Project in Chemistry
SY: 2012-2013
Submitted by: Axl Merk Mindajao
Mary Rose Baccay
III-OBB
Submitted to: Mrs. Panlasiqui
Recall
1. If the pressure exerted on a gas is
tripled, what will happen to the volume
(assuming the temperature and amount...
2. Carbon dioxide occupies a 2.54 L
container at STP. What will be the
volume when the pressure is 150
KPa and 26 C?
A. 1....
3. In which of the following sets of conditions
would a gas most act as a real gas?
A. high temperature and low pressure
B...
4. Which of the following terms is
used to describe the average kinetic
energy of the molecules in a
sample?
A. manometer ...
5. Which of the following is not a
standard pressure
measurement?
A. 101.3 kPa C. 760 mm Hg
B. 1 atm D. 273 K
6. The volume of a gas is increased
from 150.0 mL to 350.0 mL by
heating it. If the original
temperature of the gas was 25...
7. What is the name of the phase
change that exists when a solid
turns into a liquid?
A. depositon C. sublimation
B. melti...
8. A balloon is inflated to a volume of
130 ml at a pressure of 690 mmHg. If
the pressure is increased to 1000
mmHg, what ...
9. What type of relationship is shown
between temperature and
pressure?
A. direct C. exponential
B. inverse D. logarithmic
10. How many mm Hg is equal to 121
kPa?
A. 1.19 C. 636
B. 16.1 D. 908
Answers
1.d 6. c
2.a 7. b
3.c 8. c
4.b 9. a
5.d 10. d
Title
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
Objectives
To demonstrate the ability to use
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure in
calculations.
To calculate the total pres...
Unlocking of Words
• Pressure- the force exerted by gas
particles that hit the walls of a container;
a force applied per u...
Lesson
• The English chemist John Dalton
investigated pressures in mixture of
gases. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
stat...
• In equation form, PT=P1+P2+....
where
PT= total pressure
P1= partial pressure of gas 1
P2= partial pressure of gas 2
Activity
Problem 1: Oxygen gas occupies
500 ml at 20°C and 760 mmHg.
What volume will it occupy if it
is collected over wa...
• Solution: Step 1
Given: P1= 760 mmHg
V1= 500 ml
T1= 20°+273 = 293 K
P2 = 750 mmHg-31.8 mmHg
= 718.2 mmHg
T2 = 30°C+273 =...
Step 2: The combined gas formula
P1V1= P2V2 V2= P1 T2
T1 T2 P2 T1
Step 3:
V2= 500 ml 760 mmHg 303 K
718.2 mmHg 93 K
V2= 54...
Problem 2: Calculate the mass of 400.
mL of carbon dioxide collected over
water at 30° C and 749 mm Hg.
Solution:
PT = Pga...
T = 30° C + 273 = 303 K
PV = nRT
n = PV/RT
n = 717 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 400.0 mL x
1L/10 ³mL/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 303 K)
n...
Exercise
1. Determine the total pressure of a
gas mixture that contains oxygen,
nitrogen, and helium if the partial
pressu...
2. A 10 L flask at 298 K contains a
gaseous mixture of CO and CO2 at a
total pressure of 1520 mm of Hg. If
0.20 mole of CO...
• Solution:
1. Ptotal = PO2 + PN2 + PHe
Ptotal = 20.2 + 46.7 + 26.7
Ptotal = 93.6 kPa
2. PCO + PCO2 = P = 1520 mm of Hg
= 0.49 atm.
Partial pressure of CO2,
pCO2= P - (pCO)
= 2.0 - 0.49
= 1147.6 mm of Hg
Title
Avogadro’s Law
Objectives
• Determine how the amount of gas in
a fixed volume at a fixed pressure
and temperature depends upon the
identi...
Unlocking of Words
• Moles- another name for grams.
• Temperature- a measure of the
average kinetic energy of the
particle...
Lesson
• Amedeo Avogadro stated that
the volume of a gas is directly
related to its number of moles
when temperature and p...
• If the moles of a gas are doubled,
then the volume will double as long
as the pressure and temperature
remain the same.
...
