-- EDR --
   Event Data Recorders


     Robert C. McElroy, Ph.D.
Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
            WREX ...
Pandora’Box -- ???
                        s




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
International Symposium on
              Transportation Recorders

                                     •
                ...
2000 NTSB
                                              Symposium




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
EDR Committee
                                 •
                                 MSVRAC
                                 ...
Transportation Recorders
•
Accurate data protects the public.
•
Accurate data also protects the:
    –vehicle designer
   ...
NTSB Recognized
            Transportation Recorders

                                   •
                               ...
Airline Safety

                                 • Accident Rate
                                 Fatal
                  ...
Flight Data Recorders

• regulation calling for FDR, 1940
First
•
Rescinded in 1944 due to lack of suitable
recorder
• com...
1997 FDR Rule Changes

•
Transports with 11 parameter FDR, retrofit
to record 18 to 22 parameters, by 8/2001.
•
Transports...
NTSB 3/9/1999
                            Recommendations

•
1/2003, new aircraft requiring CVR & FDR
be fitted with two c...
Rail Data Recorder
•
Onboard and wayside locations
•
Records engineer action & train condition
•
Records rail & environmen...
Voyage Data Recorder

•
NTSB promoted use of event recorders
since 1970’s.
•
Voyage data recorders provide accident data
a...
Oil & Gas
            Pipeline Data Recorders
                                  •
                                  Large ...
Transmission System
                          Components

                                 •
                             ...
Pipeline Data




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
NTSB Recognized
            Transportation Recorders

                                   •
                               ...
Early Community Assiatance




WREX 2000        Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
A Problem in the System




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Highway Accident Investigation




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
High Risk Groups
• Drivers
Young
•
Commuter Drivers
•
Community Drivers
• Drivers
Older
WREX 2000    Forensic Accident Inv...
Accident Statistics
Collision point of contact
percentages
                                            REAR 20.1%




    ...
Ford & GM Type I EDR
                Event Data Recorder


                                                      Ford EDR
...
Airbag Deployment Algorithm




WREX 2000    Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Longitudinal Crash Pulse Data




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Numeric Data




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Lateral Crash Pulse Data




WREX 2000     Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Crash Scene




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Potential Uses of
                Event Data
Category                                 Potential Examples

Improve Vehicle ...
The Haddon Matrix
              w/o EDR

             Human                      Vehicle                Environment

Pre  ...
The Haddon Matrix
             w/o EDR

             Human                      Vehicle                Environment

Pre   ...
The Haddon Matrix
              w/ EDR
                Human                    Vehicle                Environment
       ...
GM Airbag Systems
                  Data Stored
                                                                          ...
1999 EDR Simplified
         Block Diagram
         Engine Speed       Vehicle Speed       Brake ON/OFF         Throttle P...
EDR Data
  Delta-V (mph)
0 Increasing




                  0   20   40        60         80        100       120   150

 ...
Pre-Impact Data
              1999 EDR


                           Brake ON
                                             ...
Accuracy and
                               Resolution
            Parameter       Full Scale         Resolution        Ac...
Vetronix EDR
            Retrieval Tool




WREX 2000       Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
Type II Event Data Recorders




WREX 2000     Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
North American Crash
                  Analysis Center
                                • is the North
                    ...
UDS System Functions
Sensors and Status Inputs




                            Up to 10 status inputs:
                   ...
Reconstruction Analysis

                                                     Tachometer speed


                         ...
LMS -- MACBOX
•
Secure a “ s eye view”
          driver’            of digital imagery
•
Digital images from the driver’s ...
Mobile Accident & Aggression Camera
                                                                                      ...
Technology will assist in

  driver performance assessment challenge
   by being ...
•
Objective.
• discriminatory.
Non
• ...
Eyewitness Drive-Cam
                                 •
                                 Driver’ video
                   ...
Type II EDR Research

Current Research Sites
•
Florida Atlantic University
•
Georgia Tech
• A&M
Texas
•
Virginia Tech



W...
Research Goals
•
Define objective criteria to identify high risk
drivers.
• driver assessment criteria to driver
Link
perf...
Objectives
•
Validate tiered assessment for screening at-
risk driving performance.
•
Define criteria for event programmin...
Objectives -- Continued
•
Evaluate and compare data input gain from
post-crash OEM EDR technologies and next
generation re...
WHO BENEFITS?


