BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY2020: The future brewery –Part 1IDEAS FOR THE FUTURE | They don’t often bui...
TECHNOLOGY | KNOWLEDGE | BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL   Also in 2006, Paul Buttick, UK, outlined      all beers are being filled...
BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY■ routine change of adjunct source: Prices   for barley, malt and adjunct f...
TECHNOLOGY | KNOWLEDGE | BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL    ity impacts like reduced head retention,                     Fig. 4    ...
BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY    The yeast growth rate should not exceed       fermentation / maturation...
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The Future Brewery Part 1 Brauwelt Int. 2 2011


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The Future Brewery Part 1 Brauwelt Int. 2 2011

  1. 1. BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY2020: The future brewery –Part 1IDEAS FOR THE FUTURE | They don’t often build large scale lThe story so far Several papers have since 2005 covered themodern breweries in Western Europe anymore. Nevertheless, the evolution of modern brewing from a tech-authors of this article, both teaching at The Scandinavian School nological perspective: In 2005, on the oc- casion of opening the Ziemann Academy,of Brewing in Copenhagen, submitted this two-part article in col- Prof. emeritus Dr. Ludwig Narziss, Germany,laboration with their Diploma Master Brewer Class 2010/2011. gave an outline of technological brewing advances since 1938, when the norm wasIn this series they present their idea of how the next generation of 4 brews in 24 hours, each max 6 t gristsbreweries larger than 200 000 hl/month could look like. The first [1]. Since 1958 malt was conditioned with steam, and the following 40 years the lau-part introduces the subject, reviews the developments in brewing tertun was improved to more than 12 brewsover the last 70 years and describes the core issues for the future in 24 hours (fig. 1), competing since the 1990s with modern mash filters, which of-brewing industry, focusing on raw materials, brewhouse, yeast and fered more than 12 brews in 24 hours.fermentation. The second part will cover the issues stabilisation, A trailblazing work on the real function and design of the whirlpool was publishedfiltration, energy and environmental aspects, waste water, storage by Prof. Viktor Denk in 1992, and advancesand packaging. with reduced evaporation rates through the 1990s gradually improved the brewhouse, while warm fermentation and cold storageTHE BASIC MANUFACTURING PRO- their own power plants, water plants, glass reduced cellar processes from 4 to 2 weeks.CESS for international lager beers will not working and can making facilities, malt- In 2006 Lionel Maule, South Africa, gavechange much, but brewers will continue to houses and railways. a Horace Brown Lecture outlining signifi-take steps to shorten processes and reduce This article series focuses on brew- cant raw materials advances [2], includ-losses and energy consumption – and there- ers producing international lagers at ing understanding the malt germinationby cut costs. It is already technically possible 200 000 – 500 000 hl/month. These brew- process and the development of new bar-to make the shift from classical batch pro- ers will be equipped with beer- and yeast ley- and hops varieties. He ended by outlin-cesses to continuous brewing and beer pro- recovery systems, have a complete range ing the modern world class manufacturingcessing, but there is little evidence that the of small packaging lines and all utility sup- while taking performance managementleading brewers and equipment suppliers plies. systems into account.feel prepared for this step, even though thistechnology may be economically attractiveand take up less space. Small brewers and micro-brewers oftenproduce niche products at relatively highsales value, and they may require specialequipment for brewing, but at the sametime not a fully developed beer recovery andutilities function. Large brewers producingmore than 1 mio hl/month may operateAuthors: Axel G. Kristiansen, Director ofScandinavian School of Brewing (SSB),Kim L. Johansen,Training Manager of SSBand the Diploma Master Brewer Class at SSB Fig. 12010/2011, Copenhagen, Denmark Classic copper lauter tun88 BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | 2011/II
  2. 2. TECHNOLOGY | KNOWLEDGE | BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL Also in 2006, Paul Buttick, UK, outlined all beers are being filled into large PET bot-the choices for investment in a modern tles. The Martens brewery, so far, appearsbrewhouse [3], with three milling systems not ready to brew the normal full range of(six roller mills, a hammer mill and wet con- beer styles. Larry Nelson, UK, has prepared aditioning), two distinctly different lautering short outline of this new brewery [7].systems (mash filter and lautertun) and ei- Following this review of 70 years ofther internal or external wort boiling. Butt- brewing development, let us now look to theick deals with energy conservation by va- future in a logical order, following the pro-pour condensation and wort stripping, and cess flow through the brewery.also compares the