COMPUTERCOMPUTER
GENERATIONSGENERATIONS
HISTORY OF COMPUTERSHISTORY OF COMPUTERS
When the human race started doingWhen the human race started doing
some trade , i...
CHARLES BABBAGECHARLES BABBAGE
Charles Baggage is the Father ofCharles Baggage is the Father of
Modern Digital Computer. I...
MARK I COMPUTERSMARK I COMPUTERS
The Mark I Computer also calledThe Mark I Computer also called
as Automatic Sequenceas Au...
ATANASTOFF COMPUTERATANASTOFF COMPUTER
This computer is named after itsThis computer is named after its
developer , the pr...
ENIACENIAC
The Electronic NumericalThe Electronic Numerical
Integrator And CalculatorIntegrator And Calculator
was the fir...
EDVACEDVAC
The Electronic Discrete VariableThe Electronic Discrete Variable
Automatic Computer was theAutomatic Computer w...
EDSACEDSAC
Almost simultaneously with EDVACAlmost simultaneously with EDVAC
The britisher’s developed theThe britisher’s d...
UNIVACUNIVAC
The Universal Automatic ComputerThe Universal Automatic Computer
was the first digital computerwas the first ...
COMPUTERCOMPUTER
GENERATIONSGENERATIONS
The word generation in computer means a step in technology.The word generation in ...
FIRST GENERATIONFIRST GENERATION
The early electronic computers usedThe early electronic computers used
vacuum tubes to co...
CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS
1.1. They were fastest calculating device of their time.They were fastest calculating devic...
SECOND GENERATIONSECOND GENERATION
The computers of the secondThe computers of the second
generation were introducedgenera...
CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS
1.1. They were more rugged and easier to handle than tubesThey were more rugged and easier ...
THIRD GENERATIONTHIRD GENERATION
The introduction of the integratedThe introduction of the integrated
chips opened the doo...
CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS
1.1. They were 10 times faster than second generationThey were 10 times faster than second ...
FOURTH GENERATIONFOURTH GENERATION
There were about 10 to 20There were about 10 to 20
components contained in IC. Withcomp...
CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS
1.1. The pc’s were much smaller and cheaper than theThe pc’s were much smaller and cheaper ...
FIFTH GENERATIONFIFTH GENERATION
Scientists are working onScientists are working on
the development of thethe development ...
A POWERPOINTA POWERPOINT
PRESENTATIONPRESENTATION
BYBY
AVASYU GUPTAAVASYU GUPTA
IX DIX D
ROLL NO. 8ROLL NO. 8
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Computer generations

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Computer generations

  1. 1. COMPUTERCOMPUTER GENERATIONSGENERATIONS
  2. 2. HISTORY OF COMPUTERSHISTORY OF COMPUTERS When the human race started doingWhen the human race started doing some trade , it felt a need for asome trade , it felt a need for a calculating device . Early mancalculating device . Early man developed a device known asdeveloped a device known as ABACUS. This was used mainlyABACUS. This was used mainly in China and Japan. Blaise Pascalin China and Japan. Blaise Pascal developed first mechanical devicedeveloped first mechanical device in 1642. In 1671 a Germanin 1642. In 1671 a German mathematician developed a devicemathematician developed a device which took out add, subtract,which took out add, subtract, multiply, division and even squaremultiply, division and even square root.root.
  3. 3. CHARLES BABBAGECHARLES BABBAGE Charles Baggage is the Father ofCharles Baggage is the Father of Modern Digital Computer. InModern Digital Computer. In 1833 he proposed a machine and1833 he proposed a machine and named it analytical engine. Henamed it analytical engine. He spent much of his time in buildingspent much of his time in building this machine but never succeededthis machine but never succeeded as the precision engineeringas the precision engineering required to build this was notrequired to build this was not available at that time. Theavailable at that time. The principles established by him areprinciples established by him are used in making of modern digitalused in making of modern digital computers.computers.
  4. 4. MARK I COMPUTERSMARK I COMPUTERS The Mark I Computer also calledThe Mark I Computer also called as Automatic Sequenceas Automatic Sequence Controlled calculator was theControlled calculator was the first fully automatic calculatingfirst fully automatic calculating machine. It was not an electronicmachine. It was not an electronic computer. Rather it was ancomputer. Rather it was an electromechanical computer. Theelectromechanical computer. The size was huge and design complexsize was huge and design complex but it was quite reliable. It hadbut it was quite reliable. It had the capacity to perform five basicthe capacity to perform five basic functions.functions.
