Tratamento superficies

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Informe preliminar del tratamiento de superficies y protección contra la corrosión marina perteneciente al 4º trimestre de 2009

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Tratamento superficies

  1. 1. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra acorrosión mariñaInforme preliminar para Aux NavaliaTáboa de contidos0. Prefacio......................................................................................................................................................21. Introducción................................................................................................................................................3 1.1 Ámbito terminolóxico............................................................................................................................32. Patentes.....................................................................................................................................................4 2.1 Patentes. Tratamento de superficies...................................................................................................5 2.2 Patentes. Anticorrosión......................................................................................................................10 2.3 Patentes. Antifouling..........................................................................................................................143. Artigos......................................................................................................................................................194. Oferta-demanda de tecnoloxía.................................................................................................................35 Tecnoloxías. Solicitudes e ofertas...........................................................................................................365. Informes...................................................................................................................................................41 Outros informes xerais.............................................................................................................................466. Proxectos.................................................................................................................................................49 6.1 Proxectos. Ámbito europeo................................................................................................................49 6.2 Proxectos. Ámbito estatal..................................................................................................................53 6.3 Proxectos. Ámbito galego..................................................................................................................547. Lexislación................................................................................................................................................558. Eventos....................................................................................................................................................58Anexo I. Centros Tecnolóxicos e Universidades..........................................................................................61 Centros tecnolóxicos e de investigación. Ámbito estatal.........................................................................62 Universidades. Ámbito nacional...............................................................................................................66 Centros Tecnolóxicos e de Investigación. Ámbito internacional..............................................................68Anexo II. Empresas......................................................................................................................................73 Empresas de tratamento de superficies e pintado...................................................................................73 Oferta de empresas na web.....................................................................................................................77 Estaleiros.................................................................................................................................................78 Talleres de reparación.............................................................................................................................82Anexo III.......................................................................................................................................................84 Documentación adxunta..........................................................................................................................84 Estado do documento: Actualización Informe Tecnológico Identificador e versión: Trimestre T4/09. Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña Data de publicación: 07/10/2009 Periodo que abrangue: 2005-2009 Contacto técnico: Eva García Rivera (egarcia@cisgalicia.org)
  2. 2. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña0. PrefacioO obxecto deste informe é describir o estado actual das técnicas e métodos de tratamento de superficiesen barcos e a protección contra a corrsión mariña e mediambiental.A corrosión mariña e a incrustación de microorganismos, que se coñece como biofouling, fai que cadaano sexa necesario gastar miles de euros en limpeza, mantemento, reparacións e demáis. Unha boaprotección e prevención fronte a corrosión mediante pinturas e diversos productos axudaría a un granaforro económico. Hai que ter en conta que aparte dos gastos xerados polas reparacións propias dunbarco debido á corrosión hai que sumarlle o tempo que estea parado, tempo no que deixa de producirOs actuais métodos de limpeza de superficies pretenden ser menos abrasivos e máis repsetuosos cosmateriais. Por outra banda as pinturas e productos antifouling e anticorrosión buscan a máxima eficaciarepetando o medio mariño e evitando o uso de sustancias contaminates moitas delas prohibidas pordiversas leis.Nota: As informacións que se relacionan neste documento teñen carácter referencial. Se desexa otexto completo de calquera delas, pode solicitalo ao servizo de recuperación de documentos:diríxase ao contacto técnico que figura na portada deste informe indicando o título(s) oureferencia(s) se se indican.Para unha óptima visualización do informe e funcionamento das hiperligazóns recoméndase autilización de Adobe Acrobat 8.0 2
  3. 3. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña1. IntroducciónO obxecto deste documento é describir os novas técnicas de tratamento de superficies en buques e aprotección contra a corrsión mariña e os métodos antifoulingDecidíuse seguir o seguinte esquema para a realización do informe: ● técnicas de preparación de superficies ● pinturas ● técnicas de aplicaciónPolo tanto, as patentes e artigos seguen este esquema de traballo.1.1 Ámbito terminolóxicoPara delimitar o obxecto da busca de información, definiuse o ámbito terminolóxico mediante a extraccióndos identificadores en linguaxe natural: ● [GL] chorreado, granallado, tratamento de superficies, fouling, antifouling, corrosión mariña, anticorrosión. ● [ES] chorreado, granallado, tratamiento de superficies, fouling, antifouling, corrosión marina, anticorrosión, pinturas antifouling, pinturas anticorrosivasOs identificadores foron complementados coa selección de termos controlados multilíngües, sinónimos ecomplementarios, utilizando a ferramenta IATE. Esta primeira acotación resultou na elección dosseguintes termos: ● [EN] blasting, sand blasting, surface treatment, fouling, antifouling, marine corrosion, antifoluling paints, anticorrosive paintsResultando a análise anterior na cadea de interrogación (query) seguinte: (ship) AND (blasting OR antifouling OR anticorrosion OR surface treatment)A query xenérica foi adaptada ás características da sintaxe e limitacións na busca de cada fontede información utilizada, de cara a obter os resultados óptimos en cada caso. 3
  4. 4. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña2. PatentesAs patentes que se amosan a continuación proceden da base de datos especializada Derwent InnovationIndex. Pinchando no título pódese acceder a unha ficha co resumo e debuxo nalgúns casos. Dita fichaobtívose da base de datos de patentes Espacenet que é de acceso público.Para clasificar o listado de patentes seguíuse o proceso natural de tratamento de superficies. Esteproceso comprende os seguintes pasos: ● Primeiramente límpase unha superficie mediante técnicas de granallado (chorreado con area), chorreado con auga ou incluso con productos químicos. ● Despois aplicanselle pinturas ou diversos productos antifouling ou/e anticorrosión.Dentro das patentes de tratamento de superficies están recollidas tanto técnicas de limpeza comoequipos de chorreado. Igualmente, as patentes referidas a antifouling e anticorrsión, inclúen tanto pinturascomo outros productos e incluso aparatos (como por exemplo o novidoso inhibidor do biofouling medianteultrasonidos).Innovamar publica unhos boletíns de intelixencia tecnolóxica. O boletín nº2 titulado “Pinturas ytratamiento antifouling” recolle por un lado, as patentes en materia antifouling desde o ano 2000 e poroutro ofrece unha selección de importantes artigos publicados que tratan dito tema. Este informerecóllese no apartado de Informes e pódese acceder a el na seguinte URL.http://www.innovamar.org/descargas/N2%20Antifouling.pdfDestacar o proxecto HISMAR , que se recolle tanto no apartado de patentes como de proxectos, no quese crea un robot capaz de limpar autonomamente o casco dun barco e detectar posibles defectos nasuperficie. 4
