Chapter 18: Texas & the Civil WarSection 3: Campaigns in Texas & the Southwest
Thinking QuestionWhy might the Union want tocontrol parts of Texas?
The New Mexico Campaign• After the war began, Texas forces marched into New Mexico and claimed the territory• Fall 1861: three regiments sent to seize the Southwest
The New Mexico Campaign • Henry H. Sibley— Confederate general who attempted to seize control of the Southwest in 1861Henry H. Sibley
The New Mexico Campaign• Sibley and his 2,000 troops defeat 2,500 Union troops at Valverde, NM• Texans seize Albuquerque & Santa Fe• Disease & lack of food
The New Mexico Campaign• March 28, 1862: Sibley’s forces encounter Union forces at Glorieta Pass• Forced to retreat• Union retains control of Southwest
Fighting at Galveston Island• Union Navy blockaded Texas ports• Oct. 1862: Confederate forces retreated Galveston Harbor• Tom Green – Confederate General, assisted in the recapture of Galveston• John Magruder – Confederate General, fought in Battle of Galveston• Galveston an important port
Fighting at Galveston Island • Plans made to recapture Galveston • Two steamboats converted to gunboats by lining sides with Cotton Bale cotton bales
Fighting at Galveston Island• Jan.1, 1863: “Cottonclads” attack Galveston• Union ships retreat• Union troops captured
The Battle of Sabine Pass• Union planned to retake Galveston• September 1863: Union troops set sail from New Orleans with 4,000 troops• Union plan: invade Texas at Sabine Pass, march to Houston, and capture Galveston
The Battle of Sabine Pass• Richard Dowling— commander of the Confederate artillery at the Battle of Sabine Pass Lt. Richard Dowling
The Battle of Sabine Pass• Based at Ft. Griffin• Sept 8, 1863: Union forces attempt to overtake Sabine pass
The Battle of Sabine Pass• Confederate gunners cripple two Union gunboats• Capture 300 Union soldiers
The Coast & South Texas• Union troops wanted to take Brownsville and stop trade between Texas and Mexico• Cotton shipped overseas from Mexico• November 1863: Union forces capture Brownsville
The Coast & South Texas• Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks splits forces• Union troops under command of Col. E.J. Davis attack Laredo• Attack fails
The Coast & South Texas • Santos Benavides— commander who successfully defended Laredo fromSantos Benavides Union forces
The Coast & South Texas• Union forces called out of Brownsville• Brownsville recaptured by the Confederates
The Red River Campaign• Union troops left Brownsville to take part in Red River Campaign• Union wanted to invade Texas from the NE• General Banks & 27,000 soldiers hoped to meet a group of Union soldiers from Arkansas
The Red River Campaign• April 8, 1864: Banks intercepted by Confederate Gen. Richard Taylor at Sabine Crossroads• A Confederate force of only 9,000 force Union troops to turn back
The Red River Campaign• April 18, 1864: Confederate forces intercept Union army moving south from Arkansas• Union forces defeated at Poison Spring, Arkansas• Confederate troops turn back Union attacks on Texas
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