Chapter 12:  A New Nation Section 2:  Houston’s First Term
Thinking Question <ul><li>What are the qualities of a good leader? </li></ul>
Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Oct 1836:  Sam Houston  elected president of the Republic of Texas </li></ul>Sam Houston
Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Houston’s Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with American Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Houston’s Administration Secretary of State: Stephen F. Austin Secretary of the Treasury: Henry Smith
Houston’s Administration Secretary of the Navy Samuel Rhodes Fisher Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk
Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Supreme Court: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Justice James Collinsworth </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Texas claimed Rio Grande as boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico claimed Nueces River as bou...
Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Ad interim government moved government to Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1836:  Houston ...
Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>Felix Huston :   Texas army commander who desired to invade Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Replace...
Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>Johnston unable to take command </li></ul><ul><li>Unrest grows </li></ul><ul><li>Commander u...
Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>President Houston reduced the size of the army in 1836 because  unrest in the army threatene...
Economic Policies <ul><li>Expenditures —government expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues —government income </li></ul><ul><l...
U.S. National Debt <ul><li>Each citizen’s share = $179,355 </li></ul><ul><li>Grows on average of $1.43 billion per day   <...
Economic Policies <ul><li>Efforts to solve problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected taxes and duties </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Economic Policies <ul><li>Panic of 1837:   Financial crisis during Houston’s administration </li></ul><ul><li>Began in U.S...
Economic Policies <ul><li>Limited supply </li></ul><ul><li>Not backed </li></ul><ul><li>Value dropped after  more paper mo...
Land Policy Under Houston <ul><li>1836:  Texas claimed over 200 million acres in public lands </li></ul><ul><li>Constituti...
Land Policy Under Houston <ul><li>Heads of households:  4,604 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Single men:  1,476 acres </li></ul><...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Conflict spreads as settlement spreads </li></ul><ul><li>American Indians want to...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Houston lived with the  Cherokee  Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Desired a peaceful so...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee  </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee guarant...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Ratify —approve or accept formally </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee become angry </li><...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Chief Bowles —Cherokee leader and friend of Sam Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Encoura...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Gave Cherokee land to keep peace </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee viewed as Mexican all...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Establishes line of forts along frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Used Texas Ranger to p...
Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Negotiated treaties with Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Houston believed the best Amer...
Problem Solution/Action Unruly Army Debt Lack of clear land policy Conflict with Indians
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Tx history-ch-12.2

  1. 1. Chapter 12: A New Nation Section 2: Houston’s First Term
  2. 2. Thinking Question <ul><li>What are the qualities of a good leader? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Oct 1836: Sam Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas </li></ul>Sam Houston
  4. 4. Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Houston’s Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with American Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep guarded against Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annexation by the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Houston’s Administration Secretary of State: Stephen F. Austin Secretary of the Treasury: Henry Smith
  6. 6. Houston’s Administration Secretary of the Navy Samuel Rhodes Fisher Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk
  7. 7. Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Supreme Court: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Justice James Collinsworth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Associate Justices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 District Courts </li></ul><ul><li>23 County Courts </li></ul>Chief Justice James Collinsworth
  8. 8. Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Texas claimed Rio Grande as boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico claimed Nueces River as boundary </li></ul>
  9. 9. Houston’s Administration <ul><li>Ad interim government moved government to Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1836: Houston named temporary capital </li></ul>
  10. 10. Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>Felix Huston : Texas army commander who desired to invade Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by Johnston </li></ul><ul><li>Duel between Huston & Albert Sydney Johnston </li></ul>Felix Huston
  11. 11. Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>Johnston unable to take command </li></ul><ul><li>Unrest grows </li></ul><ul><li>Commander urges a march on the capital </li></ul>Albert Sidney Johnston
  12. 12. Houston & Army Unrest <ul><li>President Houston reduced the size of the army in 1836 because unrest in the army threatened the new government . </li></ul><ul><li>Houston relied on the Texas Rangers and militia for frontier defense </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Policies <ul><li>Expenditures —government expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues —government income </li></ul><ul><li>National debt = $1.25 million </li></ul>
  14. 14. U.S. National Debt <ul><li>Each citizen’s share = $179,355 </li></ul><ul><li>Grows on average of $1.43 billion per day </li></ul>As of March 8, 2011 $55,828,955,743,790.11
  15. 15. Economic Policies <ul><li>Efforts to solve problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected taxes and duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to get loans from the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale of public lands </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Economic Policies <ul><li>Panic of 1837: Financial crisis during Houston’s administration </li></ul><ul><li>Began in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas heavily traded with the U.S. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Policies <ul><li>Limited supply </li></ul><ul><li>Not backed </li></ul><ul><li>Value dropped after more paper money was printed </li></ul>Republic of Texas Currency
  18. 18. Land Policy Under Houston <ul><li>1836: Texas claimed over 200 million acres in public lands </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1836 provided for sale of lands </li></ul><ul><li>Empresario system </li></ul>
  19. 19. Land Policy Under Houston <ul><li>Heads of households: 4,604 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Single men: 1,476 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed 37 million acres </li></ul>
  20. 20. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Conflict spreads as settlement spreads </li></ul><ul><li>American Indians want to keep land, Texans want to remove Indians </li></ul>
  21. 21. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Houston lived with the Cherokee Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Desired a peaceful solution </li></ul>Sam Houston
  22. 22. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee guaranteed title to land </li></ul><ul><li>Senate refused to ratify </li></ul>
  23. 23. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Ratify —approve or accept formally </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee become angry </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican agents convince Cherokee to attack </li></ul>
  24. 24. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Chief Bowles —Cherokee leader and friend of Sam Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages Cherokee to remain patient </li></ul>Chief Bowles
  25. 25. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Gave Cherokee land to keep peace </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokee viewed as Mexican allies </li></ul><ul><li>Enlisted Chief Bowles to help keep peace with Plains Indians </li></ul>
  26. 26. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Establishes line of forts along frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Used Texas Ranger to patrol frontier </li></ul><ul><li>Texans viewed Indians as a roadblock </li></ul>
  27. 27. Houston’s American Indian Policy <ul><li>Negotiated treaties with Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Houston believed the best American Indian policy was to make peace with each American Indian group. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Problem Solution/Action Unruly Army Debt Lack of clear land policy Conflict with Indians

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