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Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
Luke Smith
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  • 1. Phellinus noxius: Brown root rot of avocado Elizabeth Dann, Luke Smith, Ken Pegg Fruit Pathology Team, Indooroopilly Michelle Grose, Geoff Pegg Forestry Pathology, Indooroopilly
  • 2. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Phellinus noxius • Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of southeast Asia, Africa, Oceania (including Australia), Japan and Central America and the Caribbean • Wide host range affecting 200 tree and plant species including avocado, mango, litchi, hoop pine and other forestry species as well as amenity trees in parks and gardens • Diverse environments from rainforests and sand dunes to dry inland regions • Important decay and recycling agent of dead wood in undisturbed environments © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 3. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries History in Australia • Tentatively identified in 1952 from fruiting bodies on hoop pine • Symptoms of progressive avocado tree death along rows observed on the Atherton Tablelands in Qld in 2001 • First positive identification of P. noxius causing avocado tree death in Maleny in Qld in 2002 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 4. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Symptoms • Rapid tree decline and death • Leaves and fruit will often be left hanging on tree • Infection stocking advancing up trunk • Leaves, sticks and soil stuck to trunk of tree by infection stocking • Mycelial felt between bark and wood • Dead wood behind infection stocking © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 5. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Tree Decline & Death © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 6. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 7. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Infection “stocking” © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 8. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 9. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 10. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Mycelial felt © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 11. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Dead wood © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 12. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Infection Process • Typically by root contact with infested woody material in soil • Spreads between trees where infected roots of one tree contact healthy roots of neighboring tree – root to root contact • May also be through airborne basidiospores where fruiting bodies present (though uncommon in avocados) • Persists in woody debris in the soil for many years © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 13. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 14. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Scoping Study • Approximately 30 avocado orchards in Atherton Tablelands & Childers/Bundaberg productions regions, Sunshine Coast and northern New South Wales visited from 2007 - 2009 • P. noxius confirmed on 17 Atherton, 5 Childers/Bundaberg, 1 Sunshine Coast and 2 northern NSW orchards • Likely to be present on more orchards © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 15. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Scoping Study • Severity ranged from minor (a few trees affected) to severe (80% of trees in a block) • Extent of stocking development not indicative of severity of disease affecting a tree – Some dead trees had limited stocking development – Extensive stocking development on trees that had not succumbed • Replanting typically failed © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 16. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 17. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 18. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Control • Removal of infected trees • Installation of root barriers to prevent spread • No current chemical control measures registered • Promising control options in literature that may be effective in avocado. © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 19. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Root Barriers © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 20. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Acknowledgements • HAL • Avocados Australia • Eddie Dunn, Crop Tech, Bundaberg • Matthew Weinert, QPIF, Mareeba • David Peasley, Peasley Horticultural Services • All the growers visited during the scoping study © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009

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