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Tx history 21.1

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  • 1. Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 1: Early Cattle Ranching
  • 2. Spanish Beginnings• 1500s: Spanish had ranches firmly established in Mexico• 1700s: Cattle moved northward to support missions in Rio Grande & San Antonio River Valleys• Good climate & water supply
  • 3. Spanish Beginnings• First Texas Ranchers: Tejanos who brought knowledge of ranching from Mexico• Brands—marks that made it possible to determine who owned Texas cattle
  • 4. Spanish Beginnings• Cattle drives—herding groups of cattle to market• Cattle driven from South of Rio Grande to supply Spanish military outposts• Driven from SE Texas to Louisiana
  • 5. Spanish Beginnings• Ranching spreads: – East TX: near markets in New Orleans – Central/South TX: rich prairies & moderate climates
  • 6. Spanish Beginnings• Cattle driven out of state: – New Orleans – California after discovery of gold – Ohio
  • 7. Spanish Beginnings• Problems: – Rustlers—thieves – Access to markets – Low population = low demand
  • 8. The Texas Longhorns • Longhorn—a cross between Spanish & EnglishBEVO—it’s what’s for dinner! cattle
  • 9. The Texas Longhorns• Strengths: – Thrived on native grasses – Could endure hot/cold – Could eat prickly pear and survive on little water – Resistant to Texas Fever
  • 10. The Texas Longhorns• “8 pounds of hamburger on 800 pounds of bone and horn.”• Horns provided protection
  • 11. The Texas Longhorns• Texas cattle grew during the Civil War because Union blockades made it difficult to move cattle out of state