Activity
Problem 1: A balloon containing 2
moles of helium has a volume of
880 ml. What is the new volume
after 4 more mol...
Solution: Step 1
Initial condition Final condition
V1= 880 ml V2=?
n1= 2 moles n2= 6 moles
Step 2
V2= 880 ml x 6 moles =26...
Problem 2:
What volume of O2 measured at 1.86
x 106 Pa and 375 K, is needed to
react completely with 1.78 L of H2,
measure...
Solution:
2H₂ O₂ → 2H₂O
The volume of O₂ needed is
1.78 L H₂ (1L O₂ · 2L H₂)
= 0.890 L O₂
Exercise
1. How many molecules of O2 are
present in 1.00L of O2 at STP?
2. Calculate the number of moles of
ammonia gas, N...
Solution:
1. ___1L STP____ = 0.0446 mol O2
22.4 L mol⁻ⁱ STP
(6.02 × 1023 molecules mol-
1)(0.0446 mol)
= 2.69 × 1022molecu...
2.
V= number of moles × 22.414 L/mol
no. of moles= volume of gas
22.414
= 80__
22.414
= 3.569 L
Title
Molar Volume
Objectives
• To experimentally determine the
volume of one mole of a gas at
standard temperature and pressure.
• To experi...
Unlocking of Words
• Molar mass- the mass of one mole
of an element or compound equal to
the atomic or formula weight.
• M...
Lesson
• At STP conditions (1atm and 273K),
one mole of a gas occupies 22.4
liters.
• Molar volume is an extension of
Avog...
Activity
Problem 1: What is the volume of 56 g
N₂ gas at STP?
Solution:
V= 56g N₂ x 1 mole N2 x 22.4 L N₂
28 g N₂ 1 mole N...
Problem 2:
How many liters of 0.250 moles of HCl
will occupy at STP?
Solution:
(x/0.250 mol)=(22.414L/1 mol)
0.250 mol x 2...
Exercise
1. Find out the volume contained by
6.8 g of ammonia at STP?
2. A balloon contains 0.5 moles of pure
helium gas a...
Solution:
1. Gram molecular mass of NH₃=17 g
Molar volume= 22.4 liters
17g : 22.4 L
6.8 g : x
x= (6.8 X 22.4)/17
x= 8.96 L...
2. Extract the data from the question:
n(He) = 0.5 mol
Vm = 22.71 L mol-1 (at STP 1 mole
of gas occupies 22.71 L)
V(He) = ...
Title
Ideal Gas Law
Objectives
• Demonstrate the ability to use the
ideal gas content to a basic
calculation and those that involve
density an...
Unlocking of Words
• Ideal gas- an imaginary gas whose
behavior is described by the gas
laws.
• Ideal gas law- a law that ...
Lesson
• When the temperature, pressure and
volume of a gas areknown, ideal gas
equation can be use.
• The ideal gas equat...
• Volume and pressure are inversely
related.
P= pressure in atom
V= volume in liter
n= no. of moles of gas
T= kelvin tempe...
Activity
Problem 1: How many molecules are
there in 985 mL of nitrogen at 0.0° C
and 1.00 x 10-6 mmHg?
Solution:
P = 1.00 ...
PV = nRT
n = PV/RT
n = 1.00 x 10-6 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x
985 mL x 1 L/103 mL/ (0.0821
L·atm/mol·K x 273 K)
= 5.78 x 10-11 mo...
Problem 2: Calculate the mass of
15.0 L of NH3 at 27° C and 900. mm
Hg.
Solution:
P = 900. mm Hg
T = 27° C + 273 = 300 K
V...
PV = nRT
n = PV/RT
n = 900. mm x 1 atm/760 mm x
15.0 L/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 300 K)
n = 0.721 moles NH3 x 17.04 g NH3/
1 m...
Assessment
I. Choose the best answer
1. At the water’s surface, the
pressure on your body due to
the mass of air around yo...
2. If the volume of mole of gas
molecules remains constant,
lowering the temperature will
make the pressure
a. increase
b....
3. If the volume available to the
gas is increased, the pressure
exerted by one mole of gas
molecules will
a. increase
b. ...
