Tx history 21.4

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Tx history 21.4

  1. 1. Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 4: The Closing of the Open Range
  2. 2. Fencing the Open Range• Problems: – Farmers wanted to keep stray cattle out of crops – Little wood on plains to build fences – Illinois woman asks husband to create a fence to keep dogs out of garden
  3. 3. Barbed Wire
  4. 4. Fencing the Open Range • Joseph F. Glidden— Illinois farmer who invented barbed wireJoseph Glidden
  5. 5. Fencing the Open Range• Glidden opened a factory to produce wire• “Light as air…cheap as dirt”• Made large scale fencing easy & inexpensive
  6. 6. Fencing the Open Range• The cattle kingdom began to disappear after fences started to enclose the open range
  7. 7. The Range Wars• Barbed wire presented problems: – Small property owners surrounded – Public roads blocked off & mail delivery disrupted – Water sources fenced off
  8. 8. The Range Wars• Range War—armed conflict over fencing and sheep that erupted during the 1880s
  9. 9. The Range Wars• Fence cutting becomes a major issue• 1884: Gov. John Ireland calls an emergency session of the legislature: – Fence cutting illegal – Gates every three miles – Illegal to fence land you do not own
  10. 10. The Range Wars• In parts of Texas that were too rugged and dry for cattle, some ranchers turned to sheep herding.
  11. 11. Legacy of the Open Range• Death of the Open Range: – Barbed wire and fencing of open range – Extension of rail lines & refrigerated railcars – Overgrazing of land
  12. 12. Legacy of the Open Range• Death of the open range: – Introduction of windmills & expansion of farming onto the Plains – Expansion of sheep ranching• Cattle ranching an important part of Texas’ legacy & economy

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