Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
RARE EARTHS 101 
THE BASicS, EconomicS, Supply cHAin 
And ApplicATionS
RARE EARTH BASicS 
3 
Li 
4 
Be 
40Z 
r 
41 
Nb 
31 
Ga 
32 Ge 
72 Hf 
73 
Ta 
39 
Y 
57 
La 
58 Ce 
59 Pr 
60 Nd 
61 
Pm ...
RARE EARTH EconomicS 
China continues to dominate the rare earths market in both production and consumption. It is forecas...
RARE EARTHS liFEcyclE 
RareMetalsMatter.com 
is a place to explore advances in rare metal 
material science and applicatio...
nit iati l RGplobrtaing e ve I WKH³*5,´
V rsion e poGlo3n. 1also r. eAva rt man or e sr fonc pe 
LQGLFDWRUVIURPWKH0LQLQJ$VVRFLDWLRQRIDQDGD¶VµTow rd S usitnable a ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Rare Earths 101

728

Published on

Rare Earth Elements: The Basics, Economics, Supply Chain, and Applications

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
728
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Rare Earths 101"

  1. 1. RARE EARTHS 101 THE BASicS, EconomicS, Supply cHAin And ApplicATionS
  2. 2. RARE EARTH BASicS 3 Li 4 Be 40Z r 41 Nb 31 Ga 32 Ge 72 Hf 73 Ta 39 Y 57 La 58 Ce 59 Pr 60 Nd 61 Pm 62 Sm 63 Eu 64 Gd 65 Tb 66 Dy 67 Ho 49 In 68 Er 50 Sn 69 Tm 70 Yb 71 Lu Other Rare Metals Light Rare Earths Heavy Rare Earths 37 Rb 55 Cs The rare earth elements are the 15 lanthanides: lanthanum (La - #57) through to lutetium (Lu - #71), plus yttrium (Y - #39) REE are grouped as light rare earth elements (LREE) or heavy rare earth elements (HREE). While they are not particularly “rare” in the earth’s crust, they are generally not concentrated in commercially viable ore deposits. LREE (Light rare earth elements) *Those in bold have been identified as “critical” rare earth elements by the U.S. Department of Energy c omm o n pRo pE R T i ES o F R A RE E ART H S Silver, silvery-white, or gray High luster, but tarnish in air High electrical conductivity Occur together in minerals Many fluoresce strongly under UV lighting High melting and boiling points Catalytic, chemical, electrical, metallurgical, nuclear, magnetic and optical properties Most REE compounds are strongly paramagnetic Lanthanum (La) Cerium (Ce) Praseodymium (Pr) Neodymium (Nd) Samarium (Sm) Europium (Eu) Gadolinium (Gd) Terbium (Tb) Dysprosium (Dy) Holmium (Ho) Erbium (Er) Thulium (Tm) Ytterbium (Yb) Lutetium (Lu) Yttrium (Y) HREE (Heavy rare earth elements)
  3. 3. RARE EARTH EconomicS China continues to dominate the rare earths market in both production and consumption. It is forecasted that in the next five to ten years, China may become an importer of heavy rare earths. China will continue to maximize value added supply chain within China, consolidate rare earth producers to improve environmental practices, limit exports of rare earths, and start to stockpile. 2008 2010 2011 2013 2020 Forecast Estimated global demand 124,000 123,000 110,000 120,000-130,000 200,000-240,000 (tonnes REO) Total value $1.25-2 billion $2.5-3 billion $10-15 billion $3-5 billion Not available (USD $) USD $/kg $15-20/kg $30-40/kg $140-180/kg $40-60/kg $40-60/kg REO Tonnes rare 125,000 109,000 98,000 90,000-100,000 Not available earth oxides % of global 97% 95% 94% 80-85% Not available supply CHINA CONSUMPTION NOTABLE EVENTS Rare Earth oxide demand at 150,000-170,000 tonnes Supply at 180,000-210,000 tonnes Cerium 70,000 80,000 Neodymium 25,000-30,000 30,000-35,000 Europium 350-400 400-450 Dysprosium 800-850 1,000 Terbium 450-500 250-300 Yttrium 9,000-10,000 7,000-8,000 Source: IMCOA June 2013 Forecast Supply and demand for individual Rare Earths in 2016 Source: IMCOA June 2013 The Rare Earths market 2008-2013 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE CHINA PRODUCTION Tonnes rare 68,000 74,000 75,000 80,000-85,000 Not available earth oxides % of global 55% 60% 68% 66% Not available supply Importance of rare earths in modern technology is beginning to be recognized China reduces export quotas by 40% Huge price increases of 500-1,000%, significant smuggling out of China China cutting production stockpiling, consolidating, trying to set prices Supply in 2020 to be 240,000- 280,000 tonnes REO with the heavy rare earths still a concern