energy costs of evaporat-ing 5 percent and 10 percent of the boiled lRaw materialswort. Barley, malt and other adjuncts While most papers discussing modern In 1980 it was still considered normal thatbrewing advances focus on brewhouse ad- a farmer harvested 4 t malting grade barleyvances, advances simultaneously evolved per all areas of the brewery, as described by This figure has improved quietly, throughAxel Kristiansen [9], for example: kiesel- remarkable barley breeding programmes,guhr filters have become common since to now 7 t/ha. The breeding programmesthe 1940s, and since the 1950s, warm fer- in the barley growing countries France,mentation using the understanding of the England or Denmark – to mention but acreation and removal of diacetyl have been few – will continue, and, according to thethe norm. Since the 1960s chemical stabili- forecasts, 8.5 t/ha will become achievablesation with PVPP and silicagel has become for two-row spring barley varieties by 2020.standard. At the same time copper was re- Six-row barley varieties will still be grown,placed by stainless steel in most brewhouses as will winter barley varieties, both driven(costs!), and large cylindroconical tanks by farmers pushing for high yielding feed(CCTs) gradually have been implemented barley, which still accounts for some 90 per-in most breweries since the 1970s – some cent of the global barley production.might say this happened surprisingly slow, Brewing with 100 percent barley maltconsidering that much capital can be saved will continue in Europe, North America,on tank installations [4, 5]. Australia and the former Soviet Countries, Even fewer papers focus on packaging in particular for premium, global brands. Inline advances – packaging as a discipline Africa, parts of South America, Asia, Chinacontinues not to attract many brewers’ at- and India it will become attractive to looktention, although some 60 percent of a for other extract yielders, barley being lessbrewery’s operational expenses fall upon available and other types of adjuncts be-packaging operations. Two of several land- coming developed to quality and economi-marks in packaging disserve special atten- cal status, i.e. sorghum, cassava, millet andtion [9]: The introduction of a reliable Emp- various glucose syrups.ty Bottle Inspector (EBI) since the 1970s Three other options will have to be ex-and the introduction of PET bottles with gas plored:barriers in 2000. ■ malt partly replaced by unmalted barley: Since the financial crisis in 2008 much 30 percent barley and 70 percent goodattention is given to energy savings and en- quality malt without external enzymesvironmental issues, driven mainly by rising for many brands. This is possible as longfossil fuel costs and also by Corporate Social as the malt used carries enough alpha-Responsibility (CSR), which has become an and beta-amylases to degrade also theimportant issue for all large brewing groups. barley part of the mash;Eric Candy, UK, outlines the environmental ■ malt 100 percent replaced by unmaltedtargets for the three biggest brewers AB-In- barley: Barley brewing incl. external en-Bev, SABMiller and Heineken as well as the zymes: When the price for malt becomesTotal Cost of Operation for a modern brew- higher than 1.5 x the price for barley, itery using the example of the Martens brew- will become attractive to use 100 percentery from Bocholt, Belgium [6]. This brewery barley helped by external alpha- and be-opened in 2007 and is characterised by con- ta-amylases, perhaps also supplementedtinuous brewing, very low utility consump- with limit dextrinases to ensure a suffi-tion and low manning levels. It is, however, cient high Real Degree of Fermentationalso limited to a very basic product mix and (RDF) [12]; BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | 2011/II 89
  3. 3. BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY■ routine change of adjunct source: Prices for barley, malt and adjunct fluctuate, Portable Service water, water cleaning, CIP etc. sometimes fast. We expect that brew- ers will start to become flexible, i.e. they Process water, brewing will brew and process the same beer, but made from a range of recipes depending Process water, gravity adjustment upon availability and costs of different adjuncts. This will include also the pro- Soft water, bottle washer, tunnel pasteurisation portion of barley/malt. Boiler feed waterHopsThe alpha-acid content in raw hops has Cooling towers make-up wateralso seen a rise, supported by intensive hopsbreeding in Germany, Czech Republic and OthersEngland, to mention a few. The alpha-acidcontent in raw hops has risen from 10 per- Fig. 2 Distribution of incoming potable water to the brewery for further purificationcent to currently 15 percent, and may wellachieve 18 percent by 2020. Hence, we will see more IKE (isomerised Other types of hops will also develop The global trend of reduced bitterness in kettle extract) and PIKE (potassium-form further, in particular the Rho type hops re-international lagers has not ended yet, and isomerised kettle extract) type hops for bit- quired for light-stable lagers sold in trans-lower bitterness combined with a reduced tering added at filtration: Yes, they cost parent bottles (fig. 4).beer volume in some markets has already more, but not after including the