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Tx history-ch-12.2

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  • 1. Chapter 12: A New Nation Section 2: Houston’s First Term
  • 2. Thinking Question
    • What are the qualities of a good leader?
  • 3. Houston’s Administration
    • Oct 1836: Sam Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas
    Sam Houston
  • 4. Houston’s Administration
    • Houston’s Goals:
      • Peace with American Indians
      • Keep guarded against Mexico
      • Annexation by the U.S.
  • 5. Houston’s Administration Secretary of State: Stephen F. Austin Secretary of the Treasury: Henry Smith
  • 6. Houston’s Administration Secretary of the Navy Samuel Rhodes Fisher Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk
  • 7. Houston’s Administration
    • Supreme Court:
      • Chief Justice James Collinsworth
      • 4 Associate Justices
    • 4 District Courts
    • 23 County Courts
    Chief Justice James Collinsworth
  • 8. Houston’s Administration
    • Texas claimed Rio Grande as boundary
    • Mexico claimed Nueces River as boundary
  • 9. Houston’s Administration
    • Ad interim government moved government to Columbia
    • Late 1836: Houston named temporary capital
  • 10. Houston & Army Unrest
    • Felix Huston : Texas army commander who desired to invade Mexico
    • Replaced by Johnston
    • Duel between Huston & Albert Sydney Johnston
    Felix Huston
  • 11. Houston & Army Unrest
    • Johnston unable to take command
    • Unrest grows
    • Commander urges a march on the capital
    Albert Sidney Johnston
  • 12. Houston & Army Unrest
    • President Houston reduced the size of the army in 1836 because unrest in the army threatened the new government .
    • Houston relied on the Texas Rangers and militia for frontier defense
  • 13. Economic Policies
    • Expenditures —government expenses
    • Revenues —government income
    • National debt = $1.25 million
  • 14. U.S. National Debt
    • Each citizen’s share = $179,355
    • Grows on average of $1.43 billion per day
    As of March 8, 2011 $55,828,955,743,790.11
  • 15. Economic Policies
    • Efforts to solve problems:
      • Collected taxes and duties
      • Tried to get loans from the U.S.
      • Sale of public lands
  • 16. Economic Policies
    • Panic of 1837: Financial crisis during Houston’s administration
    • Began in U.S.
    • Texas heavily traded with the U.S.
  • 17. Economic Policies
    • Limited supply
    • Not backed
    • Value dropped after more paper money was printed
    Republic of Texas Currency
  • 18. Land Policy Under Houston
    • 1836: Texas claimed over 200 million acres in public lands
    • Constitution of 1836 provided for sale of lands
    • Empresario system
  • 19. Land Policy Under Houston
    • Heads of households: 4,604 acres
    • Single men: 1,476 acres
    • Distributed 37 million acres
  • 20. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Conflict spreads as settlement spreads
    • American Indians want to keep land, Texans want to remove Indians
  • 21. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Houston lived with the Cherokee Indians
    • Desired a peaceful solution
    Sam Houston
  • 22. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee
    • Cherokee guaranteed title to land
    • Senate refused to ratify
  • 23. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Ratify —approve or accept formally
    • Cherokee become angry
    • Mexican agents convince Cherokee to attack
  • 24. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Chief Bowles —Cherokee leader and friend of Sam Houston
    • Encourages Cherokee to remain patient
    Chief Bowles
  • 25. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Gave Cherokee land to keep peace
    • Cherokee viewed as Mexican allies
    • Enlisted Chief Bowles to help keep peace with Plains Indians
  • 26. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Establishes line of forts along frontier
    • Used Texas Ranger to patrol frontier
    • Texans viewed Indians as a roadblock
  • 27. Houston’s American Indian Policy
    • Negotiated treaties with Indians
    • Houston believed the best American Indian policy was to make peace with each American Indian group.
  • 28. Problem Solution/Action Unruly Army Debt Lack of clear land policy Conflict with Indians

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