 Drivers
 Occupants
 Other Motorists


EMS
Dispatch                                   Legal Community
Law ...
Vision

•
Provide drivers, of all ages, feedback about
their driver performance to decrease their
crash risk potential.


...
Future

• is a revolution not evolution.
EDR




WREX 2000   Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
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D - Transportation Event Data Recorders Slides

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Silde show for WREX 2000 dealing with Transportation Event Data Recorders. Slides address EDR use in aviation, rail, ship, pipeline and highway transportation modes and specific recnt developments in highway EDR.

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D - Transportation Event Data Recorders Slides

  1. 1. -- EDR -- Event Data Recorders Robert C. McElroy, Ph.D. Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc. WREX 2000 September 27, 2000
  2. 2. Pandora’Box -- ??? s WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  3. 3. International Symposium on Transportation Recorders • “Transportation Recording: 2000 and Beyond” • 3-5, 1999 May • Arlington, Virginia WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  4. 4. 2000 NTSB Symposium WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  5. 5. EDR Committee • MSVRAC • Committee EDR – Private Passenger Cars • Truck & Bus Committee WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  6. 6. Transportation Recorders • Accurate data protects the public. • Accurate data also protects the: –vehicle designer –manufacturer –operator –regulator –owners & stockholders of the company. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  7. 7. NTSB Recognized Transportation Recorders • Aviation • Railroad • Marine • Pipeline • Highway WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  8. 8. Airline Safety • Accident Rate Fatal per million aircraft miles flown. – - 0.012 1960 – - 0.001 1970 – - 0.0002 1998 • fatal incident rate 1998 is 1/16 of the 1960 rate. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  9. 9. Flight Data Recorders • regulation calling for FDR, 1940 First • Rescinded in 1944 due to lack of suitable recorder • commercially available FDR 1953 First • regulation reissued by CAA in 1957 FDR with July 1, 1958 commencement date. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  10. 10. 1997 FDR Rule Changes • Transports with 11 parameter FDR, retrofit to record 18 to 22 parameters, by 8/2001. • Transports manufactured after 10/91, retrofit to record 34 parameters, by 8/2001. • Transports manufactured after 8/2000 - must record 57 parameters. • Transports manufactured after 8/2002 - must record 88 parameters. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  11. 11. NTSB 3/9/1999 Recommendations • 1/2003, new aircraft requiring CVR & FDR be fitted with two combined voice and data recorders, one near cockpit and one as far aft as practical. • 1/2005, retrofit 2-hour solid-state CVR and 10 minute auxiliary power supply. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  12. 12. Rail Data Recorder • Onboard and wayside locations • Records engineer action & train condition • Records rail & environmental condition • Remote testing & predictive maintenance • based & office based tools Field • Integrated office & field alarm reporting and management system WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  13. 13. Voyage Data Recorder • NTSB promoted use of event recorders since 1970’s. • Voyage data recorders provide accident data and serve as a management tool. • of world’ in weight, travels by 95% s trade, sea. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  14. 14. Oil & Gas Pipeline Data Recorders • Large geographical area • Wellhead to distribution • Nationwide grid • Continuous monitoring • Environmental • Strategic movement • Regulatory data WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  15. 15. Transmission System Components • Pipeline • Valves • Compressors • Storage WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  16. 16. Pipeline Data WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  17. 17. NTSB Recognized Transportation Recorders • Aviation • Railroad • Marine • Pipeline • Highway WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  18. 18. Early Community Assiatance WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  19. 