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  • 13. What is the Monetary Policy?
    The Monetary and Credit Policy is the policy statement, traditionally announced twice a year, through which the Reserve Bank of India seeks to ensure price stability for the economy.
    These factors include - money supply, interest rates and the inflation. In banking and economic terms money supply is referred to as M3 - which indicates the level (stock) of legal currency in the economy.
    Besides, the RBI also announces norms for the banking and financial sector and the institutions which are governed by it.
  • 14. What is the Monetary Policy?
    The Monetary and Credit Policy is the policy statement, traditionally announced twice a year, through which the Reserve Bank of India seeks to ensure price stability for the economy.
    These factors include - money supply, interest rates and the inflation. In banking and economic terms money supply is referred to as M3 - which indicates the level (stock) of legal currency in the economy.
    Besides, the RBI also announces norms for the banking and financial sector and the institutions which are governed by it.
  • 15. How is the Monetary Policy different from the Fiscal Policy?
    The Monetary Policy regulates the supply of money and the cost and availability of credit in the economy. It deals with both the lending and borrowing rates of interest for commercial banks.
    The Monetary Policy aims to maintain price stability, full employment and economic growth.
    The Monetary Policy is different from Fiscal Policy as the former brings about a change in the economy by changing money supply and interest rate, whereas fiscal policy is a broader tool with the government.
    The Fiscal Policy can be used to overcome recession and control inflation. It may be defined as a deliberate change in government revenue and expenditure to influence the level of national output and prices.
  • 16. What are the objectives of the Monetary Policy?
    The objectives are to maintain price stability and ensure adequate flow of credit to the productive sectors of the economy.
    Stability for the national currency (after looking at prevailing economic conditions), growth in employment and income are also looked into. The monetary policy affects the real sector through long and variable periods while the financial markets are also impacted through short-term implications.
  • 17. INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY
    1. Bank Rate of Interest
    2. Cash Reserve Ratio
    3. Statutory Liquidity Ratio
    4. Open market Operations
    5. Margin Requirements
    6. Deficit Financing
    7. Issue of New Currency
    8. Credit Control
  • 18. Bank Rate of Interest
    It is the interest rate which is fixed by the RBI to control the lending capacity of Commercial banks . During Inflation , RBI increases the bank rate of interest due to which borrowing power of commercial banks reduces which thereby reduces the supply of money or credit in the economy .When Money supply Reduces it reduces the purchasing power and thereby curtailing Consumption and lowering Prices.
    CURRENT BANK OF INTEREST IS 6%.
  • 19. Cash Reserve Ratio
    CRR, or cash reserve ratio, refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to keep/maintain with the RBI. During Inflation RBI increases the CRR due to which commercial banks have to keep a greater portion of their deposits with the RBI . This serves two purposes. It ensures that a portion of bank deposits is totally risk-free and secondly it enables that RBI control liquidity in the system, and thereby, inflation.
  • 20. Statutory Liquidity Ratio
    Banks are required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements . If SLR increases the lending capacity of commercial banks decreases thereby regulating the supply of money in the economy.
  • 21. Open market Operations
    It refers to the buying and selling of Govt. securities in the open market . During inflation RBI sells securities in the open market which leads to transfer of money to RBI.Thus money supply is controlled in the economy.
  • 22. Margin Requirements
    During Inflation RBI fixes a high rate of margin on the securities kept by the public for loans .If the margin increases the commercial banks will give less amount of credit on the securities kept by the public thereby controlling inflation.
  • 23. Deficit Financing
    It means printing of new currency notes by Reserve Bank of India .If more new notes are printed it will increase the supply of money thereby increasing demand and prices.
    Thus during Inflation, RBI will stop printing new currency notes thereby controlling inflation.
  • 24. Issue of New Currency
    During Inflation the RBI will issue new currency notes replacing many old notes.
    This will reduce the supply of money in the economy.
  • 25. Fiscal Policy
    It refers to the Revenue and Expenditure policy of the Govt. which is generally used to cure recession and maintain economic stability in the country.
  • 26.
  • 27. Instruments of Fiscal Policy
    1. Reduction of Govt. Expenditure
    2. Increase in Taxation
    3. Imposition of new Taxes
    4. Wage Control
    5.Rationing
    6. Public Debt
    7. Increase in savings
    8. Maintaining Surplus Budget
  • 28. Other Measures
    1. Increase in Imports of Raw materials
    2. Decrease in Exports
    3. Increase in Productivity
    4. Provision of Subsidies
    5. Use of Latest Technology
    6. Rational Industrial Policy
  • 29. Fiscal Policy
    Public Revenue
    Public Debt
    Public
    Expenditure
    Tax
    Revenue
    Non-Tax
    Revenue
    Internal
    Borrowing
    External
    Borrowings
    Direct
    Tax
    Indirect
    Tax
  • 30. PUBLIC DEBT
    BORROWING
    A government that wants to provide a great deal of goods and services to its people while not having the immediate tax revenue to fund that expenditure can turn to the capital markets to borrow the necessary money. They do this primarily by issuing securities, either Treasury Bills or Treasury Bonds.
    EXTERNAL SOURCES are world bank, forreign currencies against gold reserve.
  • 31. PUBLIC EXPENDITURES
    There are two types of expenditures: money spent on the delivery of goods and services and the transfer of funds to other levels of government;Like loans to state govt. and any ministry.
    All of the money that the government spends has a stimulative effect on the economy
  • 32.
  • 33. TAX REVENUE
    Tax is the most important source of the public revenue.
    A tax is a compulsory levy or payment – levied to meet the expenditure incurred for the common benefit of the people of the country. A tax is a mandatory payment nobody can refuse to pay it.
  • 34. Types of Tax Revenue
    Non-Tax Revenueare—
    These are the largest source of income.
    Loans to state Government and Union territories.
    Indian Railways.
    Department of Telecommunications.
    Co-operative and Government Servants.
    Profits from RBI and Nationalised Banks.
    LIC, GIC, NBFIs
    IDBI
    Public Sector Units (PSUs).
  • 35. REFERENCE
    http://www.economictimes.com/
    http://www.rbi.org.in/
    http://www.google.com/
    www.tutor2u.net
    http://www.rbi.org.in/Home / Publications / Annual Report/
  • 36. “AN EYE FOR AN EYE MAKES WHOLE WORLD BLIND”. THANK YOU.