Nanotechnologies – VocabularyPlatform for Ontology Engineering and Evolution for NanotechnologyAUTOMATIC CONSTRUCTIONOF NA...
Outlineq  Introduction (Motivation, Background, Objective, Scope)q  Development of example nano carbon nomenclature and ...
Motivating factors on implementing IFTq  EUs Digital Agenda for Europe has called for the development ofresearch infrastr...
Project Background2012-10-28q  A key concept in the Semantic Web initiative of the WWW consortiumis the notion of ontolog...
Project Objectiveq  To automate engineering and maintenance of integrated internationalnanomaterials and nanotechnology o...
Project Scopeq  To provide a collaborative environment www.iftglobal.org for financing,research, standardization and inno...
IFT Inaugural Focusq  IFT is planned to initially evolve around four synergetic projects:1.  Project for development of a...
Ontology Standards for Nanotechnologyq  Ontologies are the central elements in any open e-infrastructure forinformation e...
Ontology Standards for Nanotechnology, cont.q  The integration of people and applications into more efficientcollaborativ...
q  Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Nano- Safety, Standards, Policy, Regulationo  Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters ...
Project backgroundq  Used the following documentso  ISO/IEC 80004 Nanotechnology Vocabulary Series (specified in OWL2)o  ...
Difficulties with the use of ontologiesq  Ontologies are being developed independently for differentsubdisciplines of nan...
Nomenclature for NanoCarbonNomenclature sp2 carbon nanoforms2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINI...
Nomenclature for NanoCarbon, cont.q  The nomenclature is developed in accordance with the guidelines in;Nomenclature for ...
Nomenclature for NanoCarbon, cont.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 15
Single Walled Carbon Nano Tubesq  SWNT[R13/L100/M6/N5] = Single Walled Carbon Nano Tube withRadius R = 13 nm, Length L = ...
Chiral Vector2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 17
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubesq  MWCNT[R34/L460/M7/N1/W5] = Carbon Nano Tube with # Walls W= 5 where the outer wall has Ra...
Graphene Conesq  Single Walled Carbon Nano Cones are called Graphene Cones in theontology, as they can be transformed fro...
Integration of physical/chemical properties and data inan ontology for NanoCarbon2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONF...
Model Ontology for Nano Carbon2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 21
Representation of Nano Carbon entities. Below:SWNCT with methyl-functionalized surface2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA...
Graphene Cone2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 23
Heterogeneities in NanoCarbon ontologiesq  Heterogeneity can be:o  assembly of higher order structures not having same si...
Heterogeneities in NanoCarbon ontologiesq  Heterogeneities and structural defects can hardly be addressed throughthe onto...
Ontology evaluation and further developmentq  Is the nomenclature convenient? Complete specification throughnomenclature ...
Project: Ontology Engineering and Evolution forNanotechnology (Ontolution platform)q  A collaborative environment to supp...
Ontology Learningq  Goal: (semi-)automatically identify and extract relevant concepts andrelations from a given corpus to...
Ontology Mergingq  Some ontologies are developed in totally different scientific andindustrial contextsq  However, the i...
Merging of OntologiesOntologyMerging• Merging ISO/IEC 80004 Vocabulary Series ontologies with other ontologies for nanotec...
Ontology MergingNanoElectronicsNanoPhotonicsMerged2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI...
Ontology Updatingq  Ontologies evolve naturallyq  Most industries experience that ontologies are very dynamic and growov...
Extending the ontology (1)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 33
Extending the ontology (2)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 34
Integrating these techniquesq  Learning, merging and updating ontologies are relevant for all cases ofnanotechnologyq  I...
Project: Ontology Engineering and Evolution forNanotechnologyq  Goal:o  To provide a collaborative environment for the de...
Platform architectureAccess	  control	  unit	  Ontology	  server	  Processing	  modules	  Documents	  Web	  frontendUsers	...