19. A Problem in the System WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  20. 20. Highway Accident Investigation WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  21. 21. High Risk Groups • Drivers Young • Commuter Drivers • Community Drivers • Drivers Older WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  22. 22. Accident Statistics Collision point of contact percentages REAR 20.1% RIGHT 16.7% LEFT 17.3% NON COLLISION + UNKNOWN 0.9% Does not include rollover % FRONT 45% WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  23. 23. Ford & GM Type I EDR Event Data Recorder Ford EDR • Taurus 2000 • Sable 2000 • F-150 2000 WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  24. 24. Airbag Deployment Algorithm WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  25. 25. Longitudinal Crash Pulse Data WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  26. 26. Numeric Data WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  27. 27. Lateral Crash Pulse Data WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  28. 28. Crash Scene WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  29. 29. Potential Uses of Event Data Category Potential Examples Improve Vehicle Design/Highway vehicle systems - airbag sensing system deployment criteria Infrastructure highway systems - roadside safety feature design standards Provide a Basis for Regulatory & - offset frontal impact severity Consumer Information Initiatives - average/extreme vehicle decel pulses Provide Objective Data for alleged defects & litigation Crash Reconstruction - unintended vehicle acceleration - crash & airbag deployment sequence Develop an Objective Driver - pre-crash driver braking/steering Behavior Database - belt use - vehicle speed WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  30. 30. The Haddon Matrix w/o EDR Human Vehicle Environment Pre Skid Marks Crash Crash Calculated Delta-V Environment Post Injury Collision Damage after Crash crash WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  31. 31. The Haddon Matrix w/o EDR Human Vehicle Environment Pre Skid Marks Crash Crash Calculated Delta-V Environment Post Injury Collision Damage after Crash crash WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  32. 32. The Haddon Matrix w/ EDR Human Vehicle Environment Belt Use Speed Conditions Pre Steering ABS Crash During Crash Brake Other Controls Crash Pulse Air Bag Data Delta-V Crash Pre Tensioners Yaw Location A/B Activation Time ACN (Automatic Post Collision ACN ACN Crash Notification) WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  33. 33. GM Airbag Systems Data Stored 1990 1994 1999 Parameter DERM SDM SDM State of Warning Indicator when event occurred (ON/OFF) Length of time the warning lamp was illuminated Crash-sensing activation times or sensing criteria met Time from vehicle impact to deployment Diagnostic Trouble Codes present at the time of the event Ignition cycle count at event time Maximum Delta-V for near-deployment event Delta-V vs. time for frontal airbag deployment event Time from vehicle impact to time of maximum Delta-V State of driver’seat belt switch s Time between near-deploy and deploy event (if within 5 seconds) Passenger's airbag enabled or disabled state Engine speed (5 sec before impact) Vehicle speed (5 sec before impact) Brake status (5 sec before impact) Throttle position (5 sec before impact) Accident Investigations, Inc. WREX 2000 Forensic
  34. 34. 1999 EDR Simplified Block Diagram Engine Speed Vehicle Speed Brake ON/OFF Throttle Pos Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Pre-impact data Serial data bus SDM Accelerometer Warning Indicator Low-pass Filter Airbags Power Ignition Switch Microcomputer Including EDR  RAM  32k ROM  640 EEPROM Driver Seat Belt Manual Pass. Sensor Airbag Cutoff Sw. And Indicator WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  35. 35. EDR Data Delta-V (mph) 0 Increasing 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 150 Time (msec) WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  36. 36. Pre-Impact Data 1999 EDR Brake ON Crash Occurs @ Time = 0 Vehicle Speed Engine Speed Throttle Pos Brake OFF -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Crash Time (sec) WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  37. 