Tx history-ch-19.2

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Tx history-ch-19.2

  1. 1. Chapter 19: Reconstruction Section 2: Congressional Reconstruction
  2. 2. Thinking Question <ul><li>What come to mind when you here the word “radical”? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Andrew Johnson & Presidential Reconstruction
  4. 4. Radical Republicans & Congressional Reconstruction
  5. 5. Radical Republicans React <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners elected people who had led rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws passed that benefited wealthy landowners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denying equal rights and violence against African Americans </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Radical Republicans React <ul><li>Radical Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed Congress needed to take a greater role in Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyal state governments could only be created with participation of Unionists & African Americans </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Radical Republicans React <ul><li>Radical Republicans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to give African American men the right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through Congress </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Radical Republicans React <ul><li>President Johnson vetoes Civil Rights Act of 1866: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed act gave too much power to federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected principle of equal rights </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Radical Republicans React <ul><li>Congress reacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress overturns veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment to U.S. Constitution —guaranteed citizenship and equal rights to African Americans </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>1866 elections: Republicans gain majorities in both houses of Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passes Reconstruction Acts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern state governments again declared provisional </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Congress passes Reconstruction Acts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South divided into 5 military districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States had to write new constitutions guaranteeing African American rights & suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratify 14 th Amendment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Marked beginning of Congressional Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional Reconstruction meant that the terms for rejoining the Union were made more difficult. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Texas & Louisiana encompassed the Fifth Military District </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Philip Sheridan —commander of the Fifth Military District </li></ul>General Philip Sheridan
  15. 15. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Gen. Sheridan replaces Gov. Throckmorton with Elisha M. Pease </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>Andrew Johnson —president who tried to block Congressional Reconstruction </li></ul>Andrew Johnson
  17. 17. The Reconstruction Acts <ul><li>President Johnson impeached by the House in 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>President Johnson was NOT removed from office. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Texas Republican Party <ul><li>Congressional Reconstruction led to development of Republican Party in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Unionists, African Americans, & Mexican-Americans </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Texas Republican Party <ul><li>Feb 1868: Republicans had strong turnout in elections for constitutional convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 80% of black men voted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High ranking Confederate and most prewar officeholders could not vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>78 of 90 delegates were Republican, 9 were African American </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Texas Republican Party <ul><li>Republican Party splits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Faction wanted to put Radical Republicans in power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by E.J. Davis & George T. Ruby </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Texas Republican Party <ul><li>George T. Ruby —African American leader of the Union League </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Texas Republican Party <ul><li>Republican Party splits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Andrew J. Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Constitution of 1869 <ul><li>Convention of 1868-69 controlled by Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Gave equal rights to African Americans, including voting </li></ul><ul><li>15 th Amendment—gave African American men right to vote </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Constitution of 1869 <ul><li>The Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave governor power to appoint state judge & officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed term of governor from 2 to 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased school funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School attendance compulsory </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Constitution of 1869 <ul><li>Constitution approved by wide margin </li></ul><ul><li>E.J. Davis elected governor </li></ul><ul><li>14 th & 15 th Amendments ratified </li></ul><ul><li>March 1870: Texas restored to the Union </li></ul>Edmund J. Davis
  26. 26. Congressional Reconstruction Causes Effects <ul><li>former Confederates and planters again in power in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Freedpeople being denied rights </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republican belief that federal government needed to take a stronger role in Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republican belief that Unionists and African Americans had to participate politically to create loyal southern state governments. </li></ul><ul><li>placed under military control </li></ul><ul><li>Required Texas leaders to guarantee rights for African Americans and ratify the Fourteenth Amendment for the state to rejoin the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Right to vote for black Texas men and gains in political office </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Texas Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>Republican control of Texas government </li></ul><ul><li>Texas restored to Union in 1870 </li></ul>

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