the estimated costs for the Infrastructure and Supporting Facilities, including deep seaport, road, rail link, and infrastructure inside industrial estate is US$8.6 billion.In addition, the Industrial Estate is estimated to cost US$58 billion. Source: “Italian-Thai Development Plc, Dawei contract: good project, bad timing – ALERT,” J.P. Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research, 9 June 2011.
ContentPart I Introduction to Dawei About Deep Seaport and Special Economic Zone Timeline of Dawei Development AssociationPart II Lessons from Mad Ta Phut Current Situation
capitalformer name - Tavoybounded by Thailand on the east and Adman Seaon the westfour townships & two sub-townshipsLanguages – Dawei DialectPopulation – about 500000Ethnicities – Dawei, Karen, Mon and othersLocal Economy – Fishery , Agriculture and othersAncient Dawei Cities – 4
Overview Project area 250 > 205 square Km Total population 32,274 Households 3977 Villages 19 (industry estate) Infrastructure US $ 8.6 billion Industrial estate US $ 58 billion
Farming > Over 9,000 acres Rubber > Over 9,000 acres Cashew > Over 12,000 acres Plantation > Over 8,000 acres Others > Over 1,000 acres
ITD Co.ltd is the developer of Dawei Deep sea Port which is a giant construction company of Thailand. MOU in 2008 June signed by Italian-Thai and Myanma Port Authority. to build DSP and SEZ in Dawei. On the 2nd of November 2010, the Company signed the Framework Agreement with the MPA and the Ministry of Transport of the Union of Myanmar. http://www.itd.co.th/en/news_02Nove53.php 10 X bigger than Mab Ta Phut in Thailand
Dawei Deep Sea Port and SEZ Project Background Time table Main work Total Investments (million baht)Preparation • MoU with Myanmar Gov. on June 2008 Not yet clear.(2008-2011) • Feasibility study & Conceptual Master Plan • MoA Myanmar Port Authority (MPA), Ministry of Transport with Myanmar Port Authority (MPA), Ministry of Transport on Nov. 2010 - The most maximum land rent 75 years. - MPA has share 20% with no real capital investment. • Promote project to foreigner investors • Road construction to Thai borderPhase 1 Mainly construction on deep sea port, infrastructure and 141,615(2010-2014) associated workPhase 2 Mainly construction on infrastructure and associated work 24,874(2013-2017)Phase 3 Mainly construction on trans-border corridor, deep sea 136,504(2015-2019) port and infrastructure Total investment 302,993 ITD’s share during construction period for 10 years up to 163,000 54% of total investment
Roads Railways Transmission Lines Oil & Gas Pipelines200 m.
350 KM DAWEIPROJECT KANCHANABURI 160 KM BANGYAI 71 KM 110 KM BANGKOK THAILAND
Temporary Small Port Available for use as of June 2011 Road Link To Thailand Access Road 90% complete (as of June 2011) Water Reservoir 400 MW Coal Power Plant Water and Waste Water Treatment Plan
Good location geographically for port development Natural water of East-West corridor of Aisa Strategic location depth Natural shelter is good for anchorage No physical underwater and sub-soil obstructions No laws mandating environmental impact assessments Sufficient flat hinterland for Industrial Sufficient have the freedom of speech or assembly Citizens don’t supply of local constructionmaterials Dawei Development Company Ltd report on June 2011
“Some industries are not suitable to be located in Thailand. This is why they decided to set up there [in Dawei].” According to an article in The International Herald Tribune (―An Industrial Project That Could Change Myanmar, Nov. 26, 2010),
“Thailand needed todiversify its developmentstrategy and stop relyingso much on heavyindustry. I don’t think thepeople want it in theirbackyard.”On the 11th of October2010, the Bangkok Post interview
Cheap Labor “You have to think of Myanmar as Thailand 50“The cheapest in Asia, even less than in years ago. There’s Bangladesh.” nothing in the country but wilderness and cheap labor.”ITD Project Manager Somchet Thinaphong. _Surin Vichian, the ITD project manager in charge of engineering.The Irrawaddy, 8 June 2011, available at The International Herald Tribune, 26 Nov. http://www.irrawaddy.org/art 2010, available at icle.php?art_id=21452. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/27/world/ asia/27iht-myanmar.html.
Livelihoods of local people “There is no other place like our village. we have enough to cook and eat. We cannot access such a place elsewhere.”
