book:Teaching Foreign Language
Theoretical background Challenge Audio-lingual method: students are unable to transfer habits formed in the classroom to communicate outside of it. Language must not be considered a product of habit formation, but rule formation. Language acquisition must be a procedure of student using their own cognition, to discover the rules of the language they are acquiring.
Learning Theory: Cognitive approach rather than responding to stimuli. Language learning has a sequence from the known to un known. Student induce the rules from examples and the language they are exposed to, therefore learning is inductive.
Basic Principles: Teaching should be subordinated to learning. Emphasizes the autonomy of the learners. Students are encouraged to have an active role in learning the language. Pronunciation is seen as fundamental. Uses a structural syllabus but implicitly. Translation and rote repetition are avoided.
Silence Silence is use as a tool. To focus student’s attention. To encourage them to correct their own errors. Shhhh!
Teacher are still active: Mouthing words Using hand gestures Encourage students to help their peers.
Objectives Near native like fluency in the target language. Correct pronunciation. Providing the learners with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar.
SYLLABUS Beginning with student’s knowledge. Developing syllabus from easy to complex.
Role of L1 Can be used to give instructions when necessary. During feedback sessions L1 be used at beginning levels. L1 can be exploited. e.g., similar sounds in L1 and L2 can be used to make students aware of phonological similarites.
Evaluation Teacher may never give a formal test. Teacher assesses student’s learning all the time. Continuous monitoring by the teacher is essential.
Error correction. Errors are natural, so Peers correction unavoidable. Self-correction is necessary for the students to compare their own production with their developing inner criteria. Peer correction is also very important, but it should be in a co- operative manner.
Materials Cuisenaire rods: Which can be used for anything from introducing simple commands to representing objects such as describing any room setting.
Materials Sound-Color chart:Which is used to teach the language sounds.
Criticism Student cannot understand what teacher mean totally. Student’s learning results are slower. Materials can cost a lot of time and money.
COMPARISONAND CONTRAST among GTM, DM, ALM AND SW
GTM DM ALM SWLEARNING Deductive Inductive Inductive InductiveTHEORY learning learning learning learningLANGUAGE Language is Language is Language is Language isTHEORY for for oral use for oral use for oral use understanding literatureCULTURE Limited to Include other Include Inseparable literature and aspect of life, everyday part of fine art such as behaviour and language. dressing life style language foods etc. reflects culture
TEACHER’S Teacher’s Teachers are Teacher is Teacher is silentROLE strict like partner like an and directs the authority orchestral learners through leader and a gestures good model of T.LSTUDENT’S Passive Active Imitators of Active participantsROLE receiver of participant the teachers information and are activeINTERACTI Teacher- Teacher- Teacher- Student-studentON student student and student and interaction interaction student- student- student student interaction interactionVOCABULA Memorize Through Through By means of visualRY native pictures, dialogues aids and wordsTEACHING language demonstratio charts equivalent n and for T.L sentences vocabulary etc
GRAMMAR Grammar is Grammar is Grammar is Grammar isTEACHING taught taught taught taught deductively inductively inductively inductively through explicit rulesROLE OF L1 is L1 is not L1 is not L1 isL1 allowed.clas permitted allowed permitted sroom when instruction is needed given in L1MATERIAL Text from Reading Dialogues Sound color theT.L passages, charts, color dialogues rods etc. etc
SYLLABU Structural Situational Structural StructuralS syllabus and topical syllabus syllabus syllabusGOALS To teach To enable To enable To enableAND translation, to students to students to students toOBJECTI read and communicate speak and use the T.LVES translate in T.L as well write in T.L for self literary text in as think in T.L expression T.LERROR Error is Student’s self Error is Error areCORREC corrected by correction corrected by natural andTION the teacher teachers since inevitable and strictly. error cause self correction accuracy is bad habit is there emphasized formation
STUDENTS Not dealt No info No info Students feelingsFEELING with about about are taken in students students students consideration feelings feelings feelingsEVALUATIO Through Students Discrete- ContinuousN translation, ability to use point test monitoring by the fill in the language is teacher occur. it blanks, tested, not doesn’t give any synonyms, about formal test antonyms language etcSKILLS Reading and Speaking Listening, Listening, writing and listening speaking, speaking, reading is reading and and writing emphasized writing
CONCENTRA Vocabulary Pronunciation Pronunciation pronunciationTE ON and grammar and everyday and grammar vocabularyTECHNIQUE Translation of Reading Dialogue, Sound colorS a literary text, aloud, chain char,words rote question and drill,repititive chart memorization answer drill etc Cuisenaire etc exercise, rods etc. conversation etc
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