  4. 4. RARE EARTHS liFEcyclE RareMetalsMatter.com is a place to explore advances in rare metal material science and applications. From smart phones to hybrid cards, wind generators to medical technologies... rare metals certainly do matter! www.raremetalsmatter.com
  5. 5. nit iati l RGplobrtaing e ve I WKH³*5,´
  6. 6. V rsion e poGlo3n. 1also r. eAva rt man or e sr fonc pe LQGLFDWRUVIURPWKH0LQLQJ$VVRFLDWLRQRIDQDGD¶VµTow rd S usitnable a Mi ning guideline s. $YDORQ¶V6XVWDLQDELOLW5HSRUWHQWLWOHGAlign. Optimize. Innovate., outn d cofnli an be nea SuSTAinABiliTy in minERAl dEVElopmEnT Rare earth elements are key components for modern green and clean technologies. Avalon prides itself on being a company wholly committed to the principles of sustainable development and is devoted to ensuring that economic extraction of the rare earths are done in a safe, environmentally and socially responsible manner. Avalon has committed itself to reporting on and measuring sustainability in the framework of the Global Reporting Initiative (the “GRI”), Version G3.1. Avalon also reports on performance indicators from the Mining Association of Canada’s ‘Toward Sustainable Mining’ principles and guidelines. Avalon’s 2013 Sustainability Report entitled ALIGN. OPTIMIZE. INNOVATE., can be found online at www.avalonraremetals.com. RARE EARTH ApplicATionS Rare earth elements (REE) are non-toxic elements essential to a cleaner environment and reduced reliance on fossil fuels. They are the key ingredients in today’s modern electronic, green and health technologies. World demand for REE in 2013 is estimated at 120,000 tonnes and growing with the demand for these higher value applications. Source: Roskill Estimates, Nov. 2012 lon va r lws..camwetwa rea om. Global demand for REE by End-use in 2012
  7. 7. RARE EARTH ApplicATionS One of the most important applications of REE is high strength permanent neodymium magnets (NdFeB) or “neo-magnets”. They are essential to many consumer products such as microphones, loudspeakers, headphones and computer hard drives. Higher value products that use large amounts of neo-magnets include hybrid and electric vehicles, industrial motors, air conditioners, electronic bicycles and wind and tidal turbine generators. Demand for neo-magnets is estimated to grow by 6-8% per year to 2016. Another very important application of REE, particularly yttrium, terbium and erbium, are light emitting diodes, or better known as LED’s. The global LED market is estimated to be U$94 billion by 2020, representing approximately 60% of the total lighting market. The compound annual growth rate between 2010 and 2016 is estimated at 35%. (Source: LED Magazine) Color monitors for computers, consumer electronics and televisions are dependent on REE phosphors for the colours red (europium), blue (europium) and green (terbium). Glass monitors, and other glass applications such as cameras, also require cerium oxide as a polishing compound. The use of REE in medical applications is increasing due to new drug treatments, diagnostic techniques and medical equipment. Another main use of REE i s catalys t s , specifically fluid cracking catalysts used in the refining of crude oil.

×