4. How many moles of O₂ are
present in 44.8 L of O₂ at STP?
a. 1.2 moles
b. 1.4 moles
c. 2.0 moles
d. 2.8 moles
5. What pressure must be applied
to 225 ml of gas at 1 atm to
reduce its volume to 100 ml?
a. 0.44 atm
b. 2.25 atm
c. 2250...
Answer
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. d
5. c
II. Problem solving
6. Calculate the density in g/L of
478 mL of krypton at 47° C and
671 mm Hg.
7. Calculate the mass of ...
8. Find out the volume contained by
6.8 g of ammonia at STP. (N=14,
H=1)
9. What volume of hydrogen will
react with 22.4 l...
Solution
⑥
P = 671 mm Hg
T = 47° C + 273 = 320. K
V = 478 mL
R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
PV = nRT
n = m/MM
D = m/V = P x MM/R x T
D = 671 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x
83.80 g/mol/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
x 320. K)
= 2.82 g/L
⑦
PT = Pgas + Pwater = 749 mm Hg
R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
Pgas = 749 mm Hg – 31.8 mm Hg
= 717 mm Hg
V = 400.0 L
T = 30.° C +...
n = PV/RT
n = 717 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x
400.0 mL x 1 L/10³ mL/(0.0821
L·atm/mol·K x 303 K)
n = 0.0152 mol CO2
n = 0.0152 mol...
⑧
Gram molecular mass of NH3 = [N =
1 x 14)] + [H = (3 + 1)] = 14 + 3
= 17 g
Molar volume = 22.4 liters
Volume of 6.8 g of...
The ratio between mass and volume
is as follows:
17 g : 22.4 liters
6.8 g : x
x = (6.8 x 22.4) / 17
= 8.96 Liters
⑨
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l)
From the equation, 2 volumes of
hydrogen react with 1 of oxygen or
2 × 22.4 liters of hydrog...
⑩
P = 200 kPa n = 0.250 mol
T = 300K R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
Volume(V) = nRT / P
= (0.250 x 8.314 x 300) / 200
= 623.55 / 20...
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Law of Gases

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Dalton's Law, Avogadro's Law, Molar Volume, and Ideal Gas Law

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Law of Gases

  1. 1. Project in Chemistry SY: 2012-2013 Submitted by: Axl Merk Mindajao Mary Rose Baccay III-OBB Submitted to: Mrs. Panlasiqui
  2. 2. Recall 1. If the pressure exerted on a gas is tripled, what will happen to the volume (assuming the temperature and amount of gas remains constant)? A. x2 C. x 1/2 B. X3 D. x 1/3
  3. 3. 2. Carbon dioxide occupies a 2.54 L container at STP. What will be the volume when the pressure is 150 KPa and 26 C? A. 1.89 L C. 0.163 L B. 42300 L D. 14.1 L
  4. 4. 3. In which of the following sets of conditions would a gas most act as a real gas? A. high temperature and low pressure B. high temperature and high pressure C. low temperature and high pressure D. low temperature and low pressure
  5. 5. 4. Which of the following terms is used to describe the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample? A. manometer C. pressure B. temperature D. volume
  6. 6. 5. Which of the following is not a standard pressure measurement? A. 101.3 kPa C. 760 mm Hg B. 1 atm D. 273 K
  7. 7. 6. The volume of a gas is increased from 150.0 mL to 350.0 mL by heating it. If the original temperature of the gas was 25.0 °C, what is the final temperature? A. -146 °C C. 695 °C B. 10.7 °C D. 150 °C
  8. 8. 7. What is the name of the phase change that exists when a solid turns into a liquid? A. depositon C. sublimation B. melting D. freezing
  9. 9. 8. A balloon is inflated to a volume of 130 ml at a pressure of 690 mmHg. If the pressure is increased to 1000 mmHg, what will the new volume be? A. 188 ml C. 89.7 ml B. 98.8 ml D. 40300 ml
  10. 10. 9. What type of relationship is shown between temperature and pressure? A. direct C. exponential B. inverse D. logarithmic
  11. 11. 10. How many mm Hg is equal to 121 kPa? A. 1.19 C. 636 B. 16.1 D. 908
  12. 12. Answers 1.d 6. c 2.a 7. b 3.c 8. c 4.b 9. a 5.d 10. d
  13. 13. Title Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  14. 14. Objectives To demonstrate the ability to use Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure in calculations. To calculate the total pressure of a mixture of gases or the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases. To employ Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure to predict the pressure of a gas mixture.