37. Accuracy and Resolution Parameter Full Scale Resolution Accuracy How Measured When Updated recorded every Integrated Delta V + 55.9 mph 0.4 mph ~ + 10% .010s, calculated acceleration every .00125s EDR Data vehicle speed Vehicle speed 158.4 mph 0.6 mph +4% Magnetic pickup changes by > 0.1 mph RPM changes by Engine Speed 16383 RPM 1/4 RPM + 1 RPM Magnetic pickup > 32 RPM. Throttle Throttle position 100% Wide Rotary 0.4 % + 5% changes by Position open throttle potentiometer > 5%. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  38. 38. Vetronix EDR Retrieval Tool WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  39. 39. Type II Event Data Recorders WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  40. 40. North American Crash Analysis Center • is the North FAI American Crash Analysis Center for the VDO - UDS accident data recorder. – United States – Canada – Mexico • World Wide Analysis Network WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  41. 41. UDS System Functions Sensors and Status Inputs Up to 10 status inputs: ignition, brake, lights, directional indicator, blue light, seatbelt, air bag, etc. Wheel speed Transversal acceleration Vehicle direction Longitudinal acceleration
  42. 42. Reconstruction Analysis Tachometer speed Calculated speed Blocking area Stopping area Distance scaling WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  43. 43. LMS -- MACBOX • Secure a “ s eye view” driver’ of digital imagery • Digital images from the driver’s perspective within a sixty-second window. – to, Prior – of impact & Point – crash. Post • time crash information Real • Encrypted & transmitted intra-net or extra-net • Stored in database for future use WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  44. 44. Mobile Accident & Aggression Camera MACBOX ENCRYPTED ACCIDENT CELLULAR/PCS/SMR IMAGE & MOTION ACCIDENT DATA UPLOAD IMAGE DATA WEB SERVER BASE POST- POST- ACCIDENT BLACK BOX * SUCCESSIVE IMAGES IMAGES HE WLETT Ve tra c PACKARD Offic e FLEET OWNER INTERNET Collision of Bus with Car “triggers” triggers” PRE- PRE- the system, captures all image data prior ACCIDENT POINT OF to and after accident occurrence IMAGES IMPACT IMAGE HE WL T ET PACKA RD Ve tra c Offi ce HEWLETT Ve ctra O ff c e i PACKAR D GOVERNMENT AGENCY ALTERNATE: INSURANCE COMPANY DOWNLOAD & (Adjuster views image data “ immediately” immediately” SECURE DATA after accident) WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  45. 45. Technology will assist in driver performance assessment challenge by being ... • Objective. • discriminatory. Non • effective. Cost WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  46. 46. Eyewitness Drive-Cam • Driver’ video s eye • seconds before 10 • seconds after 10 • & Manual events Auto • Simple installation WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  47. 47. Type II EDR Research Current Research Sites • Florida Atlantic University • Georgia Tech • A&M Texas • Virginia Tech WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  48. 48. Research Goals • Define objective criteria to identify high risk drivers. • driver assessment criteria to driver Link performance. • Develop specific recommendations applicable to driver competency. • Investigate factors that may affect driving behavior of individuals. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  49. 49. Objectives • Validate tiered assessment for screening at- risk driving performance. • Define criteria for event programming of EDR technology. • Establish threshold for collision events that require EMS notification. • Establish linkage of EDR data with vehicular damage and personal injury outcomes. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  50. 50. Objectives -- Continued • Evaluate and compare data input gain from post-crash OEM EDR technologies and next generation recorders that can provide pre crash input. • Provide summarized data to support public policy recommendations. • Compare driver performance assessment using on-road testing simulators and EDR technology WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  51. 51. WHO BENEFITS? Drivers Occupants Other Motorists EMS Dispatch Legal Community Law Enforcement Insurance Industry Health Care Professionals DHSMV Highway Engineers Crash Reconstructionists WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  52. 52. Vision • Provide drivers, of all ages, feedback about their driver performance to decrease their crash risk potential. WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.
  53. 53. Future • is a revolution not evolution. EDR WREX 2000 Forensic Accident Investigations, Inc.

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