Chapter 31.1 local government


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Chapter 31.1 local government

  1. 1. Section 1- Local Government
  2. 2. <ul><li>Precincts – county subdivisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioners’ Court – panel of elected commissioners that governs a county in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor-Council Government – municipal government in which voters elect a mayor and a city council to directly run the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Council-Manager Government – municipal government in which voters elect a mayor and a city council that decide the city’s policies; council chooses a city manager to carry out the policies and handle day-to-day business. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Commission plan – plan of government in which a panel of elected commissioners is in charge of city services. </li></ul><ul><li>Home-rule charters – charters that allow Texas citizens of town of more than 5000 people to choose their form of government. </li></ul><ul><li>General-law cities – small towns or cities that operate under the general laws of the state of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Special districts – type of local government that is formed for a special purpose, often handling services not provided by other local governments. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Local Governments provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State has 254 counties, each with a government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counties are divided into 4 precincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each precinct elects a county commissioner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each county elects a county judge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These make up the commissioners’ court and they serve 4 year terms. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Commissioners’ Court – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare county budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address local issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets county property tax rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property taxes are a major source of revenue for counties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not handle legal cases. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Other County Officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County Sheriff – runs the county jail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County attorney – advises officials and prosecutes misdemeanor criminal cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice of the Peace – hears minor criminal cases and civil cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Clerk – keeps records of the commissioners’ court and keeps deed records of all land in the county. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Other County Officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County Treasurer – receives and pays out of county funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Tax Assessor – makes sure taxes are collected and issue vehicle titles. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>More than 85% of Texans live in urban areas run by municipal governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor-council government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voters elect a mayor and city council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Council-manager government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voters elect a mayor and city council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City managers are chosen to carry out policies made by the elected officials and handle the city’s day-to-day business. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Commission Plan , known also as Galveston Plan, was developed in 1901. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voters elect five to seven commissioners to serve as a city council. Each commissioner supervises a city department. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time, this plan did not work. There are no true commission governments in Texas today. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Two types of municipalities in Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home-rule Charters - cities with populations of more than 5,000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities draft and adopt charters within guidelines set by the state. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pass ordinances, or local laws. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most small cities are known as General-Law cities. They operate under general laws of the state. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>City Government raise revenue from bonds and from property and sales tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Government uses this money to provide services such as police, fire, garbage collection, and utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many cities have parks, swimming pools, and sport leagues for recreation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Special Districts – school districts are the most numerous form of local government in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Districts are formed for a purpose. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Colorado River Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospital Districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation Districts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Forms of Municipal Government </li></ul><ul><li>Council-Manager Mayor-Council Commission </li></ul>People People People Manager Council Mayor Mayor Municipal Departments Council Municipal Departments Council, chooses Mayor Each member is head of a Municipal Departments elects elects elects elects selects