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Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
Elizabeth Dann 2
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Elizabeth Dann 2

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  • 1. Impacts of fruit disease management on quality Liz Dann, Lindy Coates, Luke Smith, Ken Pegg, Jan Dean, Tony Cooke QPIF, Indooroopilly, QLD
  • 2. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Topics covered • Overview of anthracnose and stem-end rot • Experimental results • Rootstocks, including nutrition • Crop load, including nutrition • Integrated control • Field fungicides, including strobilurin group © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 3. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Postharvest diseases stem-end rot anthracnose © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 4. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Infection Symptoms occurs in field develop dormant from fruit set to during fruit harvest ripening period © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 5. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Stem-end rot (many fungi) • Botryosphaeria spp • Lasiodiplodia theobromae • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides • Phomopsis perseae • Thyronectria pseudotrichia Stem-end rot (SER) fungi colonise the stem tissue of avocado trees without causing disease Symptoms develop during fruit ripening © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 6. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit quality & major nutrients © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 7. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Rootstock affects postharvest disease • Fruit harvested from T. Whiley’s rootstock trials at – Childers, QLD (‘Hass’ in 2008 and 2009) – Walkamin, QLD (‘Shepard’ in 2009) – Pemberton, WA (‘Hass’ in 2008) – Hampton, QLD (‘Hass’ in 2007 and 2008) • Ripened at 23° & 65% RH (Indooroopilly) C • Stored 5 weeks at 5.5° then ripened 20° (Maroochy) C, C • Assessed for postharvest disease © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 8. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Hampton 2008 40 % anthracnose a 30 ab 20 bc c c c 10 0 3 s k d no 7 -0 as ic ee e ta lv SR uk H R Zu Ve D SH © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 9. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit skin N:Ca ratio, Hampton 2008 50 Skin N:Ca 40 30 20 10 0 Velvick Reed SHSR- Zutano Duke 7 Hass 03 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 10. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on leaf N:Ca ratio, Hampton 2009 4 Leaf N:Ca a ab ab 3 abc bcd cd d 2 1 0 Velvick SHSR- A10 Reed Duke 7 Zutano Hass 03 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 11. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Correlations between disease, yield & nutrient balance – Hampton 2008 Variable 1 Variable 2 P r (correlation Relationship coefficient) Anthracnose Yield per tree 0.044 0.30 - severity Anthracnose Fruit skin N:Ca 0.011 0.39 + severity Stem-end rot Fruit skin N:Ca 0.013 0.38 + severity © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 12. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Pemberton 2008 20 % anthracnose a ab bc cd d d 0 A10 Reed Velvick Duke 7 Zutano Barr Duke © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 13. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit skin N:Ca ratio, Pemberton 2008 20 N:Ca a a ab ab bc c 0 Velvick A10 Zutano Duke 7 Barr Reed Duke © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 14. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Childers 2009 80 % anthracnose a ab abc abcd abcd 60 bcd cd cd d d cd 40 20 0 al 3 2 3 al o SH 10 S- k 10 e7 k -0 -0 -0 an c S- lvic ab ab A -A vi uk SR SR SR ut S- N el -N C Ve -D -Z SH -V H C C S- -S C C S- C © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 15. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on N:Ca ratio, Childers 2009 60 N:Ca a 40 b bc bc bc bc bc bc bc bc c 20 0 al 3 2 -D 3 SH al o 10 10 ck 7 k -0 -0 -0 an ic ab ab e A -A vi SR SR SR lv uk ut S- N el -N C Ve S- -Z SH -V H C S- -S C C C S- S- C © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 16. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Significant trends • Rootstock affects fruit quality – All locations • yield ↓ as anthracnose severity ↑ – Childers and Hampton 2008 • anthracnose severity ↑ as N and/or N:Ca ↑ – All locations © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 17. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on fruit quality © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 18. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on anthracnose disease 100 A % severity % incidence B 80 N:Ca 60 a 40 y b z 20 0 high load low load high load low load 2007 2008 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 19. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on stem-end rot disease 40 % severity % incidence 20 a b 0 high load low load high load low load 2007 2008 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 20. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Crop load affects quality • ↓ anthracnose & ↓ N:Ca with ↑ crop load • But, ↑ stem-end rot with ↑ crop load – Stem-end rot more severe when trees are stressed – Optimum irrigation and nutrition critical for control © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 21. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Using fungicides to improve fruit quality © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 22. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Assessment of new strobilurin products • Initially a product screening trial (2008) – pyraclostrobin – Group 11 (previously Group K) – metiram – zinc based protectant fungicide – boscalid – locally systemic f’cide with wide activity – pyraclostrobin + boscalid – pyraclostrobin + metiram • Then as part of an anti-resistance program (2009) – Pyraclostrobin ± metiram © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 23. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Product screening trial, Duranbah 2008 (cv. Reed) % severity anthracnose % incidence anthracnose 60 a 50 ab 40 abc abc 30 bc 20 c 10 0 untreated p'strobin boscalid p'strobin + p'strobin + Amistar boscalid metiram p’strobin = pyraclostrobin © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 24. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Anti-resistance trial, Glasshouse Mtns 2009 (cv. Hass) % severity anthracnose % incidence anthracnose 120 100 a 80 ab 60 bc bc bc c 40 c 20 0 untreated copper Amistar + p'strob 20 p'strobin p'strobin p'strobin copper + copper 20 + 40 + 40 + metiram + copper metiram + copper copper p’strobin = pyraclostrobin © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 25. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Most effective and responsible use of fungicides • Always follow label directions • Protectants – no “short-cuts” in copper spray program (every 28 days in fine weather, every 14 days if wet) • Strobilurins – only Amistar® registered in avocado – post-infection activity – use with copper sprays in an anti-resistance strategy – effective when applied close to harvest and after extended periods of wet weather • Postharvest – apply prochloraz within 24h after harvest – use in conjunction with field spray program – can’t be used on fruit destined for Europe © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 26. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Integrated control – the complete picture Tree Strategic Careful Postharvest husbandry fungicides harvest care - nutrition (N, Ca) - protectants and - maturity %DM - cool chain - canopy mgt post-infection - wet weather - pre-condition - mulching - phosphorus acid - CA, ethylene - root health - postharvest - irrigation © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 27. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Acknowledgements Thank you to the many growers and collaborators for supporting our research! © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009

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