  5. 5. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña2.1 Patentes. Tratamento de superficiesO proceso de tratamento de superficies consiste principalmente na limpeza da superficie para o quetradicionalmente se utilizou o granallado. Este método básase no chorreado con area a gran presiónsobre a superficie o que fai que se elimine os restos de pintura e demáis. O inconvinte é que é moiabrasivoTamén se utiliza chorro de auga, paletas para rascar, golpes de electricidade e demáis. O método que seescolla dependerá do tipo e nivel de incrustación da suciedade a limpar.. Por exemplo para eliminarrestos de pintura será suficiente con chorros de auga pero para eliminar antifouling moi incrustrado éposible que teñamos que recurrir a métodos máis abrasivos.O elemento común a tódolos métodos é tentar que sexa o menos abrasivo posible coa superficie dobarco.Máis recentemente inventaronse robots que realizan este proceso automáticamente. Cabe destacar oproxecto HISMAR de creación de robots de limpeza e o proxecto EFTCOR recollido no apartado deproxectos.As últimas novidades en limpeza de barcos refírense á limpeza crioxénica. En lugar de disparar area oque se dispara é xeo seco, ou o que é o mesmo, micrcristais de dióxido de carbono conxelado que teñena particularidade de sublimarse e desparecer unha vez efectuado o impacto abrasivo. A principal vantaxena pouca abrasión do xeo seco.Pinche na seguinte imaxe ou na URL facilitada máis abaixo e accederá ó video demostrativo da limpezacrioxénicaVídeo demostrativoA continución cítase o proxecto de robots de limpeza para despois citar distintas patentes sobre técnicasde limpeza de superficies 5
  6. 6. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaHISMAR Project: Hull Identification System for Marine AutonomousRobotics HISMAR is a multifunctional robotic platform for specific inspection or maintenance tasks such as structural integrity monitoring of the ship’s hull or cleaning operations. This project offers a means for effectively and efficiently undertaking hull inspection and maintenance thereby potentially extending the safe working life of the vessel, and reducing maintenance and fuel costs. A unique patented navigation system has been developed for HISMAR that allows the robot to map the ship’s hull and, subsequently, autonomously guide the robot through a defined maintenance path. As part of this project, HISMAR aims to perform two hull maintenance task; 1. Cleaning of the hull surface 2. And hull integrity monitoring The following sections aim to explore the various technologies that are currently being used by the ship maintenance industry to carry out hull cleaning and inspection. Pinche na seguinte imaxe se quere ver o vídeo demostrativo: Video demostrativo Infome en formato pdf 6
  7. 7. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña Nº Patente Título Solicitante 2009 Blasting apparatus for ship, has separator that includes filter segmented by separate unit, and fuelKR893153-B1 ash discharged in lower part of bucket elevator BNP ENG CO LTD after being inhaled by vacuum system, where ash is separated from dust and recycled Direct pressure type polishing apparatus for steel metal structure of ship, has collection tankJP2008307675-A collecting projection materials, and shut-off valve SINTOKOGIO LTD body isolating projection materials from collection tank to pressure tank Flow adjusting structure for abrasive material i.e.WO2009018590-A2; sand, classifying apparatus of blast system, has BNP ENG CO LTDWO2009018590-A3 horizontal outer tube with outer tube hole, where flow rate of material is continuously adjustable by rotating horizontal outer tube 2008 Iron structures surface processing method for ship, involves forming and selecting crushedKR2008101467-A material in constant individual size, and spraying YUN Y S rough grinded material on surface of iron structure of ship Hull surface cleaning assembly, at a ship, has aWO2005068287-A1; buoyancy unit with a flat surface for exchangeable MARR NUS2008229994-A1 cleaning brushes operated by a handle through a swivel joint Washing apparatus for bottom surface of ship, hasJP2005066529-A; nozzle to inject cleaning liquid stored in tank on HITACHI PLANT ENGJP4154527-B2 vehicle to bottom surface of ship and return & CONSTR CO LTD apparatus to return filtered cleaning liquid to tank Remote digital ultrasonic antifouling and descalingCN101108383-A device has electrical wire that is wound around pipe LIU L and connected to frequency converter circuit Blasting machine for polishing e.g. ship, marineJP2005342800-A; structure, includes forced sending machine which SOWA CORP KKJP3866252-B2 forcedly discharges blast materials out of pressure vessel through discharge port and in fixed amountsJP2008088725-A KIKUSUI KAGAKU Asbestos removal method for wall surface of KOGYO KK(KIKS-C); building, involves spraying polishing material from YAMADA TOSO KK; 7
  8. 8. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña HITACHI ENG nozzle accommodated inside brush assembly on SERVICE CO working plane, and sucking powder dust through LTD(HITJ-C); suction cover with polishing material SHINTO SABURASUTO KK Mobile blasting apparatus for ship, has operator chair in upper end of body, battery to supply drivingKR825462-B1 power to operating unit, control unit to move body KIM D in all directions, and tilting unit to adjust blasting nozzle Multi-functional surface cleaning and pre-treatment apparatus for use in ship, has valve opened toKR826367-B1 permit grinding chips to move along flexible pipe, JUNG J and electric power distribution cable equipped in control box Shot blasting machine for polishing processingKR440999-Y1 object i.e. warped surface of ship, has horizontal JEONG R P tubes and spray nozzle provided in cart part, which is connected to storage tank and air tank Sponge blasting machine used for e.g. removing foreign material e.g. rust, stain, old coating on KINSOKU KAGAKUJP2008023673-A surfaces has suction opening, which is provided in KENKYUSHO KK; casing to suck blast medium were ejected from TECHNOS CO LTD inner side of casing with negative pressure 2007 Blasting system in which vacuum cup is movable inKR665873-B1 forward and rearward directions and movable on KIM D H main frame by moving unit to effectively remove foreign substances from surface of ship Spraying equipment for vertical walls, has chassis METALBLAST EQUIPBR200601335-A located in back of tanks or ships, hoisted by crane & MAQUINAS LTDA and auto-propagated by device 2006 Ferrous surface treating method for use in e.g. dryUS2006118134-A1; cargo ship, involves attracting treating apparatus toWO2006062937-A2 ferrous surface, and moving apparatus through GRIFFITH N application of maneuvering force by user from location spaced from carriage DAEWOO Method for suppressing rust on the surface of SHIPBUILDING &KR2006114564-A shipbuilding steel by spraying quicklime on the MARINE ENG CO steel surface in blowing air LTD 8
  9. 9. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña DAEWOO Mobile blasting apparatus for overhead preparation SHIPBUILDING &KR2006030546-A of ship, capable of performing blasting operation MARINE ENG CO and movement of travel unit at same time LTD Target surface coating treatment apparatus for coating ship hull, positions guide support atUS2159-H different locations along linear paths of movement US SEC OF NAVY of guidance assembly from which ejection of coating material on target surface is performed 2005CN1583661-A Ceramic blast nozzle and preparation UNIV SHANDONGWO2005044657-A1;NO200304978-A; Cleaning device for surface of object under waterNO319207-B1; e.g. ship hull, sets tangential velocity component CLEANHULLEP1685022-A1; for liquid discharged from half of nozzles to have NORWAY ASUS2007051392-A1; same direction as selected rotation direction of discJP2007510588-W; in relation to nozzle inclinationKR2006129184-A Upward polishing apparatus for slag skimming of welded portion of ships bottom in shipbuildingJP2005230982-A yard, has coil springs which are interposed ATSUJI TEKKO KK between elastic section and nozzle-head elevating device 9
  10. 10. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña2.2 Patentes. AnticorrosiónCorrosión é a interacción dun metal co medio que o rodea, producindo o conseguinte deterioro nas súaspropiedades tanto físicas como químicas.Tipos de corrosión. ● Corrosión uniforme: onde a corrosión química ou electroquímica actua en toda a superficie do metal ● Corrosión galvánica: cando metais diferentes se atopan en contacto, ambos metais poseen potenciais eléctricos diferentes. ● Corrosión por picadura: aquí producense furados por un axente químico ● Corrosión intraganual ● Corrosión por esfuerzoA protección catódica é unha técnica de control da corrosión, que está sendo aplicada cada día con maioréxito no mundo enteiro.Na práctica pódese utilizar protección catódica en metais como o aceiro, cobre, plomo , latón... contra acorrosión en casi todolos medios acuosos.Moitas das patentes aquí recollidas tratan sobre a protección catódica. Tamén se recollen patentes depinturas que retardan a aparición da corrosión. 10
  11. 11. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaA continuación amósanse gráficos que analizan as patentes dos últimos catro anos segun inventor e paísde orixe obtidas mediante a ferramenta de análise de patentes Mateo Patent.Os países que lideran son Dinamarca e XapónPatentes anticorrosión según inventor:Patentes anticorrosión según país de orixe: 11