  5. 5. ATANASTOFF COMPUTERATANASTOFF COMPUTER This computer is named after itsThis computer is named after its developer , the professor ofdeveloper , the professor of Physics and Mathematics ,Physics and Mathematics , Doctor John VincentDoctor John Vincent Atanastoff . It was the firstAtanastoff . It was the first electronic computer. It waselectronic computer. It was developed to solve certaindeveloped to solve certain mathematical operations. Itmathematical operations. It used 45 vacuum tubes forused 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitorsinternal logic and capacitors for storagefor storage
  6. 6. ENIACENIAC The Electronic NumericalThe Electronic Numerical Integrator And CalculatorIntegrator And Calculator was the first machine . It waswas the first machine . It was developed by J Presper Eckertdeveloped by J Presper Eckert Jr. and John W Mauchly . ItJr. and John W Mauchly . It used 19000 vacuum tubes . Itused 19000 vacuum tubes . It covered 800 sq. feet. It couldcovered 800 sq. feet. It could do 300 calculations per seconddo 300 calculations per second but it couldn’t be storedbut it couldn’t be stored internally , these were fedinternally , these were fed through electrically wiredthrough electrically wired plug boards.plug boards.
  7. 7. EDVACEDVAC The Electronic Discrete VariableThe Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was theAutomatic Computer was the first effort to develop a storedfirst effort to develop a stored instruction computer. A teaminstruction computer. A team led by J. Presper Eckert Jr.led by J. Presper Eckert Jr. and John W Mauchly made it.and John W Mauchly made it. Its design concepts were thatIts design concepts were that both data and instructions canboth data and instructions can be stored in binary form. Thisbe stored in binary form. This influenced the development ofinfluenced the development of modern digital computers.modern digital computers.
  8. 8. EDSACEDSAC Almost simultaneously with EDVACAlmost simultaneously with EDVAC The britisher’s developed theThe britisher’s developed the Electronic Delay StorageElectronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. The teamAutomatic Calculator. The team lead by professor Maurice Wilkeslead by professor Maurice Wilkes developed it . In this , additiondeveloped it . In this , addition operations were accomplished inoperations were accomplished in 1500 microseconds and1500 microseconds and multiplication operations in 4000multiplication operations in 4000 microseconds . It held it’s firstmicroseconds . It held it’s first program demonstration in Mayprogram demonstration in May 19491949
  9. 9. UNIVACUNIVAC The Universal Automatic ComputerThe Universal Automatic Computer was the first digital computerwas the first digital computer which was not of one kind. Manywhich was not of one kind. Many computers were produced, thecomputers were produced, the first of which was installed infirst of which was installed in Census Bureau of 1951 and wasCensus Bureau of 1951 and was used continuously for 10 years.used continuously for 10 years. The first business use of aThe first business use of a computer , a UNIVAC I , was bycomputer , a UNIVAC I , was by General Electric Corporation inGeneral Electric Corporation in 19541954
  10. 10. COMPUTERCOMPUTER GENERATIONSGENERATIONS The word generation in computer means a step in technology.The word generation in computer means a step in technology. It provides a framework for the growth of the computerIt provides a framework for the growth of the computer industry. The term is used to distinguish between theindustry. The term is used to distinguish between the hardware and software components, which make the entirehardware and software components, which make the entire computer systemcomputer system The custom of referring to the computer era in terms ofThe custom of referring to the computer era in terms of generations came into wide use only after 1964. there aregenerations came into wide use only after 1964. there are total five generations known today.total five generations known today.
  11. 11. FIRST GENERATIONFIRST GENERATION The early electronic computers usedThe early electronic computers used vacuum tubes to control flow ofvacuum tubes to control flow of electricity. Vacuum tubes are big inelectricity. Vacuum tubes are big in size and produce a lot of heat.size and produce a lot of heat. Because of this first generationBecause of this first generation computers were too bulky in sizecomputers were too bulky in size and produced a lot of heat.and produced a lot of heat. Therefore, they needed airTherefore, they needed air conditioning. The vacuum tubesconditioning. The vacuum tubes used to burn out frequently . Soused to burn out frequently . So these can not be used regularly andthese can not be used regularly and had to be stoppedhad to be stopped
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS 1.1. They were fastest calculating device of their time.They were fastest calculating device of their time. 2.2. They were too bulky in size requiring large rooms forThey were too bulky in size requiring large rooms for installationsinstallations 3.3. Thousands of vacuum tubes emitted heat and burn outThousands of vacuum tubes emitted heat and burn out frequently. Rooms storing these had to be air conditioned.frequently. Rooms storing these had to be air conditioned. 4.4. As vacuum tubes used filaments they had a limited life.As vacuum tubes used filaments they had a limited life. 5.5. Due to such low time means failure, these computersDue to such low time means failure, these computers required almost constant maintenance.required almost constant maintenance. 6.6. Since these types of computers were very difficult toSince these types of computers were very difficult to program and use they had limited commercial use.program and use they had limited commercial use.
