1.>>> B-lactamase enzyme that destroysPencillins and Cephalosporins.2.>>>receptor protein on the 30s ribosomal subunit may be deleted or altered as some aminoglycosides can’t combine with the bacteria, as enterococci.3.>>> absence of o2 dependant membranes
4.>>> gram –ve bacillus can induce some special proteins to block porin channels in cell wall, and prevnt the influx of tetracyclines.5.>>> bac. Produce folic acid, by another pathway to become resistant to sulfonamides.
1.Somem.o. becoming resistance against antibiotics resulting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death2. AMR reduces the effectiveness of treatment because patients remain infectious for longer, thus potentially spreading resistant microorganisms to others.3. Many infectious diseases risk becoming uncontrollable
4.When infections become resistant to first-line medicines, more expensive therapies must be used. The longer duration of illness and treatment, often in hospitals, increases health-care costs and the financial burden to families and societies.5. The achievements of modern medicine are put at risk by AMR. Without effective antimicrobials for care and prevention of infections, the success of treatments such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy and major surgery would be compromised.6. The growth of global trade and travel allows resistant microorganisms to be spread rapidly to distant countries and continents.
q. Slave of habit: Doctors follow the old ways, it is easier to continue to treat the way you're used to than to absorb new information. Also, I think it's good to point out that a large proportion of medical school (especially during the AT and ST) is to learn from older colleagues. Therefore, there is some risk that we pick up bad habits of physicians who do not update their treatment if we are not on us andkeep us updated3. Culture and the patient's requirements: Many patients "know" that antibiotics cureinfections, and if a doctor denies them that they go to someone willing to give them antibiotics.3.Ppl not having the money to by the full dose of the drug or using low quality antibiotics
4…Patient compliance: Finally, one should also mention that, although correct information was given and the drug is prescribed appropriately, there is a tendency in most countries not to do as you were told (people forget what you said, misunderstand references or just want orcan not eat medicine>>>easilyunderdose and develop resistance.
Finally, a picture that addresses the need for better sanitary conditions and that in that way can go far to counteract development of resistance. It is important to remember that preventive measures often cost less and are just as effective when working with health problems.
--pls be with me and think about you…you being a doctor…patient comes to you with a dangerous infectious diss….but you can’t find a single antibiotic to prescribe for the patient to be cure??Imagine the situation,,, feel the situation…would you, by any chance want that???Well, we would not be more late to start action on the subject and do actual plans about it…..
Aveen OmerHawler College of Medicine/Kurdistan
What are antibiotics? The word antibiotic comes from the Greek anti meaning against and bios meaning life‘ Antibiotics are also known as antibacterials.
Drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria.An antibacterial is a compound or substance that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria
How Antibiotics work? Many mechanism:1. inhibiting cell wall growth and synthesis.2.Alter ribosomal function by inhibiting protein synthesis. 3. Interfere with replication of DNA or RNA.
4. Drugs block the metabolic pathway essential for the life of the micro-organism.5. Disruption of the cell membrane permeability.
What’s antibiotic resistance? Occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth.The bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.
How bacteria get resistance to Antibiotics?? Mechanisms:1. Production of drug-inactivation enzymes.2. Structural modification of antibiotic target site.3. Anaerobic bacteria are resistant to the actions of Aminoglycosides
4.Altered uptake of antibiotics>> resulting in decreased permeability, increased efflux.5. Development of alternative metabolic pathways.
Why is antimicrobialresistance a global concern?
1. Antibiotic resistance kills.2. Antibiotic resistance impedes the controlof infectious agents.3. with the problem of Antibioticresistance progressing.. Threats increaseto return to the pre-antibiotic era!
4. Resistance of infectious agents toantibiotics, increases the costs of healthcare.5. Jeopardizes health-care gains to society.6. Threatens health security, and damagestrade and economies.
Causes of Antibiotic resistance spreading; 1. Doctors who have become slave ofhabit.2. prescribing>> without checking for theantibiotic sensitivity tests and also usingbroad spectrum antibiotics.3. Cultural conceptions and patientsdemands.4.Antibiotics are on the-counter drugs.
5. poverty6. Patient compliance7.The enormous growth of global trade andtravel•“Trade and travel have increased the speed andfacility with which both infectious diseases andresistant microorganisms can spread betweencontinents.”
8.Antibiotic use in food productionand animal care In several parts of the world, morethan 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobialproduction is used in food-producinganimals.