  12. 12. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña Nº Patente Título Solicitante 2009 Anti-corrosion material for concrete structureJP2009097049-A comprises porous material containing electrolytic DENKI KAGAKUKUMAI T solution with sufficient pH to avoid passive KOGYO KK production of blister-like metal surface in surroundings of blister-like metalWO2008038828-A1;JP2008106235-A; Anticorrosive paint for ferrous materials used for NIPPON STEELTW200829657-A; industrial machines and vehicles, contains zinc CORP ;EP2070995-A1; metal particles containing fine granules and coarse YOSHIKAWA KOGYOKR2009060312-A; grains, having preset peak particle size, dispersed KKNO200901042-A in inorganic/organic binder Anti-rusting process for vessel steel materials NIPPON STEEL involves coating inorganic primer consist of CORP ;JP2008223137-A inorganic binder as base layer and zinc alloy YOSHIKAWA KOGYO particles which contains magnesium, zinc and KK unavoidable impurity Corrosion protection system for use in marine engine system comprises components subject toUS2009138148-A1 corrosion where the component forms a cathode CATERPILLAR INC element, anode element, reference element, and engine control module Organic siloxane composite material for applying to field of conductivity and corrosion protectionUS2009110931-A1 comprises polyaniline/carbon black composites YANG C distributed in siloxane, where material contains polyaniline/carbon black in specific amount 2007 REDEKOP A G;RU2299273-C1 Apparatus for protecting against corrosion FEDOTOV E A Organopolysiloxane rubber composition, useful e.g.WO2007104121-A1; as anti-corrosion, cathodic protection coating,US2007232749-A1 comprises product obtained by mixing CSL SILICONES INC polyorganosiloxane fluids, sacrificial metal, conductive fillers, catalyst and cross linking agent 2006CN1789492-A Anode assembly with large discharge capacity for CSIC NO 725 RES & cathodic protection DEV INST 12
  13. 13. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaCN1844454-A Metal oxide anode assembly for cathode protection of CSIC NO 725 RES & ship DEV INST Meter for testing marine corrosion, comprises HOWARD J D;US2006065551-A1; reference electrode element, alligator clamp, and ALI M,US7238263-B2 housing mechanism comprising input jack LISSON C; receptors, light emitting diodes, central processing CONCEPTS INC unit, multiplexer and micro-processor chip 2005 THOMAS E D; Corrosion sensor system for shipboard tanks, LUCAS K E,US2005000831-A1; includes electronic module connected to reference SLEBODNICK P;US6896779-B2 module for monitoring and storing potential and HOGAN E A; current data to allow for analysis of tank coatings US SEC OF degradation NAVY(USNA-C) Electrolytic-protection method for protecting marine structural steelwork, coastal structure and ship, NKK CORP(NIKN-C);JP2005213634-A involves using structural material whose preset UNIVERSAL ZOSEN portion is stainless steel material of preset surface KK roughnessWO2005116148-A1; Paint for steel product, contains flakes-shaped NIPPON STEELJP2005336432-A; metal or alloy, whose electric potential in aqueous CORP(YAWA-C);JP2005336431-A solution is baser than steel KATOH K; IMAI S DAEWOO SHIPBUILDING &KR2005086129-A Structure of a temporary sacrificial anode fabricated as a band or a wire to prevent corrosion of ship MARINE ENG CO LTD 13
  14. 14. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña2.3 Patentes. AntifoulingA incrustación ou biofouling é o crecemento de organismos mariños sobre a área en inmersión do cascoda embarcación.Hay tres tipos de incrustacións: ➢ Algas: de cor verde, marrón ou vermello ➢ Limos: barro, bacterias e algas microscópicas ➢ Orgánicas: poden ser de dous tipos: non calcáreas (esponxas, briozoas..) ou calcáreas ( con cáscara), moluuscos...A aparición de unha ou outra clase de incrustación, así como o seu desenrolo, dependerá de factorescomo a temperatura, luz e salinidade da auga. Estas incustacións teñen efectos na embarcación quedebemos considerar: ✗ Pérdida de velocidade ✗ Aumento do consumo de combustible ✗ Dificultade para a realización de maniobras de emerxencia.As pinturas antifouling ou antiincrustantes teñen por obxetivo evitar a incrustación dos organismosanteriormente citados no casco da embarcación sumerxida.A forma de actuar de calqueira antiincrustante é a liberación de compostos activos chamados biocidasque crean un ambiente hostil para organismos incrustantes. A incrustación será polo tanto previda ecalquer crecemento de organismos será inhibido.As pinturas con compostos de estaño, en foma de tribulilestaño, eran moi eficacies, pero os seus efectosnocivos nos moluscos levaron a súa prohibición para as alicacións mariñas. Dita prohibición quedoutotalmente plasmada na INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON THE CONTROL OF HARMFUL ANTI-FOULING SYSTEMS ON SHIPS, 2001. En Xaneiro de 2008 entraba totalmente en vigor dita prohibiciónOs diferentes tipos de antifouling que existen difiren entre sí na forma en que liberan as sustanciasbiocidas. A sua durabilidade dependerá do espesor da capa aplicada, ó que se unen outros factores quese relacionan directamente coa auga con son a súa riqueza, temperatura, nivel de polución da mesma.Podemos falar de tres tipos principales de antiincrustantes: ● Autopulimentables: Reciben este nome porque se van desgastando co roce da auga. Mentras haxa pintura, hai biocida (o casco está protexido). Son de máxima eficacia, polo cal hai un coste superior.Presentan unha superficie moi lisa, polo que as suas propiedades hidrodinámicas son excelentes ● De matriz dura: Estos antiincrustantes absorben a auga, mentras a parte solubre da resina se vai desistengrando, deixando unha estructura insolubel que vai disolvendo os productos biocidas É aconsellable para zonas de maior desgase, nas que o autopulimentable se desgastaría axiña (hélices, eixes...) ● De matriz branda: É unha mezcla dos anteriores. Nelas a pintura vaise disolvendo. Te o inconvinte de que solo poden estar expostos á intemperie unha semana 14
  15. 15. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaAs técnicas máis innovadoras de eliminación de biofouling discorren por sistemas de ultrasonidos.Existen no mercado diversos equipos. Por exemplo Boatsonic consistente nun emisor de ultrasonidos queemite vibracións ultrasónicas en gama baixa de frecuencias de ultrasonidos . O sistema incapacita aadherencia de organismos vivos tanto animais como algas ó casco. As vibracións emitidas polo sistemaprotexen creando unha película de moléculas de auga vibrando ó “son” da ultrafrecuencia o cal impide afixación de calquer forma de vida.URL do producto Boatsonic: http://www.fp-nautic.com/inicio.html 15
  16. 16. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaA continuación amósanse gráficos que analizan as patentes dos últimos catro anos segun inventor e paísde orixe obtidas mediante a ferramenta de análise de patentes Mateo Patent.Igual que ocorre coas patentes anticorrosión, Xapón situáse como un país lider.Grafíco de patentes antifouling según inventor:Gráfico de patentes antifouling según país: 16
  17. 17. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaAs patentes que se amosan a continuación recollen tanto productos tales como pinturas que inhiben ocrecemento de organismos, materiais que repelen o biofouling como aparatos que eléctricamente fan queo biofouling se desprenda da superficie. Nº Patente Título Solicitante 2009 Antifoulant coating useful for inhibiting the growthWO2009011990-A1; of marine foulants e.g. barnacles, algae on marine WEIDMAN LUS2009022899-A1 vessels comprises polymer, marine biocide and preservative Epoxy composite material preparing method for e.g. marine antifouling coating field, involves dispersingUS2009109791-A1 polyaniline/carbon black composites in epoxy resin YANG C , WU K to produce epoxy composite material containing polyaniline/carbon black 2008US2005178286-A1;WO2006025857-A2; BOHN C C; BRENNAN AUS7117807-B2; Dynamic polymer-based coating useful in e.g. non- B; toxic bio-fouling preventing system and in BANEY R H;EP1716451-A2; UNIV FLORIDA(UYFL-AU2005280637-A1; electrowetting-based pumps comprises a patterned C);JP2007529090-W; polymeric layer for attachment to a surface UNIV FLORIDA RESAU2005280637-B2; containing electrically conductive polymer FOUND INC(UYFL-C)AU2005280637-B8WO2005056699-A1;US2005152869-A1;EP1699885-A1; Marine anti-fouling coating for, e.g. hulls of ships,AU2004297396-A1; comprises, sequentially, primer adhesive to be ECOSEA LTD;BR200417488-A; applied to surface to be coated, binder adhesive, WEED GJP2007514035-W; and metallic component comprising metal(s) thatCN1902289-A; oxidizes when in contact with waterEP1699885-B1;DE602004014978-E COUNCIL SCI & INDIN200602162-I1 Apparatus for prevention of biofouling RES INDIA 2007 Fiber-coated marine material with antifouling properties for immersed structures, such as MATERIALSWO2007108679-A1 platforms, oil rigs, mooring posts, ships, boats, and INNOVATION CENT BV buoys, is at least partially covered by piles of fibers having certain thickness-to-length ratio Low frequency electric current type ships bottomJP2007055568-A anti-fouling system, has electric current control unit ICHIMON KIKO KK that controls supply of low frequency electric current to several electrodes at ships bottom 17
  18. 18. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña Paint/coating composition, useful to protect surfaceEP1801169-A2; exposed to aqueous environment from fouling SYMRISE GMBH &EP1801169-A3 organisms present in aqueous environment, CO KG comprises menthol and/or isopulegol; compound e.g. menthyl esters; and film forming agent Sprayable antifouling product for protection ofFR2894974-A1; ships hulls, contains a high proportion of particles DESBOIS M; DESBOIS F;WO2007080271-A1 of copper or copper-nickel alloy, plus a small amount of binder and a volatile diluent to enable DESBOIS J P application by spray gun 2006 Marine antifouling system for marine surfaces e.g. WATERTECHWO2006045161-A1 boat hull, marine vessel, underwater structure, has partially magnetic transducer having polar axis in HOLDINGS LTD parallel to marine surfaceWO2006121937-A1; Substrate, e.g. ship surface such as hull, hasUS2007042199-A1; antifouling coating comprising polymeric material NDSU RES FOUNDEP1879972-A1 including polyamine cross-linked polysiloxane and/or its salts 2005SE200400934-A; Film for preventing propeller fouling, comprises WINBERG RSE527064-C2 layer for bonding to propeller and outer PTFE layer TOMKO R R, PAPAGIANIDIS D D;US2005096407-A1; Marine self-polishing antifouling coating JOECKEN J A,WO2005042649-A1; composition, useful to protect ship hulls, REUTER J M,EP1675919-A1; underwater structures, fish nets and ship bottoms, TOMKO R,MX2006004325-A1; comprises at least one biocidally active material and PAPAGIANIDIS D,BR200415537-A a polymer binder JOECKEN J, REUTER J Removable and replaceable antifouling laminate to provide protection to water submersed object e.g.US6925952-B1 boat/vessel hull comprises protective layer having POPOVIC D J blended mixture of synthetic rubber and cuprous oxide Environmental protection composite antifouling NST SEAWATERCN1557896-A; paint comprises organic resin, hot natural plant DESALINATION &CN1279132-C material, non-toxic mildew-preventing disinfectant MULTIPURPOS and inorganic pigment 18
