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  • 1. Chapter 18: Texas & the Civil War Section 2: The Civil War Begins
  • 2. Thinking Question
    • What are the Union’s options against the South?
  • 3. A Call to Arms
    • April 1861: Confederate attack on Fort Sumter marked beginning of Civil War
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Fort Sumter—April 4, 1861
  • 7. Fort Sumter—April 1865
  • 8. A Call to Arms
    • Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers
    • Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina secede
    • Thousands of Texans rushed to join Confederate forces.
  • 9. A Call to Arms
    • End of 1861: 25,000 Texans in Confederate army
    • Regiments —units of about 1,000 soldiers
  • 10. A Call to Arms Terry’s Texas Rangers B.F. Terry Hood’s Texas Brigade John Bell Hood Ross’s Texas Brigade Lawrence Sullivan Ross
  • 11.  
  • 12. A Call to Arms
    • Albert Sidney Johnston —Texan who was the second highest-ranking officer in the Confederate army until he was killed in battle
    Albert Sidney Johnston
  • 13.  
  • 14. Texas Readies for War
    • Texas troop ill-equipped
    • Texas government seized federal property
    • Captured $1 million worth of supplies in San Antonio
    • State’s resources put to use
  • 15. Resources & Strategies
    • Northern Advantages:
      • Larger population
      • Railroads
      • Factories
      • Established government
  • 16. Resources & Strategies
    • Southern advantages:
      • Experienced military leaders
      • Experience in riding horses and using firearms
  • 17. Resources & Strategies
    • Confederate strategy:
      • Defensive war
      • South’s greatest resource for trade with the world was cotton
  • 18. Resources & Strategies
    • Union strategy:
      • Blockade of southern seaports
      • Take control of the Mississippi
      • Capture Richmond, Virginia—capital of Confederacy
  • 19. Resources & Strategies
    • War in three theatres:
      • East: Washington D.C. & Richmond
      • Tennessee and Mississippi
      • West of the Mississippi River
  • 20. The Major Battles of the Civil War
    • Major battles took place east of the Mississippi
    • First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861):
      • Union attempt to capture Richmond
      • Union forces drove out of Virginia
  • 21. Home destroyed during First Battle of Bull Run—July 1861
  • 22. The Major Battles of the Civil War
    • Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862):
      • Lee clashes with Union force in Maryland
      • Union victory
      • 12,000 Union casualties
      • 13,000 Confederate casualties
      • Bloodiest day in American History
  • 23. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent
  • 24. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand
  • 25. Battle of Antietam—September 17, 1862
  • 26. Confederate Dead at Antietam
  • 27. The Major Battles of the Civil War
    • Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863)
      • Union victory
      • Lee on defensive for the rest of war
      • 23,000 Union casualties
      • 28,000 Confederate casualties
  • 28. Soldiers at Gettysburg
  • 29. Union and Confederate Dead at Gettysburg
  • 30. The Major Battles of the Civil War
    • The struggle to control the Mississippi River Valley was costly and of major significance to the war.
    • Battle of Shiloh (April 1862):
      • Costly for both sides
      • Albert Sidney Johnston killed
  • 31. The Major Battles of the Civil War
    • Siege of Vicksburg (July 1863):
      • Controlled traffic on Mississippi
      • Six week siege
      • Confederacy split in two
  • 32.  
  • 33. U.S.S. St. Louis (Ironclad)
  • 34. Section 2: The Civil War Begins Northern Strategy Southern Strategy