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Tx history 21.4
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Tx history 21.4

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  • 1. Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 4: The Closing of the Open Range
  • 2. Fencing the Open Range• Problems: – Farmers wanted to keep stray cattle out of crops – Little wood on plains to build fences – Illinois woman asks husband to create a fence to keep dogs out of garden
  • 3. Barbed Wire
  • 4. Fencing the Open Range • Joseph F. Glidden— Illinois farmer who invented barbed wireJoseph Glidden
  • 5. Fencing the Open Range• Glidden opened a factory to produce wire• “Light as air…cheap as dirt”• Made large scale fencing easy & inexpensive
  • 6. Fencing the Open Range• The cattle kingdom began to disappear after fences started to enclose the open range
  • 7. The Range Wars• Barbed wire presented problems: – Small property owners surrounded – Public roads blocked off & mail delivery disrupted – Water sources fenced off
  • 8. The Range Wars• Range War—armed conflict over fencing and sheep that erupted during the 1880s
  • 9. The Range Wars• Fence cutting becomes a major issue• 1884: Gov. John Ireland calls an emergency session of the legislature: – Fence cutting illegal – Gates every three miles – Illegal to fence land you do not own
  • 10. The Range Wars• In parts of Texas that were too rugged and dry for cattle, some ranchers turned to sheep herding.
  • 11. Legacy of the Open Range• Death of the Open Range: – Barbed wire and fencing of open range – Extension of rail lines & refrigerated railcars – Overgrazing of land
  • 12. Legacy of the Open Range• Death of the open range: – Introduction of windmills & expansion of farming onto the Plains – Expansion of sheep ranching• Cattle ranching an important part of Texas’ legacy & economy

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