  13. 13. SECOND GENERATIONSECOND GENERATION The computers of the secondThe computers of the second generation were introducedgeneration were introduced around 1959. These were made ofaround 1959. These were made of transistors , a smaller and moretransistors , a smaller and more reliable component invented inreliable component invented in 1947 . A transistor is very small1947 . A transistor is very small to vacuum tubes and producesto vacuum tubes and produces very little heat. The use ofvery little heat. The use of transistors in computers made thetransistors in computers made the second generation computerssecond generation computers faster, smaller and reliablefaster, smaller and reliable
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS 1.1. They were more rugged and easier to handle than tubesThey were more rugged and easier to handle than tubes since they were made of germanium semiconductor.since they were made of germanium semiconductor. 2.2. They were highly reliable as compared to tubes since theyThey were highly reliable as compared to tubes since they had no part like filament making it burn out.had no part like filament making it burn out. 3.3. They could switch 10 times faster than tubes.They could switch 10 times faster than tubes. 4.4. They consume almost one tenth of power consumed byThey consume almost one tenth of power consumed by tube.tube. 5.5. They were much smaller in size than a tube.They were much smaller in size than a tube. 6.6. They were less expensive to produce.They were less expensive to produce. 7.7. They dissipated much less heat than vacuum tubes.They dissipated much less heat than vacuum tubes.
  15. 15. THIRD GENERATIONTHIRD GENERATION The introduction of the integratedThe introduction of the integrated chips opened the door for thechips opened the door for the development of third generationdevelopment of third generation computers. A very large no. ofcomputers. A very large no. of circuit elements could be integratedcircuit elements could be integrated into a very small surface of silicon.into a very small surface of silicon. These computers were based on IC .These computers were based on IC . These were faster, smaller, andThese were faster, smaller, and more reliable than secondmore reliable than second generation. The System/360 wasgeneration. The System/360 was the first third generation computerthe first third generation computer introduced by IBMintroduced by IBM
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS 1.1. They were 10 times faster than second generationThey were 10 times faster than second generation computers. They were able to reduce timecomputers. They were able to reduce time 2.2. They were much smaller in size requiring smaller space forThey were much smaller in size requiring smaller space for installationsinstallations 3.3. Although they dissipated less heat the rooms had to be airAlthough they dissipated less heat the rooms had to be air conditioned.conditioned. 4.4. They were more reliable and less prone to hardwareThey were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures.failures. 5.5. They had faster and larger primary and secondary storageThey had faster and larger primary and secondary storage devices.devices.
  17. 17. FOURTH GENERATIONFOURTH GENERATION There were about 10 to 20There were about 10 to 20 components contained in IC. Withcomponents contained in IC. With advancement of technology itadvancement of technology it contained over 30000 componentscontained over 30000 components and became to be known as Largeand became to be known as Large Scale Integration. FourthScale Integration. Fourth generation computers were based ongeneration computers were based on LSI chips. Because of the veryLSI chips. Because of the very small size of the IC’s used in fourthsmall size of the IC’s used in fourth generation computers, that’s whygeneration computers, that’s why these are small, powerful, cheapthese are small, powerful, cheap
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICS 1.1. The pc’s were much smaller and cheaper than theThe pc’s were much smaller and cheaper than the mainframe of third generations computers.mainframe of third generations computers. 2.2. No air conditioning was required for PC’sNo air conditioning was required for PC’s 3.3. They consumed less powerThey consumed less power 4.4. They were much more reliable and less prone to hardwareThey were much more reliable and less prone to hardware faults hence the maintenance cost was negligible.faults hence the maintenance cost was negligible. 5.5. They were totally general purpose machines.They were totally general purpose machines. 6.6. GUI enabled users how to learn to use it.GUI enabled users how to learn to use it. 7.7. They had faster and larger primary memory and secondaryThey had faster and larger primary memory and secondary storage devicesstorage devices
  19. 19. FIFTH GENERATIONFIFTH GENERATION Scientists are working onScientists are working on the development of thethe development of the fifth generationfifth generation computers that willcomputers that will have intelligence ,have intelligence , ability to reason andability to reason and learn , knowledge of thelearn , knowledge of the real world , and whichreal world , and which can understand and talkcan understand and talk in natural language.in natural language.
  20. 20. A POWERPOINTA POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONPRESENTATION BYBY AVASYU GUPTAAVASYU GUPTA IX DIX D ROLL NO. 8ROLL NO. 8

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