  19. 19. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña3. ArtigosO seguinte listado de artigos proceden da base de datos especializada Web of Science que inclúe tantoartigos científicos publicados en revistas especializadas como en conferencias, congresos , simposios edemáis eventos.A grandes rasgos os artigos recollidos tratan os seguintes puntos: ● Técnicas electroquímicas como a que recolle o informe “Estudio de la corrosión en ambiente marino de aleaciones del sistema fermanal mediante técnicas electroquímicas” ● Robots de limpeza para a posterior aplicación de pinturas ● Productos químicos ou pinturas que preveñen o biofouling e a corrosiónHai que destacar que artigos relacionados con tratamentos antifouling ou anticorrsión non proceden deeventos relacionados co mundo naval ou marítimo senón de congresos ou conferencias de ámbitoquímico. Esto débese a que os productos utilizados para inhibir o crecemento de microorganismosmariños ou protexer contra a corrosión son productos químicos .Hai que sinalar que son artigos novidosos Butyltin compounds, sterility and imposex assessment inNassallus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758), prior to the 2008 European ban on TBT antifouling paints, withinBasque ports and along coastal que trata sobre a prohibición do TBT en costas Vascas, Exposure andprotective measures during the application of antifouling paints que trata sobre a protección que hai queter en conta á hora de usar pinturas antifouling e protectoras. 19
  20. 20. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaOxygen-depleted surfaces: a new antifouling technology Autor: J. Fredrik Lindgren; Mikael Haeffner; Claes T. Ericsson; Per R. Jonsson Data: JYU 2009 Fonte: Biofouling, Volume 25, Issue 5 Páxs 455 - 461 Resumo: A novel, non-toxic strategy to combat marine biofouling is presented. The technology is paint with additions of up to 43% of industrial protein. Through microbial degradation of the protein component, an oxygen-depleted layer rapidly forms in a 0.2 mm layer close to the paint surface. With the present paint formulations, a stable, O2-depleted layer can persist for 16 weeks. Barnacle larvae (cyprids) did not settle on panels where oxygen saturation was <20%, and cyprids were killed when exposed to O2-free water for more than 1 h. It is also shown that the O2-depleted layer will rapidly reform (within 15 min) after exposure to turbulent flow. Field exposure of panels for 16 weeks showed that paint with protein reduced fouling by barnacles and bryozoans by 80% and close to 100%, respectively. The results suggest that this novel technology may be developed into a non-toxic alternative to copper-based antifouling paints, especially for pleasure boats in sensitive environments. There is clearly potential for further development of the paint formulation, and a full-scale test on a boat-hull suggested that service-life under realistic operations needs to be improved.Butyltin compounds, sterility and imposex assessment in Nassallusreticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758), prior to the 2008 European ban on TBTantifouling paints, within Basque ports and along coastal Autor: German Rodriguez, J. ; Tueros, Itziar ; Borja, Angel ; Franco, Javier ; Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio ; Mikel Garmendia, Joxe ; Muxika, Inigo ; Sariego, Cristina ; Valencia, Victoriano Data: APR 2009 Fonte: CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH , Vol. 29, Issue 8; Páxs. 1165-1173 Resumo: Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus (L), at 35 locations in the Basque Country. At 18 of these localities, organotin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was evaluated, using isotope dilution GC-ICP- MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with large vessel traffic or the presence of an offshore fleet. The highest values were found for the port of Pasaia, near to a shipyard (a relative penis size index of up to 92%, and TBT body burden up to 405 ng g(-1) - given on a dry weight basis as Sn). Imposex effects were evaluated also in parasitized females, at some of the sampling sites. The percentage of presence of c-type Vas Deferens sequence stages (i.e., with vas deferens beginning at the oviduct opening) was higher in parasitized females. In turn, there was an absence of highly convoluted oviduct in parasitized females 20
  21. 21. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaCharacterization of chemically active antifouling paints usingelectrochemical impedance spectrometry and erosion tests Autor: Bressy, Christine ; Hugues, Christelle ; Margaillan, Andre Data: JAN 2009 Fonte: PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS, Vol. 64, Issue 1, Páxs. 89-97 Resumo: The water sorption and solubility parameters of chemically active paints were studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) measurements. Erodible acrylic-based coatings containing biocidal tertiary amines were investigated. Results from EIS measurements show that both the water sorption at saturation and the apparent water diffusion coefficient decrease as the alkyl chain length of the biocidal amines increases from 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The increase of the hydrophobic character of the resulting coatings results to a higher resistance to erosion. Erosion tests performed under static and dynamic conditions show that the seawater conditions can markedly affect the performance of chemically active paints.Corrosion Protection Mechanism of Polyaniline Blended Organic Coatingon Steel Autor: Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Jeyaram, R. ; Muthukrishnan, S. ; Venkatachari, G. Data: 2009 Fonte: JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY , Vol 159, Issue 4, Páxs C127- C134 Resumo: Epoxy-coal tar coatings are widely used to protect steel structures exposed to marine atmosphere due to their good barrier property. However, the presence of micropores and microcracks formed during the coating formation leads to failure of the coating due to permeation of corrosive ions. In recent years, it has been established that the coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) is able to protect pinholes and defects due to its passivating ability. Hence, a study has been made on the effect of polyaniline content (1 and 3%) in epoxy-coal tar coating on the corrosion protection of steel in 3% NaCl solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. Both phosphate- and chloride-doped polyanilines were prepared by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. From EIS studies, it has been found that the resistance value of the coatings containing 1 and 3% phosphate-doped polyaniline and 3% chloride-doped polyaniline pigmented coatings are similar to 10(9) Omega cm(2) even after 90 days exposure to NaCl solution, which are two orders high in comparison to that of conventional coal tar epoxy coatings. Besides, the conducting state of polyaniline has been found to be decreased after exposure to NaCl solution due to redox property of PANI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have shown that polyaniline forms a complex layer with iron beneath the coating along with iron oxide. 21
  22. 22. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaESTUDIO DE LA CORROSIÓN EN AMBIENTE MARINO DE ALEACIONESDEL SISTEMA FERMANAL MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS ELECTROQUÍMICAS Autor: Alejandro Vargas Uscategui, William Aperador Chaparro, Cesar Ortiz Otalora, Juan David Betancur , Chaur-Jeng Wang Data: 2009 Resumo: Suplemento de la Revista Latinoamericana de Metalurgia y Materiales, Páxs. 251-257 En este trabajo se estudia la corrosión en ambiente marino simulado de las aleaciones Fe- 22.6Mn – 6.3Al – 3.1Cr – 0.675C (F1), Fe- 28.0Mn – 5.2Al – 5.1Cr – 2.8 Si – 0.95C (F2) y Acero AISI 316, mediante espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica (EIS), pulso galvanostático (GPT), curvas de polarización Tafel y difracción de rayos X (DRX). Para la simulación del ambiente marino se empleó una solución al 3,5%wt. de NaCl. A través de DRX se encontró que los principales productos de corrosión fueron Mn2O3, Fe2O3 y Fe(Mn, Al)2O4, para las aleaciones F1 y F2, respectivamente Documento orixinalExposure and protective measures during the application of antifoulingpaints Autor: Bleck, D. ; Mueller, A ; Holthenrich, D. ; Schlueter, U. ; Data: MAY 2009 Fonte: GEFAHRSTOFFE REINHALTUNG DER LUFT, Vol. 69, Issue 5, Páxs 215- 221 Resumo: Information on exposure and protective measures during the application of antifoulants was gathered by interviews and dockyard inspections. The different tasks and exposure parameters were determined and best practise examples were identified. Mixing and loading of airless spray-guns with large amounts of antifouling paint was associated with high exposure of hands, feet and fronts of legs. Predominant exposure factors were the diligence of the user and the general working conditions. The spraying direction in relation to the workers and the tightness of the working space were important factors for the amount and the patterns of aerosol-deposition onto the sprayers bodies. Contact with contaminated surfaces during the spraying process resulted in considerable exposure of both hands and body. Personal protective equipment was generally worn according to the instructions if frequent controls by a supervisor were to be expected.Fouling control using air bubble curtains: protection for stationaryvessels Autor: Scardino, A. J. ; Fletcher, L. E. ; Lewis, J. A. Data: JAN 2009 Resumo: JOURNAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Issue A 13 Páxs. 3-10 There is an increasing need by the marine industries for effective non-toxic control of fouling. One of the major limitations of new fouling release coatings is that they cannot protect structures whilst stationary and will not release certain fouling organisms when vessels are operating at low speeds. This is a major problem for slow or infrequently 22
