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Denis Roe

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  • 1. PERFORMANCE OF AVOCADO CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS IN SOUTH AFRICA Denis Roe Westfalia Technological Services (WTS) denisr@westfalia.co.za
  • 2. Avocado production Westfalia areas in SA Everdon
  • 3. South African Avocado Industry 12 400 ha of avocado orchards Production: Total 70 000-100 000 t Export: 35 000-50 000 t (50-60%) Local market: 20 000-30 000 t Processed 13 000t
  • 4. Nursery tree sales 2003-4: Scion Cultivars Hass Ryan Fuerte Ander Other Lamb Hass Pinkerton Reed Source: SA Avocado Growers Association
  • 5. Nursery tree sales 2007-8: Scion Cultivars Hass Fuerte Ryan Maluma Hass Rinton Pinkerton Lamb Hass Reed Zutano Gem Other Source: SA Avocado Growers Association
  • 6. Nursery tree sales 2007-8:Avocado rootstocks, approx 350 000 Dusa™ planted to date. (SA Avocado Growers Association) Duke 7 seedling Edranol seedling 2% 2% Velvick seedling 17% Dusa™ 36% Zutano seedling 3% Bounty 13% Duke 7 27%
  • 7. Westfalia: SA’s largest avocado grower 1312 ha Avocado orchards • 887 ha conventional • 425 ha certified organic SA’s largest exporter of avocado (together with outgrowers) ±50% of SA crop EU 2nd largest importer of avocado (40-50 kt)
  • 8. Vertically integrated company with own: R&D company nursery, orchards, packing houses, marketing companies in SA and EU, Ripe-&-Ready-To-Eat pre-packing units (SA and EU) Processing units • Avocado oil (culinary and cosmetic) • Avocado pulp and Guacamole
  • 9. Westfalia Technological Services (WTS) Research into avocado and mango Horticulture Pathology Entomology Well known internationally for avocado rootstock breeding, screening, selection and evaluation.
  • 10. Avocado rootstock breeding & screening at WTS Breeding Block Screening of seedlings in P.c. infested substrate
  • 11. Results after 6 weeks of P.c. exposure Healthy seedling selections cloned
  • 12. WTS rootstock evaluation orchard (high P.c. pressure, no treatment) Block 1 Block 2 Block 3
  • 13. Rootstock Evaluation Block 8-year old Hass trees on various rootstocks 100 2.5 Cumulative Yield (t/ha) 80 2.0 Health Rating (0-10) 60 1.5 40 1.0 20 0.5 0 0.0 R0.06 Latas® Duke 7 2003 Rootstock 2005 2004 2006 2007 2008 Tree health
  • 14. Commercial evaluation Farm Climate, soil, altitude Rootstocks compared Tzaneen Warm moist, clay soils, Alt. Dusa® Latas™ 800m. Mooketsi Hot dry, sandy loam soil, Alt. Dusa® (Root- 500m. stock A) Soekmekaar Cool moist, Clay loam soil, Dusa® Duke 7 Alt. 1200m. Politsi Valley Cool wet, Clay oxisols, Alt. Dusa® Duke 7 1000m. Schagen Cool climate, sandy-clay loam Dusa® Latas™ (Root- Alt. 800m. stock A)
  • 15. Yield of commercial orchards with different rootstocks (unpublished data, Z. van Rooyen, 2009)
  • 16. Dusa™ Dusa™ Duke 7 Duke 7
  • 17. Hass/Dusa™ Hass/Dusa™ Hass/Duke 7 Mooketsi, South Africa, 2009
  • 18. California Merensky 2 (Dusa); Merensky 1 (Latas) Excellent results obtained by Menge (UC) led to commercial release in California 2002. Now the leading clonal rootstock in Ca. (Brokaw) Dusa is currently the standard Pc-tolerant rootstock in UC rootstock evaluations.
  • 19. Taylor Ranch, California
  • 20. Australia (D. Le Lagadec, 2009) Avg cumulative yields - Has on clonal roots s tocks 250 200 Avg Yield (kg/tree) 150 100 50 0 Duke 7 Velvick C BC62 BC101 BM2 BC197 BC16 BC19 BC7 BM1 BC128 2006 2007 2008 2009
  • 21. Dusa Dusa Latas
  • 22. Conclusions •Clonal rootstocks continue to dominate SA rootstock sales and plantings. •Merensky2 (Dusa™) continues to dominate SA and Californian clonal rootstock plantings. •No one rootstock is optimal for all conditions •The use of superior genetics remains the most sustainable way to increase yields and live with Phytophthora cinnamomi and other diseases. •Westfalia to continue its breeding programme so that improved rootstocks become available for future use.
  • 23. THE END

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