Platform architecture, cont.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 38
Project structureWP2	WP4	WP3	WP0 - Management	WP1	 WP5	2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, T...
Project structure, cont.q  WP0 – Project managemento  NQCGq  WP1 – Ontology Evolution Platformo  NQCGq  WP2 – Integrate...
Project structure, cont.q  WP1 – Ontology Evolution Platformo  Specification, design and implementation of the platformq...
Integrated Ontology Evolution Frameworkq  Integrated ontology representation languageo  extension of OWL 2 to handle info...
Ontology Learning and Extractionq  Tools and techniques for detection of occurrences of ontologycomponents (classes, indi...
Collaborative Ontology Engineeringq  Development of methods that allow independent manipulation of partsof ontologies wit...
Conclusionsq  Ontology learning should be used as an effective tool ino  Development of standard nanotechnology terminolo...
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Automatic Construction of Nanotechnology Ontology

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A key concept in the Semantic Web (SW) initiative of the WWW consortium is the notion of ontologies. In the nanoscience and nanotechnology field, there is still no ontology standard in place. The goal is to automate engineering and maintenance of nano-ontology standards for improved data integration and interoperability in order to advance science & technology and bring big savings for the industry and the public sectors. To achieve this we provide a collaborative environment for research, standardization and innovation in nanotechnology and the integration of advanced techniques of ontology design. The platform and approaches used are general and can be applied in any sector or information system.

This project addresses the problem of building a platform for ontology engineering, evaluation and evolution that facilitates the task of establishing and keeping updated industry-quality ontologies. The platform incorporates a range of interchangeable techniques and theories and is geared towards the needs from the nanoscience and nanotechnology discipline. Project focus is to provide cost-effective practical technologies for producing high-quality relevant ontologies. The project’s technologies and models impact the industry and the research community at different levels:

• Intelligent search & mining: Content-based processing of and reasoning about domain-dependent data sources
• Seamless infrastructure: Open infrastructures for all types of media and equipment as permanent available resources for collaboration and exchange
• Communication: Interactive, value-increasing services and information for collaboration in and across communities and organizations, and for people in roles as citizens and customers.

The deliverables of the project include a platform for semi-automatic learning and evolution of ontologies, logical and statistical techniques for ontology manipulation and refinement, and a full-fledged ontology for searching and mining nanoscience and nanotechnology research papers and electronic media. The platform is realized through an executable model and related tool support, and demonstrated by applications to case studies relevant to nanoscience, nanomaterials and nanotechnology.

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Automatic Construction of Nanotechnology Ontology

  1. 1. Nanotechnologies – VocabularyPlatform for Ontology Engineering and Evolution for NanotechnologyAUTOMATIC CONSTRUCTIONOF NANOTECHNOLOGYONTOLOGY STANDARDS23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE“OPEN DATA AND INFORMATION FOR A CHANGING PLANET”Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, 2012-10-28AXEL PETER MUSTADNORDIC QUANTUM COMPUTING GROUP AS © 2012Nordic Quantum Computing Group AS @ 20122012-10-28 1
  2. 2. Outlineq  Introduction (Motivation, Background, Objective, Scope)q  Development of example nano carbon nomenclature and integration ofdata in an ontology for nanomaterialso  Nomenclature for NanoCarbono  Integration of physical/chemical properties and data in an OWL 2 ontologyfor NanoCarbono  Ontology evaluation and further developmentq  Ontology evolution processo  Ontology learningo  Ontology mergingo  Ontology updatingq  Platform for Ontology Engineering and Evolution for Nanotechnologyq  Project structureq  Conclusions23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN2012-10-28 2
