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Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
Elizabeth Dann
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Elizabeth Dann

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  • 1. Impacts of fruit disease management on quality Liz Dann, Lindy Coates, Luke Smith, Ken Pegg, Jan Dean, Tony Cooke QPIF, Indooroopilly, QLD
  • 2. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Topics covered • Overview of anthracnose and stem-end rot • Experimental results • Rootstocks, including nutrition • Crop load, including nutrition • Integrated control • Field fungicides, including strobilurin group © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 3. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Postharvest diseases stem-end rot anthracnose © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 4. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) Infection Symptoms occurs in field develop dormant from fruit set to during fruit harvest ripening period © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 5. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Stem-end rot (many fungi) • Botryosphaeria spp • Lasiodiplodia theobromae • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides • Phomopsis perseae • Thyronectria pseudotrichia Stem-end rot (SER) fungi colonise the stem tissue of avocado trees without causing disease Symptoms develop during fruit ripening © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 6. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit quality & major nutrients © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 7. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Rootstock affects postharvest disease • Fruit harvested from T. Whiley’s rootstock trials at – Childers, QLD (‘Hass’ in 2008 and 2009) – Walkamin, QLD (‘Shepard’ in 2009) – Pemberton, WA (‘Hass’ in 2008) – Hampton, QLD (‘Hass’ in 2007 and 2008) • Ripened at 23° & 65% RH (Indooroopilly) C • Stored 5 weeks at 5.5° then ripened 20° (Maroochy) C, C • Assessed for postharvest disease © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 8. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Hampton 2008 40 % anthracnose a 30 ab 20 bc c c c 10 0 3 s k d no 7 -0 as ic ee e ta lv SR uk H R Zu Ve D SH © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 9. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit skin N:Ca ratio, Hampton 2008 50 Skin N:Ca 40 30 20 10 0 Velvick Reed SHSR- Zutano Duke 7 Hass 03 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 10. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on leaf N:Ca ratio, Hampton 2009 4 Leaf N:Ca a ab ab 3 abc bcd cd d 2 1 0 Velvick SHSR- A10 Reed Duke 7 Zutano Hass 03 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 11. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Correlations between disease, yield & nutrient balance – Hampton 2008 Variable 1 Variable 2 P r (correlation Relationship coefficient) Anthracnose Yield per tree 0.044 0.30 - severity Anthracnose Fruit skin N:Ca 0.011 0.39 + severity Stem-end rot Fruit skin N:Ca 0.013 0.38 + severity © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 12. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Pemberton 2008 20 % anthracnose a ab bc cd d d 0 A10 Reed Velvick Duke 7 Zutano Barr Duke © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 13. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on fruit skin N:Ca ratio, Pemberton 2008 20 N:Ca a a ab ab bc c 0 Velvick A10 Zutano Duke 7 Barr Reed Duke © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 14. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on anthracnose, Childers 2009 80 % anthracnose a ab abc abcd abcd 60 bcd cd cd d d cd 40 20 0 al 3 2 3 al o SH 10 S- k 10 e7 k -0 -0 -0 an c S- lvic ab ab A -A vi uk SR SR SR ut S- N el -N C Ve -D -Z SH -V H C C S- -S C C S- C © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 15. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of rootstock on N:Ca ratio, Childers 2009 60 N:Ca a 40 b bc bc bc bc bc bc bc bc c 20 0 al 3 2 -D 3 SH al o 10 10 ck 7 k -0 -0 -0 an ic ab ab e A -A vi SR SR SR lv uk ut S- N el -N C Ve S- -Z SH -V H C S- -S C C C S- S- C © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 16. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Significant trends • Rootstock affects fruit quality – All locations • yield ↓ as anthracnose severity ↑ – Childers and Hampton 2008 • anthracnose severity ↑ as N and/or N:Ca ↑ – All locations © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 17. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on fruit quality © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 18. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on anthracnose disease 100 A % severity % incidence B 80 N:Ca 60 a 40 y b z 20 0 high load low load high load low load 2007 2008 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 19. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Effect of crop load on stem-end rot disease 40 % severity % incidence 20 a b 0 high load low load high load low load 2007 2008 © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 20. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Crop load affects quality • ↓ anthracnose & ↓ N:Ca with ↑ crop load • But, ↑ stem-end rot with ↑ crop load – Stem-end rot more severe when trees are stressed – Optimum irrigation and nutrition critical for control © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 21. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Using fungicides to improve fruit quality © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 22. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Assessment of new strobilurin products • Initially a product screening trial (2008) – pyraclostrobin – Group 11 (previously Group K) – metiram – zinc based protectant fungicide – boscalid – locally systemic f’cide with wide activity – pyraclostrobin + boscalid – pyraclostrobin + metiram • Then as part of an anti-resistance program (2009) – Pyraclostrobin ± metiram © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 23. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Product screening trial, Duranbah 2008 (cv. Reed) % severity anthracnose % incidence anthracnose 60 a 50 ab 40 abc abc 30 bc 20 c 10 0 untreated p'strobin boscalid p'strobin + p'strobin + Amistar boscalid metiram p’strobin = pyraclostrobin © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 24. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Anti-resistance trial, Glasshouse Mtns 2009 (cv. Hass) % severity anthracnose % incidence anthracnose 120 100 a 80 ab 60 bc bc bc c 40 c 20 0 untreated copper Amistar + p'strob 20 p'strobin p'strobin p'strobin copper + copper 20 + 40 + 40 + metiram + copper metiram + copper copper p’strobin = pyraclostrobin © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 25. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Most effective and responsible use of fungicides • Always follow label directions • Protectants – no “short-cuts” in copper spray program (every 28 days in fine weather, every 14 days if wet) • Strobilurins – only Amistar® registered in avocado – post-infection activity – use with copper sprays in an anti-resistance strategy – effective when applied close to harvest and after extended periods of wet weather • Postharvest – apply prochloraz within 24h after harvest – use in conjunction with field spray program – can’t be used on fruit destined for Europe © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 26. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Integrated control – the complete picture Tree Strategic Careful Postharvest husbandry fungicides harvest care - nutrition (N, Ca) - protectants and - maturity %DM - cool chain - canopy mgt post-infection - wet weather - pre-condition - mulching - phosphorus acid - CA, ethylene - root health - postharvest - irrigation © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009
  • 27. Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Acknowledgements Thank you to the many growers and collaborators for supporting our research! © The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2009

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