Chapter 27 –WORLD WAR II &THE COLD WARSection 1 – World War II
World War II Begins• After World War I, Italy and Germany turned to a political theory known as fascism. – Fascism – strong government headed by one individual. Adolf Hitler (Germany) Benito Mussolini (Italy)
World War II Begins• When Germany forces invaded Poland in September 1, 1939, World War II began.• Great Britain and France declared war on Germany.
World War II Begins• In Asia, Japan built up its military strength and invaded China in 1937.• On December 7, 1941 Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii to try to stop United States from preventing Japan to expand their control of the Pacific
World War II Begins• Doris Miller became a hero during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
World War II Begins• On December 8, 1941, U.S. declared war on Japan. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.• United States was now fighting with the Allies – Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
World War II Begins• Thousands of Texans rushed to enlist.• Audie Murphy was the nation’s most decorated soldier of the war with 33 awards and medals.
World War II Begins• General Dwight D. Eisenhower served as General Eisenhower commander of all allied forces in Europe.• Admiral Chester W. Nimitz commanded the U.S. fleet in the Pacific. Admiral Nimitz
World War II Begins• Oveta Culp Hobby organized and commanded the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC).
Texas Home Front• 1.2 million army soldiers and 200,000 pilots trained at military bases in Texas.• Many local economies within the state were boosted as Texas businesses provided services to military bases.• As thousands of new jobs were created, the state’s economy boomed and the depression came to an end.
Texas Home Front• Growing economy provided new opportunities for people. – 500,000 Texans, including African Americans, moved to the cities to work in booming industries.
Texas Home Front• Like many other Americans, Texans made sacrifices for the war effort.• Goods such as gasoline, meat, rubber, and sugar were in short supply.• Government rationed, or set aside for each family, a specific amount of goods.
Texas Home Front• To help feed troops, Texas farmers devoted more land than usual to food crops rather than to cotton. Victory Gardens – small vegetable gardens to grow extra food.• Texans also purchased war bonds to finance the war.
Victory for the Allies• While Texans worked hard on the home front, Texas soldiers fought alongside Allied troops that attacked in North Africa and the Pacific during 1942 and 1943.
Victory for the Allies• 1st U.S. Division to invade Europe was the 36th Infantry Division from Texas.• 90th Infantry suffered heavy causalities as it fought its way across Europe.• D-Day (June 6, 1941) Allied troops invaded France to drive out the Germans.
Victory for the Allies• Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945.• As Allied forces entered Germany, they discovered death camps in which millions of people had been killed.• Holocaust – Germany’s attempt to kill the Jews of Europe. Around 6 million Jews were killed.
Victory for the Allies• War in Europe ended, but the war in Pacific still continued.• Texas units, included 103rd Infantry Division and 144th Infantry Division, saw extensive action in the Pacific.• On August 6, 1945, United States dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Three days later, the bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
Hiroshima, Japan Nagasaki, Japan
Victory for the Allies• Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945.• World War II was over.• Some 50 million people died worldwide as a result of the war. Of the more than 400,000 Americans who died, 23,000 were Texans.
Victory for the Allies• Texans and the people around the world turned to the task of rebuilding after the war.