  15. 15. Unlocking of Words • Pressure- the force exerted by gas particles that hit the walls of a container; a force applied per unit area. • Partial pressure- the individual pressure of each gas in a mixture. • Water vapor- gaseous water found in the air that is below the boiling point of water.
  16. 16. Lesson • The English chemist John Dalton investigated pressures in mixture of gases. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure states that: “At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure in a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.”
  17. 17. • In equation form, PT=P1+P2+.... where PT= total pressure P1= partial pressure of gas 1 P2= partial pressure of gas 2
  18. 18. Activity Problem 1: Oxygen gas occupies 500 ml at 20°C and 760 mmHg. What volume will it occupy if it is collected over water at 30°C and 750 mmHg? (Water vapor pressure at 30°C 31.8 mmHg)
  19. 19. • Solution: Step 1 Given: P1= 760 mmHg V1= 500 ml T1= 20°+273 = 293 K P2 = 750 mmHg-31.8 mmHg = 718.2 mmHg T2 = 30°C+273 = 303 K
  20. 20. Step 2: The combined gas formula P1V1= P2V2 V2= P1 T2 T1 T2 P2 T1 Step 3: V2= 500 ml 760 mmHg 303 K 718.2 mmHg 93 K V2= 547 ml
  21. 21. Problem 2: Calculate the mass of 400. mL of carbon dioxide collected over water at 30° C and 749 mm Hg. Solution: PT = Pgas + Pwater= 749 mmHg R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K Pgas = 749 mmHg–31.8 mmHg = 717 mmHg V = 400.0 L
  22. 22. T = 30° C + 273 = 303 K PV = nRT n = PV/RT n = 717 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 400.0 mL x 1L/10 ³mL/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 303 K) n = 0.0152 mol CO2 n = 0.0152 mol CO2 x 44.01 g CO2/1 mol CO2 = 0.669 g CO2
  23. 23. Exercise 1. Determine the total pressure of a gas mixture that contains oxygen, nitrogen, and helium if the partial pressures of the gases are: PO2 = 20.2 kPa PN2 = 46.7 kPa PHe = 26.7 kPa
  24. 24. 2. A 10 L flask at 298 K contains a gaseous mixture of CO and CO2 at a total pressure of 1520 mm of Hg. If 0.20 mole of CO is present, find the partial pressure of CO and that of CO2?
  25. 25. • Solution: 1. Ptotal = PO2 + PN2 + PHe Ptotal = 20.2 + 46.7 + 26.7 Ptotal = 93.6 kPa 2. PCO + PCO2 = P = 1520 mm of Hg
  26. 26. = 0.49 atm. Partial pressure of CO2, pCO2= P - (pCO) = 2.0 - 0.49 = 1147.6 mm of Hg
  27. 27. Title Avogadro’s Law
  28. 28. Objectives • Determine how the amount of gas in a fixed volume at a fixed pressure and temperature depends upon the identity of the gas. • To do calculations involving Avogadro’s Law.
  29. 29. Unlocking of Words • Moles- another name for grams. • Temperature- a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance. • Volume- the amount of space occupied by something or within a container.
  30. 30. Lesson • Amedeo Avogadro stated that the volume of a gas is directly related to its number of moles when temperature and pressure remain unchanged.
  31. 31. • If the moles of a gas are doubled, then the volume will double as long as the pressure and temperature remain the same. • To illustrate these two conditions, you may write: V1=V2 n1 n2
  32. 32. Activity Problem 1: A balloon containing 2 moles of helium has a volume of 880 ml. What is the new volume after 4 more moles of helium are added to the balloon at the same temperature and pressure?