reducedled to reductions of acreage in the hops isomerisation losses into the calculations. Watergrowing areas. More brewers will start to boil wort and add Brewing water will increasingly have to be The hops growers compensate partly by small amounts of water separately boiled purified at arrival to the breweries, as thedeveloping more sophisticated types of hops with hops to achieve isomerisation before municipal water supplies unfortunatelyoffering additional properties, which are mixing with the wort – as Asahi already cannot always be relied upon to fulfil agreedalso more expensive. does in Japan [8]. WHO demands and the EU water directive 98/93/EU (1998). This particularly con- Existing CIP cerns pollution with heavy metals and or-and CO2 recovery ganic solvents from industrial plants and nitrates and microorganisms from agricul- ture. Some areas and some brewing groups take the ultimate consequence and have al- ready implemented reversed osmosis (R.O.) treatment of all incoming brewery water as a routine. A less dogmatic approach suggests indi- vidual treatment of the incoming potable brewery water according to needs in the various brewery departments (fig. 2). 2" lBrewhouse ISO-MIX Plastic RJH The brewhouse process is perhaps the most pipe studied and coordinated of all brewery pro- cesses, both by universities, breweries and the brewhouse equipment suppliers. Never- theless, more can still be done in a brewery of the future. The following list shows some Flow of the expected further brewhouse develop- Plate PI ments: ■ higher amount of high gravity brew- ing: Already a lot of breweries use HGB for roughly 25 percent of their products, Fig. 3 and large brewing groups are not ex- Pump Recirculation of pected to stop there, but increase to 40 2-4 bar fermenting beer; system: Iso-Mix from percent, some to 50 percent, while close- 200-300 hL/h Alfa Laval ly monitoring potential negative qual-90 BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | 2011/II
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGY | KNOWLEDGE | BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL ity impacts like reduced head retention, Fig. 4 bland flavour and yeast stress. SSB students picking fresh hops■ reduced number of wort types: Due to process simplification in large breweries the creation of final beer styles happens late in the process; therefore less than 5 wort types might be sufficient for the fu- ture brewhouse.■ thicker mash: The water to grist ratio will move from some 3 : 1 to 2.2 : 1, where the malt quality is high and the maximum amount of sparging liquor is required for increased extract yields.■ mashing-in at 60 °C: Again, where malt quality is sufficiently high, mashing-in temperatures will increase to 60 °C, as this saves both energy and brewing cycle time. a modern propagation plant able to deliver and capacity improvements are obtained■ evaporation rate: Evaporation rates will < one percent dead cells in newly propa- by the shortened process time as well as by further reduce from 6 percent to perhaps gated yeast are likely to continue to operate HGB. The following options might help to below 4 percent, as this will help saving a in-house propagation, since the investment reduce costs even further. lot of heat energy, and isomerisation of has already been made. hops can be otherwise achieved. Batch process■ continuous brewing: The Martens/ lFermentation The process in operation in CCTs today will Meura brewhouse type [7] will become The primary fermentation process has be further adjusted. This particularly con- widely-used, in particular by brewers nowadays already been shortened by use of cerns yeast growth, as the breweries should who produce only one or two wort types CCTs, and warm fermentation (13 – 17 °C) produce beer, not yeast. and are keen on heat energy savings.lYeastBreweries will seek to reduce the number ofyeast strains in the name of simplification.Ideally, the brewers will work with one yeastonly, more realistically, they will use oneyeast strain for their premium lager, anoth-er for regional or discount lagers and may beone top fermented yeast (if they have to) sothey can supply ales. For 130 years, since the days of LouisPasteur and Emil Christian Hansen, sci-entists have continued to develop betteryeast strains, modified either classically orgenetically. Recent advances now make itpossible to ferment bottom fermented la-ger yeast strains at 20 °C, remove extract in5 – 6 days, remove diacetyl at the end of theextract removal and achieve good floccu-lation properties at the end of the primaryfermentation. These improvements are justas significant to the fermentation processas the introduction of the CCTs (conical cy-lindrical tanks) were. Yeast propagation inthe brewery may become replaced in futurebreweries by freeze – dried yeast supplies, asinvestment in and operation of a modern,well equipped propagation plant is very ex-pensive and requires a certain amount ofexpertise. Breweries already equipped with BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | 2011/II 91