  23. 23. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña moving vessels and for vessels docked in tropical waters where fouling pressure is extreme. This paper describes novel technology (provisional patent # 2008905482) to protect vessels whilst stationary using air bubble curtains. The results of several panel tests and one hull patch trial demonstrate that this technique is a simple, cost-effective means to complement fouling release coatings whilst vessels are in dockImplications of the ban on organotins for protection of global coastal andmarine ecology Autor: Sonak, Sangeeta ; Pangam, Prajwala ; Giriyan, Asha ; Hawaldar, Kavita Data: FEB 2009 Fonte: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT , Vol. 90, Páxs. S96-S108 Resumo: Organotin-based antifouling paints are highly effective against most fouling organisms, and their application results in a large amount of savings for the shipping industry. On the other hand, TBT (tributyltin) in antifouling paints is described as the most toxic substance ever introduced into the marine environment. Consequential environmental impacts of TBT led to its regulation in many countries, although concerns were raised regarding the complete prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints. Serious concerns were also raised regarding the complete banning of organotins. After long deliberations, the AFS Convention (convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships) was adopted on 5 October 2001. The Convention, which prohibits the use of harmful organotins in antifouling paints used on ships, will enter into force on 17 September 2008. In view of the concerns raised against the prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints, this paper focuses on a review of the AFS Convention, with a gap analysis on the difficulties in implementation of the Convention. It also offers some recommendations for improved policiesMODELLING OF CORROSION PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEDCONCRETE STRUCTURES WITH SURFACE COATINGS Autor: Kamaitis, Zenonas Data: DEC 2008 Fonte: JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT , Vol. 14, Issue 4, Páxs. 241-249 Resumo: Corrosion is a serious problem for the durability of reinforced concrete structures. These structures need to be protected from corrosion in a variety of exposure conditions ranging From atmospheric to continuous immersion ill water or chemicals. One of the ways to protect reinforced concrete structures from corrosion is 10 use protective coatings. The surface barriers of non-degradable materials are able to slow down considerably the rate of deterioration of concrete structures and to overcome most durability problems associated with external attack. Design of durability of concrete structures with protective coatings needs to be established. In this paper a general framework for service life prediction and reliability evaluation of anticorrosion protective system (CPS), which is represented by protective surface barrier, concrete cover, and steel reinforcement itself of reinforced concrete structures, is presented. This approach 23
  24. 24. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña is based oil a reasonable understanding of the main degradation processes of all components ensuring protection ability and durability of concrete structures.A multipurpose compound for protective coatings Autor: Del Amo B, Blustein G, Perez M, et al. Data: JUL, 2008 Fonte: COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS, Vol. 324, Cap. 1- 3, Páx. 58-67 Resumo: International regulations concerning the protection of both the environment and industrial workers have prompted paint manufacturers and end users to look for suitable replacements for traditional pigments. One of the aims of this investigation was to study the inhibitive properties of ferric benzoate-based paints in simulated marine corrosion condition (3% NaCl solution). Anticorrosive paints containing ferric benzoate were formulated and their performance was evaluated by accelerated (salt fog chamber) and electrochemical (corrosion potential and ionic resistance) tests. In addition, the action of ferric benzoate as a probable antifouling agent was studied through laboratory tests and marine exposure. Ferric benzoate hydrolyzes in seawater producing a pH decrease. In this sense, the effects of the pH and the anion benzoate dissolved in seawater and leached from an antifouling paint were evaluated on Balanus amphitrite nauplii. Although benzoate anion showed an intense narcotic effect on nauplii, the results of this research clearly demonstrated that the antifouling activity is due to the combined action of this anion and the pH decrease, i.e. there exists a synergic effect. Field trials confirmed laboratory assays; paints containing ferric benzoate were effective for inhibiting organism settlement and as corrosion of metal.Component oriented development of robot control units: Service robotsfor hull cleaning applications Autor: Iborra A, Pastor JA, Alvarez B, et al. Data: APR, 2008 Fonte: REVISTA IBEROAMERICANA DE AUTOMATICA E INFORMATICA INDUSTRIAL, Vol. 5, Cap. 2, Páx. 107 Resumo: A critical operation in the ship maintenance is the hull blasting before it is repainted. In the last decade several solutions have appeared in the market that pretends to solve this problem. They are focused on robotizing this operation. Despite it, the hull cleaning operations are usually being carried out by manual means in shipyards. This article presents a robot family that supposes a good solution for the outlined problem. It reasonably satisfies all the requirements related to operatibility, efficiency, safety and environmental protection. For the design of the control systems we have followed an approach based on components, in order to reuse the code and to minimize the development times. The work here presented has been developed inside the EFTCoR project, funded by VFP of the EU 24
  25. 25. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaMarine paint fomulations: Conducting polymers as anticorrosive additives Autor: Armelin E, Oliver R, Liesa F, et al. Data: APR, 2007 Fonte: PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS, Vol. 59, Cap. 1, Páx. 46-52 Resumo: Within coating technology, there is increasing interest in the development of efficient anticorrosive additives able to replace the conventional inorganic anticorrosive pigments usually added to paints, which may have detrimental effects on both environment and health. A number of recent studies have evidenced that the modification of a paint formulation by the addition of a low concentration of conducting polymer (0.2-0.3%, w/w) increases significantly the protective properties of the coating. Here we focus on the principles of anticorrosive additives based on conducting polymers for marine paints. The article reviews the most important findings achieved in recent studies. The relevant factors that are determinant for the anticorrosive protection imparted by conducting polymers, as the doping level, the miscibility with paint, the electrochemical stability, etc., are discussed in detail.Marine paints: The particular case of antifouling paints Autor: Almeida E, Diamantino TC, de Sousa O Data: APR, 2007 Fonte: PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS, Vol. 59, Cap. 1, Páx. 2-20 Resumo: The authors present a general overview of marine paints, paying particular attention to the case of antifouling paints. After locating these paints in the anticorrosive protection systems used on the underwater parts of ships and/or other moving structures, a summary is made of the main types of antifouling products used through history up to the present time. This is complemented by a systematic assessment of the main types of living organisms that fix themselves to the underwater parts of ships. Consideration is also briefly made of the main basic mechanisms by which the different types of antifouling paints work. Finally a number of current research lines on antifouling technologies are mentioned. 25
