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Tx history-ch-20.3

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  • 1. Chapter 20: The Indian Wars Section 3: The Red River War
  • 2. The Battle of Adobe Walls
    • Spring 1874: Situation desperate for Plains Indians
    • Isatai calls for war to drive out buffalo hunters
    • June 1874: Plains Indians leaders, including Quanah Parker & Lone Wolf meet
    Quanah Parker
  • 3. The Battle of Adobe Walls
    • Target trading post at Adobe Walls
    • Battle of Adobe Walls —where 700 Indians attacked a trading post and were defeated by fewer than 30 whites with buffalo guns
  • 4. The caption on this illustration reads: "Glistening with war paint and decked in his battle raiment, every Indian believed that he galloped to certain victory." “ The Battle of Adobe Walls," Pearson's Magazine , January 1908.
  • 5. The Battle of Adobe Walls
    • Four defenders died
    • 12 to 30 Indians died
    • Plains Indians launch attacks in CO, KS, NM, OK, & TX
  • 6. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Gen. William T. Sherman ordered to attack raiding Indians “wherever found…the Reservation lines should be no barrier.”
    • Gens. Sherman & Sheridan organize campaign to remove Indians
    General William T. Sherman
  • 7. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • August 1874: army begins offensive known as “Red River War”
    • 3000 troops divided into 5 groups headed toward Indian villages along upper Red River
  • 8. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Texas Rangers participated
    • Col. Nelson Miles led force of 750 soldiers against 600 Cheyenne who escaped in late August
  • 9. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Maj. William Price defeated a band of Indians near Sweetwater Creek
    • Col. John Davidson & LTC George Buell’s forces destroyed many Indian villages and forced many Indians onto reservations
  • 10. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie learned that Comanche, Kiowa, & Cheyenne are camping in Palo Duro Canyon
    Palo Duro Canyon
  • 11. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Sept. 28, 1874: Mackenzie & 500 troops enter canyon
    • Launch surprise attack against villages
    • Killed three Comanche
    Ranald Mackenzie
  • 12. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Mackenzie defeated the Comanche at Palo Duro Canyon by destroying their villages, horses & supplies
    • Flee out on the Plains
  • 13. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Leave behind supplies, including 1400 horses
    • Mackenzie ordered horses shot
    • Ordered men to burn villages
  • 14. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
    • Battle of Palo Duro Canyon —battle which finally defeated the Texas Plains Indians by wiping out their horses, villages, & supplies
    • Indians left with no choice but to accept reservation life