  33. 33. Solution: Step 1 Initial condition Final condition V1= 880 ml V2=? n1= 2 moles n2= 6 moles Step 2 V2= 880 ml x 6 moles =2640 ml 2 moles
  34. 34. Problem 2: What volume of O2 measured at 1.86 x 106 Pa and 375 K, is needed to react completely with 1.78 L of H2, measured at the same pressure and temperature, to give H2O?
  35. 35. Solution: 2H₂ O₂ → 2H₂O The volume of O₂ needed is 1.78 L H₂ (1L O₂ · 2L H₂) = 0.890 L O₂
  36. 36. Exercise 1. How many molecules of O2 are present in 1.00L of O2 at STP? 2. Calculate the number of moles of ammonia gas, NH3, in a volume of 80 L of the gas measured at STP.
  37. 37. Solution: 1. ___1L STP____ = 0.0446 mol O2 22.4 L mol⁻ⁱ STP (6.02 × 1023 molecules mol- 1)(0.0446 mol) = 2.69 × 1022molecules
  38. 38. 2. V= number of moles × 22.414 L/mol no. of moles= volume of gas 22.414 = 80__ 22.414 = 3.569 L
  39. 39. Title Molar Volume
  40. 40. Objectives • To experimentally determine the volume of one mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure. • To experimentally determine the value of the gas constant, R. • To calculate the standard molar volume of a gas from accumulated data.
  41. 41. Unlocking of Words • Molar mass- the mass of one mole of an element or compound equal to the atomic or formula weight. • Molar volume- the volume in liters of one mole of a gas at STP. • STP- the standard gas conditions of 1 atm of pressure and 273 K.
  42. 42. Lesson • At STP conditions (1atm and 273K), one mole of a gas occupies 22.4 liters. • Molar volume is an extension of Avogadro’s Law, w/c state that,”At any given temp. and pressure equal volume of any gases would contain equal no. of moles.”
  43. 43. Activity Problem 1: What is the volume of 56 g N₂ gas at STP? Solution: V= 56g N₂ x 1 mole N2 x 22.4 L N₂ 28 g N₂ 1 mole N₂ =44.8 L N₂
  44. 44. Problem 2: How many liters of 0.250 moles of HCl will occupy at STP? Solution: (x/0.250 mol)=(22.414L/1 mol) 0.250 mol x 22.414 L mol X= 5.60 L
  45. 45. Exercise 1. Find out the volume contained by 6.8 g of ammonia at STP? 2. A balloon contains 0.5 moles of pure helium gas at standard temperature and pressure. What is the volume of the balloon?
  46. 46. Solution: 1. Gram molecular mass of NH₃=17 g Molar volume= 22.4 liters 17g : 22.4 L 6.8 g : x x= (6.8 X 22.4)/17 x= 8.96 Liters
  47. 47. 2. Extract the data from the question: n(He) = 0.5 mol Vm = 22.71 L mol-1 (at STP 1 mole of gas occupies 22.71 L) V(He) = ? L Write the equation: V(He) = n(He) x Vm Substitute in the values and solve: V(He) = 0.5 x 22.71 = 11.4 L
  48. 48. Title Ideal Gas Law
  49. 49. Objectives • Demonstrate the ability to use the ideal gas content to a basic calculation and those that involve density and molecular mass. • Calculate the amount of gas at any specified conditions of pressure, volume and temperature.
  50. 50. Unlocking of Words • Ideal gas- an imaginary gas whose behavior is described by the gas laws. • Ideal gas law- a law that combines the 4 meausrable properties of a gas in the equation PV= nRT
  51. 51. Lesson • When the temperature, pressure and volume of a gas areknown, ideal gas equation can be use. • The ideal gas equation, PV=nRT, illustrates a direct relationships between volume, temperature and the no. of moles of a gas.