  26. 26. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaReinforcing aluminium with cerium oxide: A new and effective techniqueto prevent corrosion in marine environments Autor: Ashraf PM, Shibli SMA Data: MAR, 2007 Fonte: ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS, Vol. 9, Cap. 3, Páx. 443-448 Resumo: Cerium oxide (CeO2) is one of the potential choices to be explored for the protection of aluminium from corrosion. However, usage of cerium ions for surface modification of aluminium would not yield any potential effect in aggressive marine environments. Metal matrix composites of aluminium can have all the merits of aluminium such as density, strength, ductility and cost. In the present study, corrosion of aluminium in saline environment was significantly suppressed by means of reinforcing the aluminium with cerium oxide. The presence of cerium oxide in the matrix did not facilitate the formation of Al2O3 which would cause potential reshift after few days due to the onset of pitting. The present results strongly lay emphasis on the potential scope of use of CeO2 for protection of aluminium in marine environments.Laser ablation and competitive technologies in paint stripping of heavyanti-corrosion coatings - art. no. 634633 Autor: Schuocker GD, Bielak R Data: 2007 Fonte: XVI International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, Pts 1 and 2 Book Series: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE), Vol. 6346, Cap. , Páx. 34633-34633 Resumo: During the last years surface preparation prior to coating operations became an important research and development task, since tightened environmental regulations have to be faced in view of the deliberation of hazardous compounds of coatings. Especially, ship-yards get more and more under pressure, because the environmental commitment of their Asian competitors is fairly limited. Therefore, in the US and in Europe several technology evaluation projects have been launched to face this challenge. The majority of coating service providers and ship yards use grit blasting; this process causes heavy emissions as of dust and enormous amounts of waste as polluted sand. Coating removal without any blasting material would reduce the environmental impact. Laser processing offers ecological advantages. Therefore thermal processes like laser ablation have been studied thoroughly in several published projects and also in this study. Many of these studies have been focused on the maintenance of airplanes, but not on de-coating of heavy protective coatings. In this case the required laser power is extra-high. This study is focused on the maintenance of heavy anti-corrosion coatings and compares the industrial requirements and the opportunities of the innovative laser processes. Based on the results of this analysis similar approaches as e.g. plasma jet coating ablation have been studied. It was concluded that none of these methods can compete economically with the conventional processes as grit blasting and water jetting since the required ablation rate is very high (> 60 m(2)/h). A new process is required that is not based on any blasting operation and which does not depend strongly on the 26
  27. 27. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña coatings characteristic. The delamination of the coating where the coatings is not removed by evaporation, but in little pieces of the complete coating system meets these requirements. The delamination can be accomplished by the thermal destruction of the primer coating by an intense heat pulse generated by inductive heating of substrates surface. After this operation the coating can be peeled off.Robots for hull ship cleaning Autor: Ortiz F, Pastor JA, Alvarez B, et al. Data: 2007 Fonte: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1-8, Vol. , Cap. , Páx. 2077-2082 Resumo. A critical operation for ship maintenance is periodical hull blasting before re-painting. Up to date some partial solutions exist like blasting turbines for vertical surfaces or water blasting units for striping. This paper presents the EFTCoR family of robots, designed by DSIE, that represent an integral solution for hull blasting that achieves the efficiency, safety and environmental requirements of shipyards. The paper also shows the results of the tests performed under real working conditions and a brief summary of the architectural framework for the robotic systems development.Application of electrochemically produced and oxidized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as anticorrosive additive for paints: Influence ofthe doping level Autor: Liesa F, Ocampo C, Aleman C, et al. Data: OCT, 2006 Fonte: JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Vol. 102, Cap. 2, Páx. 1592-1599 Resumen: This work investigates the resistance against marine corrosion of an epoxy-based coating modified by the addition of electrochemically produced and oxidized poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). For this purpose, electrodeposition of PEDOT was performed on steel electrodes by electrochemical polymerization of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene. The doping level of the resulting material was increased by chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry (CP), three different oxidation degrees being achieved. The electrochemical and electrical properties of such three samples, which were used as anticorrosive additives, were examined. Furthermore, the physical properties of the coating before and after addition of the conducting polymers were characterized using FTIR, thermal analyses, and mechanical properties evaluations. Accelerated corrosion tests indicated that the polymer with the highest amount of positive charge per monomeric unit, which was achieved by CP, enhances considerably the anticorrosive protection imparted by the coating. 27
  28. 28. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaRecent studies on antifouling systems to artificial structures in marineecosystem Autor: E. Ergía López, A. Trueba Ruíz, B. Río Calonge, M.A. Girón Portilla an C. Bielva Tejera Data: 2006 Fonte: Journal of Martime Research, Vol. III, nº1, Páxs 73-89 Resumo: Any artificial structure in contact with seawater is rapidly coated by a microbiological biofilm, which serves as a base for macro-orgnisms to grow on. It tis known the biofouling phenomenon, as well as the negative consequences that it means for the artificial structures in contact with seawater in form of structural defects and of additinal expenses for the companies which develop their work in the marine scope due to the processes of cleaning and prevention, the evolution in th world of the technology of antifouling pintings, once we analysed the serious environmental problems caused by an indiscriminate use of bicides of high toxicity in its composition as they ar the organic derivatives of in compounds made up and of the uncontrolled emission of volatile orgnaic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere, accoding to the present environmental norm, has as only aim to develop environmentally innocuous coverings based on water in wihich extracts of very same marine world ar used as biocides compunds. Documento orixinalWater-borne versus solvent-borne paints for protection of steel toatmospheric exposure Autor: Fragata F, Almeida E, Santos D, et al. Data: SEP, 2006 Fonte: SURFACE COATINGS INTERNATIONAL PART B-COATINGS TRANSACTIONS, Vol. 89, Cap. 3, Páx. 237-244 Resumo. Water-borne anticorrosive paints are acquiring increasing relevance for the anticorrosive protection of steel surfaces exposed to the atmosphere, mostly due to the restrictions imposed by environmental and health protection agencies. However, some companies continue to be reluctant to use paints of this type to protect steel against atmospheric corrosion. Part of this reluctance may be attributed to low confidence, mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the performance of water-borne paint systems compared with traditional organic solvent-based paint systems. This paper presents results of experimental studies and includes technical considerations on the anticorrosive performance of paint systems using water-borne or solvent-borne paints when exposed to atmospheres with different degrees of corrosivity. On the basis of the practical results and the considerations presented in this paper, it may be stated that water-borne paint systems are currently available which present excellent anticorrosive behaviour, even in highly corrosive atmospheres. 28
  29. 29. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaConducting polymers: Influence on the anticorrosive properties of marinepaints Autor: Aleman C, Ocampo C, Armelin E, et al. Data: JUL, 2006 Fonte: CIENCIAS MARINAS Conference Information: 12th Iberian Marine Chemistry Symposium, 2004 A Coruña., Vol. 32, Cap. 2B, Páx. 361-368 Resumo: This work compares the resistance against marine corrosion of several paints before and after being modified by adding a conducting polymer. The physical properties of the paints were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses and mechanical assays. Corrosion experiments were carried out by immersion of metallic substrates in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The effects of the degradation on the coating surfaces were analyzed using both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An important improvement in the protection was found after adding a small amount of conducting polymer to the epoxy resin paint.A study of the effects of pigments and fillers on the properties ofanticorrosive paints Autor: Kalendova A, Vesely D, Kalenda P Data: 2006 Fonte: PIGMENT & RESIN TECHNOLOGY , Vol. 35, Cap. 2, Páx. 83-94 Resumo: Purpose - To investigate the properties of coatings containing various types of fillers from the point of view of their physical-mechanical properties and anticorrosive properties. Design/methodology/approach - Research used fillers of different types varying in morphology and/or chemical composition; these were then compared with selected pigments and zinc phosphate, an anticorrosive pigment. The following parameters were observed for all of the fillers and pigments: oil absorption, CPVC value, density, extract pH, specific surface, particle size, and water-soluble substances. The morphology of particles was observed by means of an electron-scanning microscope. The coatings of these fillers and pigments were formulated on an epoxy resin binder basis cured with a polyamine hardener. The coatings prepared were subjected to the measurement of physical-mechanical properties such as hardness and deepening resistance, flex resistance, adhesion to steel, and the gloss of the coatings. The coatings containing the fillers and pigments studied underwent corrosion tests in a condenser chamber and in a salt-spray cabinet. Findings - The results obtained through the tests allowed the selection of the optimum filler for an epoxy coating with barrier anticorrosive properties. As per respective findings, some fillers in these coatings of significant thickness can be comparable to their zinc phosphate counterparts. Research limitations/implications - The anticorrosive properties of the coatings studied can also be tested in paints by means of atmospheric exposure, for instance, with the aid of a Florida test. 29