  3. 3. Motivating factors on implementing IFTq  EUs Digital Agenda for Europe has called for the development ofresearch infrastructures and e-Infrastructures, including for scientificdata, as data itself is becoming a fundamental infrastructure, resultingin open access to the scientific data becomes more important.q  Governments and industry increasingly engage in launching programsfor collaboration in research and development through use of anemerging number of online databases, electronic journals and media,social networks, etc.q  Private and public stakeholders all over the world need to ensure thatevery future research project funded has a clear plan on how to managethe data it generates. Such plans should foster openness and economiesof scale, so that data results can be re-used many times rather thanduplicated.23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN2012-10-28 3
  4. 4. Project Background2012-10-28q  A key concept in the Semantic Web initiative of the WWW consortiumis the notion of ontologies. In the nanotechnology field, there is still noontology standard in place.23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 4
  5. 5. Project Objectiveq  To automate engineering and maintenance of integrated internationalnanomaterials and nanotechnology ontology standards for improveddata integration and interoperability in order to bring big savings forthe industry and public sectors:http://www.codata.org/Nanomaterials/A.%20Mustad.pdf2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 5
  6. 6. Project Scopeq  To provide a collaborative environment www.iftglobal.org for financing,research, standardization and innovation in nanotechnology and theintegration of advanced techniques of ontology design.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 6
  7. 7. IFT Inaugural Focusq  IFT is planned to initially evolve around four synergetic projects:1.  Project for development of a platform for ontology engineeringand evolution for nanotechnology (Ontolution platform)2.  Development of a systematic framework for nanosafetyARACNOS (Advanced Risk Assessment and CategorizationNanomaterials Ontology System)3.  Development of a robust platform Ontology Based Data Access(OBDA) and to demonstrate the potential of this technology bydeploying it in industry specific use cases and research clusters4.  Harmonization of international standards, classifications andnational and global safety and compliance regulations fornanotechnology NanoS (Nanotechnology Standards)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 7
  8. 8. Ontology Standards for Nanotechnologyq  Ontologies are the central elements in any open e-infrastructure forinformation exchange across disciplines, organizational andgeographical bordersq  In the nanotechnology research field there is still no ontology standardin place, in spite of a strong need to coordinate and relate the diverseresearch conducted in this interdisciplinary fieldq  Ontologies are used to realise improved data integration andinteroperability and can potentially bring big savings for both theindustry and the public sectorsq  Realising this potential requires efficient ontology construction,merging and evolution technologies2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 8
  9. 9. Ontology Standards for Nanotechnology, cont.q  The integration of people and applications into more efficientcollaborative processes is central to the work on ontology engineeringand evolutionq  To make this happen, the applications and the information sourcesmust all understand the annotations with respect to a commonlanguage, the ontologyq  This ontology is an explicit and commonly accepted terminologystandard that allows us to describe the content of data and services in amachine-processable and unambiguous way2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 9
  10. 10. q  Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Nano- Safety, Standards, Policy, Regulationo  Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (ICSU), Standards Norway (ISO),Norwegian National Technical Committee (IEC), Norwegian Ministry of Trade andIndustry, Norwegian Ministry of Defense, global network of research organisationso  Outreach is a major task as an ontology depends on consensual contributions from agreater number of international users. This does include participation to OECD, EUCommittees and ISO/CEN – in addition over 30 additional groups have endorsedtheir membership in our advisory board and stakeholders panel, covering theAmericas, Oceania, Middle East, Africa and Asia. We will continue to invite furthermembers to ensure that our results will make a difference.q  Computer Science and Information Technologyo  University of Oslo, University of Oxford, University of Manchester, KarlsruheInstitute of Technology, Accenture (global)q  Computers and Lawo  Clifford Chance LLP, Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law (NRCCL,University of Oslo), Simonsen Vogt WiigPartners, Stakeholders, External Advisory Committees2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 10
