The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited




Consumer preferences and choice
of fruit: the role of Avoc...
Consumption

            Top 4 reasons USA consumers eat and top 4 reasons USA
                    consumers are prevented...
Research on consumer liking for flavour




                             The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Resear...
Quality:
outcomes from laboratory-based studies


  • Value of tomatoes (Norway): 14% increase in 1st year
    and 40% inc...
Measuring consumer liking



                      Likelihood of Purchase 70%


                                          ...
Increasing the reality of the situation
in laboratory-based studies
  NEW APPLES (2 months storage)           OLD APPLES (...
Bids before and after tasting for
                                      two participants
                               2
...
Consumers: flavour and price


• Poor flavour will decrease prices / demand

• Good flavour will increase prices / demand
...
Avocado studies

Science Staff          Acknowledgments
• Peter J. Hofman      • Growers & Packhouses
• Roberto Marques   ...
Avocado: consumer tasting




• Effect of maturity (dry matter): 4 DM treatments.
• Effect of ripeness (firmness): 3 firmn...
a
                    100   (A)          a            a                                       a                           ...
DM as a continuous variable

                     DM vs purchase intention

Purchase Intention




                       ...
DM summary


• DM levels that are lower than 22% resulted in lower
  ratings of consumer acceptability.
• Consumer liking ...
Consumers: fruit convenience




                               The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
(A)   a           a
                                                                                                      ...
Firmness as a continuous variable

                             Firmness vs purchase intention
        Purchase Intention
...
Firmness summary


• The ripeness (firmness) that was preferred by
  consumers was 0.65 kgf or softer, which relates to a ...
Consumers: responses of fruit spoilage




                             The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Researc...
The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
Treatments

Factor          Level 1         Level 2       Level 3                                         Level 4


Price ...
Price                                   Bruise




Incidence
            Relative importance:
            • Bruise = 42.0%...
Purchase intentions: influence of damage
       Bruising             Vascular Browning




                             Th...
Internal damage summary


• The three experimental factors; price, severity of defect
  and incidence of affected fruit si...
Recommendations


• The study indicates that maturity standards be set
  above 22% DM but no higher than 28% DM.