  30. 30. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña Practical implications - The findings are helpful towards applications in the formulations of anticorrosive coatings of significant thickness that offer an effective barrier mechanism. Originality/value - The research presents the results of the properties of a whole range of industrially employed fillers and pigments contained in paints. Based on this study, the formulation of steel protecting coatings can be optimised.A systematic approach to developing safe tele-operated robots Autor: Alonso D, Sanchez P, Alvarez B, et al. Data: 2006 Fotne: RELIABLE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES - ADA - EUROPE 2006, PROCEEDINGS Book Series: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, Vol. 4006, Cap. , Páx. 119- 130 Resumo: Tele-operated service robots are used for extending human capabilities in hazardous and/or inaccessible environments. Their use is undergoing an exponential increase in our society, reason why it is of vital importance that their design, installation and operation follow the strictest possible process, so that the risk of accident could be minimised. However, there is no such process or methodology that guides the full process from identification, evaluation, proposal of solutions and reuse of safety requirements, although a hard work is being done, specially by the standardisation committees. Its also very difficult to even find in the literature examples of safety requirements identification and use. This paper presents the engineering process we have followed to obtain the safety requirements in one of the robots of the EFTCoR1 project and the way this requirements have affected the architecture of the system, with a practical example: a crane robot for ship hull blasting.Evaluation of fatigue strength improvement of ship structural details byweld toe grinding Autor: Kim MH, Kang SW, Lee JM, et al. Data: 2006 Fonte: Fracture and Damage Mechanics V, Pts 1 and 2 Book Series: KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS , Vol. , Cap. , Páx. 1079 Resumo: In order to strengthen or repair the welded structural members or fatigue damaged areas, various surface treatment methods such as grinding, shot peening and/or hammer peening are commonly employed among other methods available. While the weld toe grinding method is known to give 3 similar to 4 times of fatigue strength improvement, this improvement may significantly vary according to weld bead shapes and loading modes. In this context, a series of fatigue tests is carried out for three types of test specimens that are typically found in ship structures. Weld burr grinding is carried out using an electric grinder in order to remove surface defects and improve weld bead profiles. The test results are compared with the same type of test specimen without applying the fatigue improvement technique in order to obtain a quantitative measure of the fatigue strength improvement. Moreover, structural stress method is employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the method in evaluating the fatigue strength improvement of welded structures. 30
  31. 31. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaTeleoperated visual inspection system for hull spot-blasting Autor: Navarro P, Suardiaz J, Alcover P, et al. Data: 2006 Fonte: ECON 2006 - 32nd Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vols 1-11, Vol. , Cap. , Páx. 3117-3122 Resumo: This paper presents a robotized teleoperated visual inspection system for spot-blasting applied to hull cleaning in ship maintenance tasks. It consists of a cleaning head, a robot body, a remote control unit, and a teleoperation platform connected to a computer vision system. This solution allows a reliable and cost effective operation for hull grit spot- blasting. A prototype of this robot has been developed and tested in the Spanish IZAR shipyards.Understanding material interactions in marine environments to promoteextended structural life Autor: Shifler DA Data: OCT, 2005 Fonte: CORROSION SCIENCE Conference Information: International Symposium on Corrosion and Protection of Marine Structures, AUG 29-31, 2004 Muroran Inst Technol, Muroran, JAPAN, Vol. 47, Cap. 10, Páx. 2335-2352 Resumo: Corrosion in marine environments is affected by how and to what extent seawater interacts with materials, by the choice of material, and by design of components, systems, and structures. Seawater is a complex, naturally buffered fluid that covers much of the Earths surface. The chloride content and the dissolved oxygen content in seawater promote competing processes of passivation and the breakdown of passivity. Seawater is a living medium where microbiological organisms thrive and attach to virtually all materials leading to biofilm formation and micro- and macrofouling. Microbiological activity may accelerate corrosion processes or act as a passive barrier. Biofilms have been shown to ennoble materials in seawater after an induction period. The behavior of materials, particularly metals and alloys, in marine environments generally depend on the chemical composition, the stability of the oxide film, metallurgical and processing parameters, and the effectiveness of any applied protection and mitigation measures. Materials selection and appropriate design can avoid, delay, or minimize the occurrence of several forms of corrosion. The proper choices require an complete understanding of materials, design factors, the type of marine environment, and the relevant corrosion control methodologies in order to promote increasing service life to marine structures. This paper will discuss some of the parameters that affect materials performance and some effective measures by which alloys can be protected in selected marine environments. 31
  32. 32. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaMarine corrosion and protection of aluminum alloys according to theircomposition and structure Autor: Sinyavskii VS, Kalinin VD Data: AUG, 2005 Fonte: PROTECTION OF METALS, Vol. 41, Cap. 4, Páx. 317-328 Resumo: Based on long-term tests of aluminum alloys in seawater of various climatic zones from the Arctic to the tropics, the peculiarities of their corrosion behavior are revealed. In contrast to other alloys, hydrogen sulfide has a beneficial effect on their corrosion resistance due to the passivation. However, deep in the Black Sea, the alloys, which are susceptible to structural types of corrosion, were subjected to strong exfoliation corrosion, because hydrogen sulfide excluded fouling with microorganisms that inhibits exfoliation corrosion. Alloys of the Al-Mg system exhibit the highest corrosion resistance in seawater. Alloy of an AMr61 type (sigma(ul) = 340 MPa, sigma(0.2) = 180-210 MPa, delta = 11-15 %) has shown a good performance. Alloying with scandium and thermo-mechanical treatment make possible further simultaneous improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It is shown that crevice corrosion is more typical of corrosion-resistant low aluminum alloys possessing lower free-corrosion and pitting potentials compared to high alloys, which are susceptible to structural types of corrosion, in particular, exfoliation corrosion. The methods of the aluminum alloys protection against marine corrosion are considered. It is shown that, in contrast to carbon steels, the anodic-cathodic protection is used for aluminum alloys.Application of a polythiophene derivative as anticorrosive additive forpaints Autor: Ocampo C, Armelin E, Liesa F, et al. Data: JUL, 2005 Fonte: PROGRESS IN ORGANIC COATINGS, Vol. 53, Cap. 33, Páx. 217-224 Resumo: This work compares the resistance against marine corrosion of several paints before and after being modified by adding a conducting polymer derived from polythiophene. The selected paints, which were applied to the naval steel St F111, are primers specially indicated for protection in marine environments. The physical properties of both the unmodified and the modified paints were characterized using viscosity measurements, FTIR and thermal analyses, and mechanical properties evaluations. Results show that the addition of a low concentration (0.2%, w/w,) of poly(3-decylthiophene-2,5-diyl)- regioregular greatly improve the performance of the epoxy-based resin. Thus, laboratory immersion tests in NaCl solution showed irregular surface and composition degradations of the film without conducting polymer, after 3 days, while the polymeric film with the conducting polymer did not suffer any change until 30 days. The effects of the degradation on the coating surfaces were analysed using both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 32
  33. 33. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaCorrosion of the marine infrastructure in polluted seaports Autor: Wiener MS, Salas BV Data: JUN, 2005 Fonte: CORROSION ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY , Vol. 40, Cap. 2, Páx. 137-142 Resumo: Corrosion affects both fixed and mobile marine installations and equipment made from two basic engineering materials: steel and reinforced concrete. Typical cases of corrosion appear in the retaining walls of marine ports and in the floating docks of shipyards. This situation has been aggravated in recent decades by the discharge of municipal, industrial, and agricultural effluents which contain and/or produce by biological and chemical decomposition, toxic and highly corrosive components. The corrosive substances include hydrogen sulphide (H2S), oxygen (O-2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3) and heavy metals. In this brief review, contaminated ports are described and typical cases of marine corrosion and methods of corrosion prevention and protection are discussed. 33