  11. 11. Project backgroundq  Used the following documentso  ISO/IEC 80004 Nanotechnology Vocabulary Series (specified in OWL2)o  Nomenclature sp2 carbon nanoforms (I. Suarez-Martinez, N. Grobert, Chr.P. Ewels)o  Informal standards, like the PAS, and scientific articles from thenanotechnology domainq  Ontology lifecycle model usedo  Both manual modeling tasks and automatic tool supporto  The ontology learning workbench (OWB) maps existing standards ontoOWL2 (Ontology Web Language) structures and suggests new ontologystructures from mining scientific domain documentationo  Results from the OWB can be viewed, evaluated and modified with anyontology editor (e.g., Protégé)o  Whereas the OWB speeds up the analysis of domain documents, thedecisions on what to include in the final ontology still rests with theontology modelers (nano domain experts)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 11
  12. 12. Difficulties with the use of ontologiesq  Ontologies are being developed independently for differentsubdisciplines of nanotechnologyq  New ontological elements (terminologies and definitions) continuouslyemerge from researchers and standardization groupsq  Some old elements become irrelevant or find more popularcorresponding synonymsq  The dynamic nature of this process requires continuous update ofexisting ontologiesq  Collaboration between distinct subdisciplines requires safe techniquesfor merging of independently developed ontologiesManaging ontologies manually is not a simple task2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 12
  13. 13. Nomenclature for NanoCarbonNomenclature sp2 carbon nanoforms2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 13
  14. 14. Nomenclature for NanoCarbon, cont.q  The nomenclature is developed in accordance with the guidelines in;Nomenclature for sp2 carbon nanoformsq  Exception: The term helical nanocones is used instead of screwedstacked nanocones, as we think the latter is incorrect; screwed conescannot be exploded into single graphene cones – they concist of a singlelayer wrapped around itself. (See next picture)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 14
  15. 15. Nomenclature for NanoCarbon, cont.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 15
  16. 16. Single Walled Carbon Nano Tubesq  SWNT[R13/L100/M6/N5] = Single Walled Carbon Nano Tube withRadius R = 13 nm, Length L = 100 nm and chiral vector (see nextpicture) (M,N) = (6,5)q  This specifies completely an open-ended tube without functionalizedsurface or defects. Suggestions to alternative syntax are welcome; e.g.SWNT_R{13}L{100}…etc2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 16
  17. 17. Chiral Vector2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 17
  18. 18. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubesq  MWCNT[R34/L460/M7/N1/W5] = Carbon Nano Tube with # Walls W= 5 where the outer wall has Radius R = 34 nm, Length L = 460 nm andchiral vector (M,N)=(7,1).2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 18
  19. 19. Graphene Conesq  Single Walled Carbon Nano Cones are called Graphene Cones in theontology, as they can be transformed from graphene by removing 1 to 5sectors of disclination angle 60° and rejoining the resulting danglingbonds.q  GC[D240/R250] = Graphene Cone transformed from circular grapheneof Radius R=250 nm and total disclination angle D = 240° = 4 x 60°.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 19
  20. 20. Integration of physical/chemical properties and data inan ontology for NanoCarbon2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 20
  21. 21. Model Ontology for Nano Carbon2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 21
  22. 22. Representation of Nano Carbon entities. Below:SWNCT with methyl-functionalized surface2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 22
  23. 23. Graphene Cone2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 23
  24. 24. Heterogeneities in NanoCarbon ontologiesq  Heterogeneity can be:o  assembly of higher order structures not having same size withdisparate geometric arrangements,o  that represents dissimilar level of perfection,o  both static and dynamic.q   Transferability to other systems / challenges:o  Hierarchical structure is probably possible, but the shape of this islikely to be material dependent.o  Should also be compatible with other relevant nomenclature      - Eg. crystallographic in the case of crystals can be formed      - Chemical (eg, self-organizing forms)      - Biological (eg, PDB database, gene sequences, etc.) whensuch building blocks included in nanostructures. 2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 24