• Effort...
The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited




www.plantandfood.com




rharker@hortresearch.co.nz

     ...
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Roger Harker

  1. 1. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited Consumer preferences and choice of fruit: the role of Avocado quality Roger Harker
  2. 2. Consumption Top 4 reasons USA consumers eat and top 4 reasons USA consumers are prevented from eating fruit (n~5000, PBH, 2005). 100 80 60 (%) 40 20 0 Stay Healthy Availability Like the Convenience Disease Spoilage Price Feel Well Prevent Taste Fears Reasons For Reasons Against The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  3. 3. Research on consumer liking for flavour The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  4. 4. Quality: outcomes from laboratory-based studies • Value of tomatoes (Norway): 14% increase in 1st year and 40% increase in 2nd year. • Wine (Gallo, USA): 6% increase in value in 1st year. • All of these occurred without marked change in marketing/promotion (i.e. driven by return sales and word-of mouth). The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  5. 5. Measuring consumer liking Likelihood of Purchase 70% 600-700 700 500-600 600 400-500 300-400 500 200-300 400 Price 100-200 (Yen) 0-100 300 200 100 150 140 130 0 120 110 22 100 Size of 20 18 90 fruit (g) 16 80 14 Taste category The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  6. 6. Increasing the reality of the situation in laboratory-based studies NEW APPLES (2 months storage) OLD APPLES (8 months storage) From USA From NZ ‘Look good but poorer eating quality’ ‘Look bad but better eating quality’ Deliberately set up a context in which emotional and physical aspects of freshness perception are in opposite directions The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  7. 7. Bids before and after tasting for two participants 2 Tasted 1.8 1.6 1.4 Amount Bid ($) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bidding Round “Even though I thought that the old apples were nicer in the tasting trial, I still suspect that the new ones would be better overall” The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  8. 8. Consumers: flavour and price • Poor flavour will decrease prices / demand • Good flavour will increase prices / demand • Flavour is about twice as important as price when determining consumers willingness to purchase fruit. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  9. 9. Avocado studies Science Staff Acknowledgments • Peter J. Hofman • Growers & Packhouses • Roberto Marques • Martin Heffer (images) • Barbara Stubbings • Joanna Embry • Sara R. Jaeger • Redlands Research Station • Anne White • TNS (recruitment of consumers) • Christina Bava • Online Research Unit • Michelle Beresford • Mark Wohlers • Avocados Australia Ltd • Allan Woolf • Horticulture Australia Ltd • Joanna Gamble The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  10. 10. Avocado: consumer tasting • Effect of maturity (dry matter): 4 DM treatments. • Effect of ripeness (firmness): 3 firmness treatments. (107 Consumers) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  11. 11. a 100 (A) a a a 7 (B) b 6 c 80 b d Liking (Score 1 to 8) 5 Acceptability (%) 60 4 40 3 2 20 1 0 0 Immature Early Mid Late Immature Early Mid Late (20% DM) (22% DM) (26% DM) (38% DM) (20% DM) (22% DM) (26% DM) (38% DM) Maturity Maturity (C) a 80 b Purchase intent (% chance) c 60 d 40 20 0 Immature Early Mid Late (20% DM) (22% DM) (26% DM) (38% DM) Maturity The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  12. 12. DM as a continuous variable DM vs purchase intention Purchase Intention The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  13. 13. DM summary • DM levels that are lower than 22% resulted in lower ratings of consumer acceptability. • Consumer liking and willingness to pay increases with increasing DM. • Consumer willingness to pay reaches a plateau above which there is no further increase at 28% DM The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  14. 14. Consumers: fruit convenience The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  15. 15. (A) a a (B) a 100 b a 6 b 80 Liking (score = 1 to 8) Acceptability (%) 60 4 40 2 20 0 0 Soft Medium Firm Soft Medium Firm (0.45 kgf) (0.65 kgf) (1.05 kgf) (0.45 kgf) (0.65 kgf) (1.05 kgf) Ripeness Ripeness (C) a a 70 b 60 Purchase Intent (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 Soft Medium Firm (0.45 kgf) (0.65 kgf) (1.05 kgf) Ripeness The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  16. 16. Firmness as a continuous variable Firmness vs purchase intention Purchase Intention Firmness (Kgf) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  17. 17. Firmness summary • The ripeness (firmness) that was preferred by consumers was 0.65 kgf or softer, which relates to a fruit that deforms slightly under moderate hand pressure (firmometer value of 80). The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  18. 18. Consumers: responses of fruit spoilage The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  19. 19. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  20. 20. Treatments Factor Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Price per $0.89 $1.39 $1.99 $2.49 Avocado Level of 10% damage 25% damage 33% damage 50% damage Defect (% flesh affected) Incidence of Very infrequent Infrequent Quite frequent Persistent Defect (1 in 10 fruit) (1 in 5 fruit) (3 in 5 fruit) (5 in 5 fruit) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  21. 21. Price Bruise Incidence Relative importance: • Bruise = 42.0% • Price = 32.7% • Incidence = 25.3% (online study, n=422) The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  22. 22. Purchase intentions: influence of damage Bruising Vascular Browning The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  23. 23. Internal damage summary • The three experimental factors; price, severity of defect and incidence of affected fruit significantly influenced consumers’ future purchase intentions. • Severity of defect had the highest relative importance followed by price, then the incidence of affected fruit. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  24. 24. Recommendations • The study indicates that maturity standards be set above 22% DM but no higher than 28% DM. • Efforts to mimimise the severity of internal defects be considered most important to maximise future purchase intentions of avocado consumers. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
  25. 25. The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited www.plantandfood.com rharker@hortresearch.co.nz The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited

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