  34. 34. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaApplication of natural materials in marine paint formulations Autor: Tadros AB Data: 2005 Fonte: PIGMENT & RESIN TECHNOLOGY , Vol. 24, Cap. 6, Páx. 340-346 Resumo: Purpose - Trials to develop environmentally friendly marine paints based on natural materials as replacement for copper and tin compounds for fouling and marine corrosion control. Design/methodology/approach - Green algae, tubeworms in dead powder form and garlic were used as natural anti-fouling components in the paints developed. Electrochemical technique was employed for testing the potential of both tubeworms and garlic in terms of inhibition of steel corrosion in seawater. Marine paint formulations containing each of the three selected natural materials were applied onto PVC and un- primed steel surface, which were immersed in natural seawater for the assessment of their anti-fouling and anti-corrosion properties. The results of visual assessment and seawater analysis were also used for such an evaluation. Findings - Tubeworms act as mixed type inhibitor while garlic affects the potential cathodic process of steel in seawater Tubeworms-based paint, with 25 per cent in the dry paint film, could protect steel surface from marine corrosion up to 7 months. The paints containing algae and garlic, and the corresponding algae/garlic free paints, resisted slime film formation. Steel and PVC coated surfaces with paint containing algae showed the best antifouling potential within the prepared series. Research limitationsimplications - The investigation only involved the application of the dead form of green algae and tubeworms as effective pigments in the developed paints. It is recommended that further research should focus on extracting and identifying the active components in each organism against fouling and marine corrosion. Practical implications - The paint formulations developed (containing 25 per cent by weight tubeworms in the paint film) could be used to protect un-primed steel surface against fouling and marine corrosion for a reasonably long duration. Originality/value - The application of one paint formulation on un-primed steel surface for its protection from both fouling and marine corrosion is novel. The electrochemical studies of steel in natural seawater in presence of tubeworms and garlic are original. 34
  35. 35. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariña4. Oferta-demanda de tecnoloxíaA continuación preséntase unha lista de intercambio de tecnoloxía a nivel europeo obtida da EuropeEnterprise Network. Esta gran rede dá apoio en materia tecnolóxica, política, e de posibilidades definanciación na UE ás empresas.Para ampliar información sobre algunha demanda ou oferta de tecnoloxía hai que poñerse en contactocoa Unidade de Vixilancia e Transferencia Tecnolóxica que a través do Consorcio Galactea Plus, membroda Europe Enterprise Network, actúa como intermediario cara a Europa na difusión de calquera demandaou oferta tecnolóxica.Email: cisgalicia@cisgalicia.orgTel: 981 33 71 46O gráfico que se amosa a continuación amosa que as tecnoloxías que se ofertan e demandan,maioritariamente a oferta, pertencen a métodos para tratar superficies ou eliminar biofouling e outra partesimilar pertence a productos como poden ser as pinturas. Tipoloxía das ofertas e solicitudes de tecnoloxía 22% 39% Métodos Productos Outros: 39% 35
  36. 36. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaTecnoloxías. Solicitudes e ofertasMethod to prevent and control the biofouling on objects immersed orpartially immersed in water Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 09 IT 54V8 3ELW País: Italia Data: 10/08/2009 Resumo: An Italian micro-SME has developed a new technology/product that refers to a method to prevent and control biofouling on objects immersed or partially immersed in water, where one or more organic and inorganic compounds capable to generate gas, including the application of a composition (a paint or coating containing one or more enzymes) on the surface of that object are present. The company is looking for industrial partners interested in further development and production.Innovative Method for Removing/Destroying Polychloinated Biphenyls(PCBs) in Painted Surfaces Tipo: Oferta: Referencia: 09 US 87GA 3EDQ País: USA Data: 10/07/2009 Resumo: A US government agency has developed a new way to remove/destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on painted surfaces. Despite a global ban on PCB production due to human-health risks, many surfaces are still coated with PCB-laden paints. Disposing of these paints has proven to be complex and expensive. To solve disposal limitations, researchers developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). The sponsoring agency seeks partners interested in licensing/commercialising AMTS.Technology for anticorrosion tape coatings of different isolation classesused to secure steel pipes Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 09 PL 64BD 3CMV País: Polonia Data. 19/06/2009 Resumo: A Polish medium-sized company is a specialist in anticorrosion coating, elements of steel pipelines for gas, oil, heat distribution and others. The company is authorised to offer technology for anticorrosion tape coatings of different isolation classes used to secure steel pipes in underground and ground gas, waterworks, fuel installations and other. The company is seeking for partners from the renovation /construction branch willing to cooperate with the corrosion prevention in pipelines. 36
  37. 37. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaAnticorrosive and antistatic pigments modified with conductive polymers Tipo: Oferta Referncia: 06 ES BCAV 0EJD País: España Data de actualización: 31/03/2009 Resumo: A Spanish technology centre, together with other European partners (SMES and research centres), has developed a pigment based on inorganic particles and conductive polymers. The high-tech coating achieves effective use of the expensive conductive polymers for corrosion protection and electrostatic damage repair. Other applications can be EMI/RFI shielding and energy storage in batteries. Pigment manufacturers are sought for manufacturing agreements and joint venture.Environmentally friendly materials for sandblasting applications Tipo: Demanda Referencia: 09 GR 49Q4 3CTJ País:Grecia Data: 10/03/2009 Resumo: A Greek SME active in the field of metal cleaning/coating service sector is looking for innovative environmentally friendly materials/processes for sandblasting applications. The company is seeking partnerships for license agreement, commercial agreement and technical cooperation.Eco-friendly bio-inspired antifouling agents, e.g., for submerged surfacesof ships Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 07 DE NRXE 0ING País: Alemaña Data: 20/08/08 Resumo. German University offers bio-inspired anti-fouling agents as protective agents against bio-fouling, e.g. as coating for submerged surfaces of ships. A patent has been applied. The agents are characterized by high bioactivity and are required only in small concentrations. They are eco-friendly. Tests have been carried out successfully. Licensees are sought.Innovative ecological anti-corrosive coating Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 07 CZ CZBO 0HYS País: República Checa Data: 02/05/08 Resumo. A small Czech firm has developed an environmentally friendly reactive coating composition with great anti-corrosive protection. This coating composition is characterised by good adhesion, elasticity and hardness. It protects iron objects against corrosion, and especially those that are already rusted. The company is looking for a commercial agreement with a technical assistance or a license agreement. 37
  38. 38. T4/09 Tratamento de superficies e protección contra a corrosión mariñaProduction of biologised metal surfaces with the simultaneousimmobilisation of biological function Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 07 DE NDTU 0HM7 País: Alemaña Data: 08/01/08 Resumo. A German university has invented biologised metal surfaces that also operate with simultaneous immobilisation of biological functions. With this new innovation, the metal surface will be free of rust and oxidation all along the manufacturing process. Hitherto impossible achievements, in terms of functionalisation, will be made feasible by this new method. Industrial partners interested in further co-development or licensed development are sought.Use of corrugated steels in construction applications Tipo: Oferta Referencia: 06 ES MADG 0GKE País: España Data: 27/12/07 Resumo. A Madrid-based research group in Materials Performance works in the study of several corrugated steels, especially stainless steels. Different aspects are developed such as corrosion tests and evaluation of welded joints between similar and dissimilar materials. They seek construction companies interested in the application of this technology.Mobile technology for cleaning metal surfaces from rust and coating themwith anticorrosion materials Tipo: Demanda Referencia: LIC-corrosion País: Lituania Data: 23/10/07 Resumo. A Lithuanian construction company active in construction, assembling and inspection works of metal construction in harbour territory is looking for mobile technology designed for cleaning of metal surfaces from rust and coating them with anticorrosion materials. The metal surfaces are affected by harbour conditions: salt water, earth. The company is interested in a commercial agreement with technical assistance.Climbing robot for jobs in structures and surfaces Tipo: Oferta Referencia: OO/UPM/93 País: España Data: 08/10/07 Resumo. A research group from a Spanish public university has developed a climbing and sliding parallel robot that allows to replace human beings in risky jobs in sites difficult to access as building facades, nuclear power stations, ship`s hulls or airships, etc. The group would like to license the patent and/or to adapt its technology to the specific needs of the company. 38

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