Farmers > 59.3% ( 4,038 acres = 16.34 KM ) Plantation > 26.9% ( 9,270 acres = 37.51 KM ) Main plants ►►cashew, areca, rubber Other Plants►►Mango, coconut, tamarind, durian, jack fruits, etc…86% of workforce depends on their land Fishing > 2.4 %
“the developer or investor shall bear the expenses of transferring and paying compensation…... Moreover, he shall carry out to fulfil fundamental needs of persons who transfer so as not to lower their original standard.”
ownership ( dama-ucha ) No information provided Appraised compensation Vs Requested amount Plants Appraised Request ed (B) Requested (S) Cashew 9,000 kyats 100,000 kyats 50,000 kyats Rubber 15,000 kyats 300,000 kyats 100,000kyats Areca 9,000 kyats 100,000 kyats 50,000 kyats Durian 10,000 kyats 150,000 kyats 75,000 kyats One rubber plant earns up to 14,400 kyats per year
No clear information provided Planned relocation area Negotiation process Approach to monk Forced to sign (Min Dat) 123 acres of plantation
Facts about compensation for land and buildings that will be relocated and the loss of long-term plants houses house School Monast Office Clinic Cashew Rubber Areca Tamarin Durian Mango Coconut Jack Others TotalVillage holds ary d Htein 415 405 2 2 4216 1880 12369 493 28 2104 4704 909 1314 28017 GyeeMa Yin 136 135 1 1 2186 57 8798 407 40 972 3836 483 756 17535Gyee Pa Ra 321 314 1 1 1 3293 2779 4298 640 22 1543 3021 849 1389 17834 DatMu Du 343 347 2 1 4971 6415 6820 852 22 1866 1677 822 1054 24499 Le 610 626 1 2 1 2366 5379 6039 563 114 1996 3472 993 1358 22280ShaungNyaung 52 52 1 1 1516 128 163 104 22 46 1979Bin SeikAll Total 1877 1879 8 8 1 1 18548 16510 38324 3083 226 8644 16814 4078 5917 112144
550 Thai workers among 721 labors Myanmar Worker - 5500 Kyats Thai worker – 400 Bhats “ Myanmar have no law to set minimumlabor salary for citizens. We Thai have it.” ITD supervisor
23.6 acre > Kyats (497) lakhs 20,000 acres can be sold for (3,200) Lakhs Acres Time Amount 61775 60 years 30 B kyats 1 60 years 485,633 1 1 Year 8093 1 1 month 675
“I have no idea of how we will survive if our lands were gone. We have been working on these lands for generations. I prayed a big project would not come true. ” A farmer from Nabule
We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors.We borrow it from our children.
Toimprove Social, Economic, and Environmental sectors Implementing and focus in 4 townships DDA Structure › Coordination body (Yangon) › Management Committee & members (Dawei) › Implementing Body (Dawei)
Ministry of Energy (2) announced to the press on 9th January, 2012 that the proposed 4,000 megawatt coal-fired power plant which is part of the Dawei Special Economic Zone (DSEZ) is cancelled. But the feasibility of building 400 megawatt coal-fired plant is being considered for initial stage. Source: Weekly Eleven, Voice
Facts about Rayong• Once known for its agricultural andfishery produces & products, andcoastal tourismGross Provincial Product 1981 (at constant price 1988):million Baht AgricultureTrade and services Industry and mining
• Implementation of EasternSeaboard (ESB) DevelopmentProgram since 1982 aimed atregional development for nationalbenefits• ESB was pushed by severalNational Economic and SocialDevelopment Plans• Mab Ta Phut Industrial Estatescomprise of five major estates;the main industries are oilrefineries, gasseparation, petrochemical, metal, and power plants
The largest industrial estatein Thailand and the fifth largestin the WorldTotal area of the 5 Industrial Estates16,891 rai RIL IE Asia IEHemaraj IE Mab Ta Phut IE Pa Daeng IE44
Map Ta Phut and the nearby area are located with109 large factories and many other facilities, including3 industrial deep seaports, 3 oil refining plants5 upstream petrochemical plants40 intermediate and downstream petrochemical plants29 chemical plants, 1 chemical fertilizer plant10 gas production plants12 iron&steel and other metal plants4 petroleum tank farms, 2 secure landfills3 coal power plants, several gas power plants.