  5. 5. BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | KNOWLEDGE | TECHNOLOGY The yeast growth rate should not exceed fermentation / maturation has also been 3. Buttick, P.: “A brewer’s view on a mod-2 – 2.5. Further growth just results in in- developed in Finland. This way, diacetyl can ern brewhouse project”, The Brewer &creased extract losses. be removed within 2 hours, also tested in in- Distiller 2, February 2006, pp. 13 – 18. Large CCTs take approx. two days to dustrial scale [4]. The continuous fermenta- 4. SSB Diploma Master Brewer Module 2,cool, and two days is becoming a significant tion and maturation is available, but – as far 2010, SSB module binders 1 – 4.proportion of the total process time. If not as the authors know – still not used outside 5. Kunze, W.: “Technology Brewing &already installed, breweries will therefore Finland. Whether brewers will really move Malting”, chapter 4, 4th ed., 2010.wish to crash-cool the entire CCT contents this direction remains to be seen – the CCT 6. Candy, E.: “Making the environmentat the end of primary fermentation through suppliers and traditional brewers are not pay!”, Brewer & Distiller Int., Octobera flash cooler, mainly to save process time. likely to push this development. 2010, pp. 55 – 58. For new breweries, an interesting option 7. Nelson, L.: “Martens Brewery”, Brew-is now available: a flash cooler linked to a Short maturation – external enzyme ers’ Guardian, November/Decembercentrifugal pump and a spray nozzle in the Any brewery wishing to reduce the time 2009, pp. 32 – 34.CCT. This system is able to shorten primary for diacetyl reduction during fermentation 8. time by 10 – 30 percent by ho- may apply α-acetolactate decarboxylase, technology/view/asahi-breweries, ac-mogenizing the fermenting beer (according an external enzyme produced by a geneti- cess on 28 August Alfa Laval), and the CCT can be quickly cally modified strain of Bacillus subtilis, 9. Kristiansen, A. G.: “Major achieve-cooled after fermentation, saving additional at the start of the primary fermentation. ments in Brewing Science and tech-process time (fig. 3). Furthermore, new in- This enzyme, produced by Novozymes nological in 250 years”, Scandina-stallations can save a lot of material, as the under the trade name Maturex, converts vian Brewer’s Review, August 2009,CCTs may be constructed using a plastic α-acetolactate to acetoin outside the yeast pp. 30 – 31.polymer and without cooling jackets. cell walls – and diacetyl is not produced at 10. SSB Module 3 students 2008, unpub- all. The process is used by many breweries lished report from SSB.Continuous process that look for capacity increases or simply 11. Bergenhenegouwen, S.: “The breweryIn the 1990s, Finnish brewers have devel- want to avoid ongoing challenges reducing of the future”, BRAUWELT Interna-oped continuous primary fermentation in a diacetyl the natural way. ■ tional No. 5, 2010, pp. 288 – 289.reactor with immobilized yeast as described 12. Schönenberg, S.; Kreisz, S.: “The use ofby Esko Pajunen [4]. lReferences 100 percent unmalted barley”, BRAU- The process is tested in industrial scale, 1. Narziss, L.: “Brewery technology in de- WELT International No. 1, 2010,and early challenges with high diacetyl velopment”, BRAUWELT International pp. 30 – 32.levels, high pH of resulting beer and excess No. 6, 2005, pp. 439 – 440. 13. Pesta, G. et al.: “Generating biogasyeast production have been overcome. Pass- 2. Maule, L.: “50 years in the brewing in- from spent grains – 47 % savings in en-ing the fermented beer flow through an im- dustry”, The Brewer & Distiller 2, Au- ergy costs”, BRAUWELT Internationalmobilized yeast reactor during secondary gust 2006, pp. 12 – 18. No. 5, 2010, pp. 324 – 326. www.brauweltinternational.comPrint Edition – Latest issue +++ International Report – Latest Issue/International Report +++ ArchiveBRAUWELT International – Search/Archive BRAUWELT International +++ Job market – Latest issue/Job marketIf sugar is the new tobacco… Hopsteiner News PREVIEW | The May Hopsteiner Newslet-GERMANY| … why are Bionade’s sales in turnover reached EUR 40 million, sales of the ter will give you an update about the cropdecline? The lemonade for LOHAS (that’s con- premium-priced lemonade have been in free 2011 in New Zealand and Australia...sumers seeking a Lifestyle based On Health fall: by 2010 it had dropped to about 230 000And Sustainability) once proved immensely hl, it was reported. Many wonder: what are International Reportpopular. From its launch in 1995, when it the reasons for this decline? The past suc- USA | For the sixth year in a row, totalwas solely sold in health food shops, the brand cess of Bionade showed that even lemonades volume of sales for the carbonated softgrew to become the almost uncontested lead- aren’t all the same. Many consumers picked drinks industry was down in 2010, says Beverage in its “better lemonades” segment. Having a Bionade over say a Sprite because theygrown at a rate of almost 300 percent each thought it was ecologically sounder ... AUSTRALIA | For a few days in Marchyear, Bionade sold over 200 million bottles 2011 Australia’s major brewer, Foster’s, stopped delivering its VB, Carlton(600 000 hl) in 2007, ranking fourth among The full articles can be read online after log- Draught and Pure Blonde brands toGermany’s most popular lemonades – behind ging in at www.brauweltinternational. Coles’ First Choice liquor stores...Fanta, Sprite and Sinalco. Since 2008 when com – Latest Issue/International Report www.brauweltinternational.com92 BRAUWELT INTERNATIONAL | 2011/II