An accident is mishap ,misadventure or an unforeseen and
unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention
or necessity It usually implies a generally negative outcome which
might have been avoided or prevented had circumstances leading up
to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its
occurrence. Injury prevention refers to activities designed to foresee
and avoid accidents.
O Accident at work is a "discrete occurrence in
the course of work" leading to physical or
mental Occupational injury.
O Under factories act 1948 “an occurrence in an
industrial establishment causing body injury to one
or more persons which makes him unfit to resume
his work for next 48 hrs.”
Physical and non-physical :
• Physical examples of accidents include unintended collisions or falls, being injured by touching
something sharp, hot, or electrical, or ingesting poison. Non-physical examples are unintentionally
revealing a secret or otherwise saying something incorrectly, forgetting an appointment, etc.
• Accidents during the execution of work or arising out of it are called work accidents. According
to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 337 million accidents happen on the
job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases, in more than 2.3 million deaths
• In contrast, leisure-related accidents are mainly sports injuries.
• Rail accident
• Aviation accidents
• Bicycle accidents
• Sailing ship accidents
• Traffic collisions
• Train wrecks
• Tram accidents
• Industrial Accidents.
Incidents that fall within the definition of occupational
accidents include cases of acute poisoning, attacks by
humans and animals, insects etc., slips and falls on
pavements or staircases, traffic collisions, and accidents
on board means of transportation in the course of work,
accidents in airports, stations and so on.
Even a minor accident may bring down the
morale of workers ,it may lead to the wastage
of time of the employees & organization thus
leading to a lower production.
Put formal safety policies and procedures in
Communicate your expectations for a safe work
Inspect facilities regularly with a safety
Make right tools available so that employees don't
have to improvise.
Consider investing in first-aid training or, at the very
least, a first aid kit.
Make sure workplace entrances and exits are fully
operational and easily accessible.
Most Important “Be Careful.”
• Some employees are more accident prone as
compared to others.
According to T.W. Harrell,
“Accident Proneness is the continuing tendency of a
person to have accidents as a result of his stable and
• If two individuals are working on similar machines
under identical circumstances, one may commit more
accidents than the other. The former employee will be
called an “accident-prone operator ”.
• Accident proneness is a condition in which a “human
being is mentally inclined, strongly disposed ,
attitudinally addicted or personally destined to become
continually involved in an on-going and never-ending
series of accidents or injuries”.
• Thus, some people may be more often involved in
accidents than others. In other words, they are ‘accident-
• They get involved in accidents, muscular weakness, emotional
instability, visual disability, recklessness, hostility and
indifference. A person who is prone to accident is also known as
Accident proneness, also known as clumsiness, is the conception
that some people might have predisposition, or that they might
be more likely to suffer accidents, such as car crashes and
industrial injuries, than other people.
Definition of Accident
In other words accident prone refers to anyone who seems
to be more susceptible to accidents and injuries than others.
This may be due to disability or merely clumsiness.
3 - KEYS
1) Openness -: This is the tendency to learn from
experience and to be open to suggestions from others,
but too much openness can increase accident risk.
A team of British researchers identified 3 key personality
traits of people who are not accident prone which are as
2) Dependability -: This is the tendency to be
conscientious and socially responsible.
3) Agreeableness -: This is the tendency to be aggressive
or self controlled.
Accidents could be
measured by Two important
measures as given below↓
For Measuring Accident
Accident Frequency Rate= (No. of
injuries×1,00,000)∕ No. of human hours
Accident Severity Rate= (No. of human
day lost time×1,00,000)∕No. of human
hours worked ..
Investigating the causes of an accident or
series of accidents so as to prevent
further incidents of similar kind is known
as “Accident Analysis” . It may be
performed by a range of experts,
including forensic scientists , forensic
engineers or health and safety advisers.
Accident analysis is performed
in four steps:
After an accident happened, a
forensic process starts to gather all
possibly relevant facts that may
contribute to understanding the
After the forensic process has been
completed or at least delivered some
results, the facts are put together to give
a "big picture." The history of the
accident is reconstructed and checked
for consistency and plausibility.
If the accident history is
sufficiently informative ,
conclusions can be drawn about
causation and contributing
Slip or fall on floors and stair casings
Some Miscellaneous Causes
The number of accidents is more in
manufacturing industries as compared to
Mining & construction are considered as
The rate of accidents is generally higher in
case of employees who are fatigued.
The frequency of accidents on high speed
machines is higher.
The possibility of accidents in case of newly
employed workers and young workers is
more as compared to experienced workers.
Tension or disturbed state of mind leads to
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