  25. 25. Heterogeneities in NanoCarbon ontologiesq  Heterogeneities and structural defects can hardly be addressed throughthe ontology alone.q  Complete specification in these cases can however be achieved by a linkunder Datatype Properties in the OWL2 interface to a molecularfile, e.g. in Protein Data Bank (PDB) format.q  The molecular file defines the complex completely, and can bedisplayed graphically. If possible, a standard naming convention is stilldesirable for these cases. 2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 25
  26. 26. Ontology evaluation and further developmentq  Is the nomenclature convenient? Complete specification throughnomenclature alone seems infeasible due to e.g. the pletora oftopological variations at the open ends of tubes and cones.q  Building model ontologies is a good method to test nomenclatures. Forexample, integration of numerical data requires a more specificnomenclature than qualitative properties.q  Further development requires expert input on dependencies ofphysical/chemical properties on structural details.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 26
  27. 27. Project: Ontology Engineering and Evolution forNanotechnology (Ontolution platform)q  A collaborative environment to support the use and developmentof nanotechnology ontologieso  To learn new ontological elements•  highlighting emerging terms among researcher and standardization groups•  identifying relations between themo  To combine ontologies•  helping to merge existing ontologies from different subdisciplines ofnanotechnology•  locating overlapping and conflicting regionso  To update ontologies•  finding ontology elements that become out-of-date or are irrelevant forresearchers and standardization groups•  identifying elements that should be renamed•  identifying new elements that should be included2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 27
  28. 28. Ontology Learningq  Goal: (semi-)automatically identify and extract relevant concepts andrelations from a given corpus to form an ontologyq  Documents are parsed; indexed and subject to statistical analyses forconcept extraction;q  This produces statistical reports includingo  suggestion scores (how often has a candidate term been suggested),ando  the suggested neighborhood in an existing ontology2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 28
  29. 29. Ontology Mergingq  Some ontologies are developed in totally different scientific andindustrial contextsq  However, the inter-disciplinary nature of the field requirescollaboration between academics and industrial partnersq  Safe merging of ontologies is important and tools are needed too  detect possible inconsistencieso  assist in the repair of these inconsistencies2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 29
  30. 30. Merging of OntologiesOntologyMerging• Merging ISO/IEC 80004 Vocabulary Series ontologies with other ontologies for nanotechnologyIndexing• Split documents into text units• Store each unit in a search indexInformationRetrieval• Retrieve and concatenate textual paragraphs that are related to concepts in the basis ontology• Stores the result set size for each conceptKeywordextraction• Extracting phrases and terms that are prominent in the concatenated textsEvaluationof results• Export of results to an excel spread sheet for human inspectionExtendingontology• Incorporating the accepted suggestions into the ontology2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 30
  31. 31. Ontology MergingNanoElectronicsNanoPhotonicsMerged2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 31
  32. 32. Ontology Updatingq  Ontologies evolve naturallyq  Most industries experience that ontologies are very dynamic and growover timeq  Manual update is complex; costly and time consumingq  Document analysis tools can suggest the removal; renaming; orinclusion of new terms in an ontology2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 32
  33. 33. Extending the ontology (1)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 33
  34. 34. Extending the ontology (2)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 34
  35. 35. Integrating these techniquesq  Learning, merging and updating ontologies are relevant for all cases ofnanotechnologyq  Industrial collaborators need a unified tool-supported platformintegrating all of these aspects of ontology designq  Research collaborators can contribute with cutting-edge techniques andbenefit from tests in real-case scenariosq  An iterative development process that gradually integrates thetechniques can mitigate risks and offer real benefits to all concerned2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 35