  52. 52. • Volume and pressure are inversely related. P= pressure in atom V= volume in liter n= no. of moles of gas T= kelvin temperature R= 0.082 L atm/Kmol
  53. 53. Activity Problem 1: How many molecules are there in 985 mL of nitrogen at 0.0° C and 1.00 x 10-6 mmHg? Solution: P = 1.00 x 10-6 mmHg T = 0.0° C + 273 = 273 K V = 985 mL R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
  54. 54. PV = nRT n = PV/RT n = 1.00 x 10-6 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 985 mL x 1 L/103 mL/ (0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 273 K) = 5.78 x 10-11 moles N₂ n= 5.78 x 10-11 moles N₂ x 6.02 x 1023 N₂ molecules/1 mol N₂ = 3.48 x 1013 N₂ molecules
  55. 55. Problem 2: Calculate the mass of 15.0 L of NH3 at 27° C and 900. mm Hg. Solution: P = 900. mm Hg T = 27° C + 273 = 300 K V = 15.0 L R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
  56. 56. PV = nRT n = PV/RT n = 900. mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 15.0 L/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 300 K) n = 0.721 moles NH3 x 17.04 g NH3/ 1 mol NH3 = 12.3 g NH3
  57. 57. Assessment I. Choose the best answer 1. At the water’s surface, the pressure on your body due to the mass of air around you is about a. 760 KPa c. 100 mm b. 101.3 KPa d. 760 mm
  58. 58. 2. If the volume of mole of gas molecules remains constant, lowering the temperature will make the pressure a. increase b. increase then decrease c. decrease d. decrease then increase
  59. 59. 3. If the volume available to the gas is increased, the pressure exerted by one mole of gas molecules will a. increase b. increase then decrease c. decrease d. decrease then increase
  60. 60. 4. How many moles of O₂ are present in 44.8 L of O₂ at STP? a. 1.2 moles b. 1.4 moles c. 2.0 moles d. 2.8 moles
  61. 61. 5. What pressure must be applied to 225 ml of gas at 1 atm to reduce its volume to 100 ml? a. 0.44 atm b. 2.25 atm c. 22500 atm d. 1250 atm
  62. 62. Answer 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. d 5. c
  63. 63. II. Problem solving 6. Calculate the density in g/L of 478 mL of krypton at 47° C and 671 mm Hg. 7. Calculate the mass of 400. mL of carbon dioxide collected over water at 30.° C and 749 mm Hg.
  64. 64. 8. Find out the volume contained by 6.8 g of ammonia at STP. (N=14, H=1) 9. What volume of hydrogen will react with 22.4 liters of oxygen to form water? 10. Find the volume from the 0.250 moles gas at 200kpa and 300K temperature.
  65. 65. Solution ⑥ P = 671 mm Hg T = 47° C + 273 = 320. K V = 478 mL R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K
  66. 66. PV = nRT n = m/MM D = m/V = P x MM/R x T D = 671 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 83.80 g/mol/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 320. K) = 2.82 g/L
  67. 67. ⑦ PT = Pgas + Pwater = 749 mm Hg R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K Pgas = 749 mm Hg – 31.8 mm Hg = 717 mm Hg V = 400.0 L T = 30.° C + 273 = 303 K
  68. 68. n = PV/RT n = 717 mm x 1 atm/760 mm x 400.0 mL x 1 L/10³ mL/(0.0821 L·atm/mol·K x 303 K) n = 0.0152 mol CO2 n = 0.0152 mol CO2 x 44.01 g CO2/ 1 mol CO2 = 0.669 g CO2
  69. 69. ⑧ Gram molecular mass of NH3 = [N = 1 x 14)] + [H = (3 + 1)] = 14 + 3 = 17 g Molar volume = 22.4 liters Volume of 6.8 g of ammonia at STP = ?
  70. 70. The ratio between mass and volume is as follows: 17 g : 22.4 liters 6.8 g : x x = (6.8 x 22.4) / 17 = 8.96 Liters
  71. 71. ⑨ 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l) From the equation, 2 volumes of hydrogen react with 1 of oxygen or 2 × 22.4 liters of hydrogen react with 22.4 liters of oxygen. The volume of hydrogen that will react is 44.8 liters.
  72. 72. ⑩ P = 200 kPa n = 0.250 mol T = 300K R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1 Volume(V) = nRT / P = (0.250 x 8.314 x 300) / 200 = 623.55 / 200 V = 3.12 L
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