The worst foul smell incident occurred in 1997 whichcaused hundreds of students and teachers from the MapTa Phut Phanpittayakarn Secondary School fallen sickand brought to the hospital nearby. At present the Schoolwas moved to the new place which was five km. awayfrom the MTP IE.Photo by Bangkok Post
EmissionsStandards were set for 9 VOCs in 2008but up to present3 VOCs still highly exceed the standards Explosions Leakage
The law enforces EIA of each project But no cumulative impact analysis Decision of the National Environment Board in 1998 on „Carrying Capacity‟ The Study on the Carrying Capacity of So2, NOx, PM10 of the Mab Ta Phut area If the carrying capacity is full, no more EIA will be approved until the problems are solved.
Politics of Pollution The study actually started in 2001 Not finalize yet (even until the present! 2011) And the National Environment Board made decision in Jan. 2007 to extend the study for one more year! Many EIAs (around 100 projects) have been approved during the study period.
Contamination of heavy metals in well waterand VOCs in ground water
Empirical evidence: sea water contaminatedwith mercury and heavy metals
After reparation Severe coastal erosion caused by land reclamation and deep seaport of the MTP IE, Rayong provincePhoto by CAIN, 2002
How many years to identify as pollution? How many years to accept as problem? How many years to enforce and control? How many years to finally solve the problem?
But wait!! Are Rayong people richer or happier??
Indicators Rayon Nakho Country g n Average Patho mGPP per capita in 2004 691,0 121,38 101,304 Baht/head/year 93 1Income per household 21,08 20,478 14,778 Baht/month 3Proportion of people with 5.60 2.36 11.25poverty per centUnemployment rate per cent 1.8 0.5 1.3Rate of new HIV/AIDS patients 15.8 0.6 3.3 per 100,000 peopleRate of households affected by 8.2 4.2 4.7
Out-patients Respiratory diseases 1984-2004 700 people per 1,000!!Per one thousand people Rayong National Central Region 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Year Year
All sites Cancer and Leukemia incidence rates in Muang District, where Mab Ta Phut is, are the highest compared to other districts and are 3 times and 5 times higher than the districts with lowest rates respectively. All sites cancer 3 times higher!! District Muang Klang Ban Khai Pluakdaeng BanChang Wangchan Khao Chamao Nikompattana
Leukemia 5 times higher!! District Muang Klang Ban Khai Pluakdaeng BanChang Wangchan Khao Chamao NikompattanaSource: Thailand Cancer Epidemiological Study, 1997-2001, National Cancer Institute
The Unbalanced Growth: One-Legged Economy Gross Provincial Product 2006 (at constant price 1988):Gross Provincial Product 1981 (at constant price million Baht1988):million Baht Agriculture Trade and services AgricultureTrade and services Industry and mining Industry and mining 1981 2006
Import content Oil Refinery industry Chemical industry Electronic industry Steel industry Plastic industry Wood and furnitureindustry Rubber industry
Employment proportion perหนึmillion Baht investment in Rayong อัตราการจ้างงานต่อเงินลงทุน 1 งล้านบาทในจังหวัดระยอง ่ เครืGarment องแต่งกาย ่ เฟอร์นิ เจอร์และเครืองเรือน ่ Furniture Beverage เครืองดื่ม ่ Food อาหาร Leather เครืองหนั ง ่ Printing สิ่งพิมพ์ Woods and woodenอุตสาหกรรมไม้และผลิตภัณฑ์ products อุตสาหกรรมเกษตร Agricultural industry ยาง Rubber Plastic In petrochemical industry พลาสติก Electricity ไฟฟ้า every 67 million Baht, Metal products ผลิตภัณฑ์โลหะ Textile 1 person will be employed. สิ่งทอ Machinery เครืองจักรกล ่ Transportation In leather industry, every 67 ขนส่ ง Pulp and paper million Baht, 134 persons กระดาษและผลิตภัณฑ์ Non-metals อโลหะ Others will be employed. อืนๆ ่ Metals โลหะ Chemicals Petrochemicals เคมี ปิโตรเคมีและผลิตภัณฑ์ 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0
Increase productivity and sustainable agricultural developmentAgro-industry, not petroleum and petrochemical
What can be happened to Dawei if...we have the biggest petrochemicalindustrial complex