  36. 36. Project: Ontology Engineering and Evolution forNanotechnologyq  Goal:o  To provide a collaborative environment for the development and use ofontologies and the integration of advanced techniques for ontology designo  To demonstrate ontology learning in the nanotechnology domainq  Approach:o  Development of a core basis and subsequent incorporation or moresophisticated componentso  Use of existing ontologies in nanotechnology as a case study to support thedevelopmentq  Ontology basis:o  ISO/IEC TS 80004 Nanotechnology Vocabulary Serieso  IUPAC terminology http://goldbook.iupac.org/o  Crystallographic/chemical/biological nomenclatureso  Gene Ontology (GO) and other ontologies, e.g. NPOq  Document corpus:o  Documents on nanotechnology in relevant fieldso  Documents from ISO/TC 229, IEC/TC 113, CEN/TC 352, OECD WPMN2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 36
  37. 37. Platform architectureAccess  control  unit  Ontology  server  Processing  modules  Documents  Web  frontendUsers  Document    store  Ontology  storeIndicesStatistics• Learning  • Merging  • Updating  • etc    2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 37
  38. 38. Platform architecture, cont.2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 38
  39. 39. Project structureWP2 WP4 WP3 WP0 - Management WP1 WP5 2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 39
  40. 40. Project structure, cont.q  WP0 – Project managemento  NQCGq  WP1 – Ontology Evolution Platformo  NQCGq  WP2 – Integrated Ontology Evolution Frameworko  Oxford/Manchester: Prof. Ian Horrocks and Prof. Uli Sattlerq  WP3 – Ontology Learning and Extractiono  KIT: Prof. Rudi Studerq  WP4 – Collaborative Ontology Engineeringo  Oxford/Manchester: Prof. Ian Horrocks and Prof. Uli Sattlerq  WP5 – Ontology Engineering for the Nanotechnology Domaino  NQCG / NQCG coordinated projects (ARACNOS)2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 40
  41. 41. Project structure, cont.q  WP1 – Ontology Evolution Platformo  Specification, design and implementation of the platformq  WP2 – Integrated Ontology Evolution Frameworko  Representation language and structuresq  WP3 – Ontology Learning and Extractiono  Data acquisition, linguistic processing, ontology learning, trend-detectionq  WP4 – Collaborative Ontology Engineeringo  Composition and decomposition framework for collaborativeengineeringq  WP5 – Ontology Engineering for the Nanotechnology Domaino  Use case study and evaluation aspects2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 41
  42. 42. Integrated Ontology Evolution Frameworkq  Integrated ontology representation languageo  extension of OWL 2 to handle information about•  provenance•  trust of ontology components (e.g., axioms and modules)•  composition of an ontologyo  so as to allow•  representation of uncertainties•  a more powerful OWL 2 import and export mechanism2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 42
  43. 43. Ontology Learning and Extractionq  Tools and techniques for detection of occurrences of ontologycomponents (classes, individual, etc) in natural language texto  Data acquisition: document crawlers and data infrastructure fortextual knowledgeo  Linguistic processingo  Ontology learning and mappingo  Ontology-based trend detection•  identify trends and emerging topics in newly publisheddocuments2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 43
  44. 44. Collaborative Ontology Engineeringq  Development of methods that allow independent manipulation of partsof ontologies with subsequent re-integration into the overall ontologyq  Ontology decomposition, version control and reconciliationo  analysis of the logical modular structure of the ontologieso  support for version managemento  support for conflict resolution2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 44
  45. 45. Conclusionsq  Ontology learning should be used as an effective tool ino  Development of standard nanotechnology terminologies and nomenclature systemso  Maintenance of standard nanotechnology terminologies and nomenclature systemso  Harmonization of different standard nanotechnology terminologies and nomenclatureq  Collaborative ontology engineering platform can effectively assist ino  Construct and maintain nomenclature systems for nanoscience and nanotechnologyo  Collaborative environment to support the use and development of nano ontologieso  Internet platform for collaboration and cooperation in nano research and developmentq  A broad representation of experts should take part in this work—  ICSU, CODATA and Scientific Unions like IUPAC—  Materials Research Societies—  ISO/TC 229, CEN/TC 352, IEC/TC 113—  OECD WPMN, OECD WPN—  IP5 Foundation Projects (EPO, JPO, KIPO, SIPO, USPTO)—  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)—  National academies of science and national standards development organizations—  Organizations involved in developing classifications for nanotechnology—  Leading scientific journals and publishers in relevant domains2012-10-28 23RD INTERNATIONAL CODATA CONFERENCE, ACADEMIA SINICA, TAIPEI, TAIWAN 45

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