Information on impacts in this presentation is not final figures of Dawei Development Projects, but calculate based on information from literature review and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports of the same kind of project in Mab Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand. So the information in these slides
CO2 emission around 30 million tons CO2/year SO2 emission around 118,000 tons/year NOx emission around 119,000 tons/year TSP emission around 10,300 tons/year Release of Mercury toReference : own calculation
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933, Impacts to trees from ground-level Ozone : Natural Environmental Research Concil, NewcastleUniversity http://www.ncl.ac.uk/gane/page8.htm
Burn coal about 11.4 million tons/year Transport by very large ship 10-16 ships/month Fly ash around 1,150,000Reference : calculation based on E/HIA Gheco-One project in Mab Ta Phut, Thailand
Use sea water 20.6 million cubic meter/day (6,700 million cubic meter/year) And continuously discharge thecalculation basedamount to in Mab Ta Phut, ThailandReference : same on E/HIA Gheco-One project
Amount of Organic Chemical Used by Petrochemical Industries Organic Chemicals Amount (Tons/year) Ethylene 1,386,000 Propylene 617,000 Vinyl Chloride (VCM) 610,000 Styrene 450,000 Xylenes 366,000 Benzene 300,000 Ethylene Dichloride (EDC)* 250,000 Butadiene 140,000 MTBE 55,000 Toluene 52,000 Butene-1 35,000 Hexane 2,000,000 ( / )Ref.: Mab Ta Phut industrial group, SustainableDevelopment Report 2003-2004
VOCs Carcino Other health impacts gen*Benzene Group Impact on hemogobin, central nervous systemVinylethylene Group Impact on nervous system 2A , stomach , more risk for LeukemiaEthylene Group More risk on cancerDichloride 2B1,1 – Group Impact on lever, kidney, Dichloroethy and fetus*IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer leneGroup Carcinogenic to humansGroup A Probably carcinogenic to humansGroup 2B Group Impact on lever, nervous (Possibly carcinogenic to humans) system
Evidence from some examplesPotential impacts – the Produce Produc VOCs = 246.75 kg/year Air pollution (Vent gas) = 268 tons/year Water use 34.6 million m3/y Hazardous Wastewater waste m3/year 300 tons/year
Evidence from some examplesPotential impacts - Ethylbenzene Styrene Monomer Project 30 VOCs = tons/y SO2 = 400 tons/y NOx = 192 tons/y TSP = 77 tons/y Wastewater ,700 m3/y Hazardous Water use waste 9 000 m3/y213 tons/year
• Important source of pollution • But not open information on the substances sending to Flare • Also, no law to control and reduce as well as no monitoring system on Flare http://airfresh- society.blogspot.com/2010_02_01_arhttp://www.oknation.net/blog/payont/2009/12/13
Chemical accidents and disasters • Statistic of chemical accidents in Rayong between 1999-2008 • More information shows that during Jan. –
Potential impacts Unit Coefficient1) Air pollution - SO2 ton/Km2/day 6.25 - NO2 ton/Km2/day 5 - PM ton/Km2/day 1.252) Carbondioxide ton CO2 6.25absorption /Km2/yr3) Oxygen emission ton O2 4.37 /Km2/yr4) Waste - Municipal solid waste ton/Km2/day 1.43 - Industrial waste ton/Km2/day 10.69 - Hazardous waste ton/Km2/day 0.645) Water consumption m3/Km2/day 30,0006) Wastewater discharge m3/Km2/day 7,5007) BOD loading kg/Km2/day 41.25 Source: Healthy Public Policy Foundation, 2011
These are what can be happened ifyoulive nearby 194 km2 –Industrial zone Zone Area(km2)1) Port & heavy industry 202) Petrochemical complex 103) Upstream petrochemical 34complex4) Downstream petrochemical 31.1complex5) Medium industry 59.86) Light industry 38.8 * excluding township area 20 km2 Total 193.7* Source: ITD
6000 acres of mangrove only in deep sea port area, no concern raised for this
Deforestation – a lost trees are being cut just for access roads No study on cumulative impact of industries
Food from marine, mangrove and forest will be lost Developers don‟t consider for local people‟s livelihood in reality Unsuitable job opportunity for local people No chance for local business even for sellers
No exact information about project No clear information about compensation Not clear for relocation Unfair communication between villagers and authority (investor) No transparency (pre project study, EIA, SIA and HIA reports) People are living under rumors and anxiety