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C - Retread Procedures for Commercial Tires
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C - Retread Procedures for Commercial Tires

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Presentation sildes taken to document Commercial Tire Retreading class at Internation Tire and Rubber Association. In 2002 ITRA merged with TANA to form the current Tire Industry Association (TIA)

Presentation sildes taken to document Commercial Tire Retreading class at Internation Tire and Rubber Association. In 2002 ITRA merged with TANA to form the current Tire Industry Association (TIA)


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  • 1. Commercial Tire Retreading Robert C. McElroy, Ph.D. www.ForensicAccident.Com Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 1
  • 2. Tire Definition Bubba Academic big & dirty flexible pressure vessel flat-on-bottom Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 2
  • 3. Retread Training Program Dr. McElroy Attended ITRA Training Institute 40 Hour Commercial Tire Retreading Class Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 3
  • 4. Retreading Is: • Bonding a new tread to a worn tire casing Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 4
  • 5. What is a Worn Casing •is a properly It maintained tire that has worn out its useful tread life and been removed from service for retreading. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 5
  • 6. Vulcanizing or Curing • Process of chaining macromolecules together. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 6
  • 7. Vulcanizing Involves • Time • Temperature • Pressure Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 7
  • 8. Tire Classification • Passenger • Truck Light • Medium Truck • Heavy Truck • Off-Road • Aircraft • Agricultural • Industrial / Mining • Racing Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 8
  • 9. Tire Retreading Involves • Inspection • Repairing • Buffing / Skiving • Cementing / Filling • Tread Application • Wicking / Enveloping • Vulcanization • Inspection Final Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 9
  • 10. Mold Cure Retreading Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 10
  • 11. Pre Cure Retreading Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 11
  • 12. Today’Professional Retreader s Must Know & Understand • construction Tire • sizes & what they Tire mean • usage & application Tire • maintenance Tire • Tread design & functions • Retread processing technology Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 12
  • 13. Maintenance & Wheel Position Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 13
  • 14. Tread Compounds Should Have: • heat generation Low • traction Good • tear resistance High • rolling resistance Low Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 14
  • 15. Rolling Resistance Is Affected By: • load Tire • Inflation • Tread compound • construction Tire • Tread depth • Tread design Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 15
  • 16. Road Factors • Surface Characteristics • Water depth • Temperature Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 16
  • 17. Vehicle Factors • Speed • Mode of operation • Suspension • Braking system • Types of load – liquid – CG high Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 17
  • 18. Heat History • quantity of heat accumulated The over a period of time. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 18
  • 19. Tire Heat Exposure • Original manufacturing temperatures. • Original tread life operating temperatures. • Retread process temperatures. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 19
  • 20. Typical Radial Truck Tire Operating on the Road 200o F 93o C Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 20
  • 21. Typical Radial Truck Tire Original Tread Life 200,000 to 250,000 Miles 320,000 to 400,000 KM Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 21
  • 22. Loads Heat buildup area Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 22
  • 23. Tire Inflation Pressure • / under inflation. Over • Buffed too round / too flat. • retread / narrow Wide retread. • / narrow Wide processing rims or narrow road rims. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 23
  • 24. Low Air Pressure • Increases running temperature. • Reduces fuel economy. •20% reduction in A inflation pressure causes a 16% reduction in tread life. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 24
  • 25. Effects On Tread Wear • inflation by 10% Over reduces tread life 5- 8%. • inflation by 20% Over reduces tread life 16%. • Matching duals • Torque, braking, stopping & cornering. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 25
  • 26. To Select Tires for Retreading • Manufacturing defects • Non-repairable damage • Excessive age • tire be retreaded Can again? Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 26
  • 27. Inspect Tires • Physical inspection – hands – grazing light • Electronic inspection • Ultrasonic inspection • destructive Non testing •ray X Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 27
  • 28. Electronic Inspection Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 28
  • 29. Physical Inspection Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 29
  • 30. Non Retreadable Tires • Damaged cord • blister Liner • Improper repair • heat stress Liner • Chipped bead • Mount/demount damage • Broken body plies • Improper repair • Zipper rupture • splice separation Liner • Sidewall separation • damage Liner • stress Flex • Regroving damage • turnup separation Ply • deterioration Age Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 30
  • 31. New Tire DOT Codes DOT MC 31 2XOW 086 • - Meets or exceeds DOT safety standards DOT • - Manufacturer & plant code MC • 2XOW - optional identification symbols • - date of manufacture (08 week, 1996) 086 Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 31
  • 32. Retread Plant DOT Codes R - ARA CI XXX 086 FI • identifies as retread R- • - shop identification code ARA • - identifies matrix that the tire was C1 cured in or is a tire size code • - optional grouping XXX • - date code 086 • - steer axle option F1 Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 32
  • 33. Buffing Template Shape Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 33
  • 34. Buffed Radius Check Gauge Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 34
  • 35. Buffing Machine Buffing Head Template Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 35
  • 36. Apply Cement To: • Protect buffed surface & exposed cords from oxidation. • Improves adhesion by providing for more “intimate contact” to buffed casing. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 36
  • 37. Cement Tire Casing Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 37
  • 38. Cement = Rubber Solids Dissolved in Solvents • Allow 15 minutes to dry after application. • Install tread within 12 hours. • Chemical • vulcanizing Black • Concentrated or brush • Spray • Extruder or hot tack Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 38
  • 39. Cement Application Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 39
  • 40. Gum Cushion Application • Apply gum cushion base material, • a prepared casing. To Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 40
  • 41. Gum Cushion to Tire Contact Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 41
  • 42. Trim Gum Cushion Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 42
  • 43. Gum Cushion Base Material • Pressure roller ensures attachment of gum base material to prepared casing. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 43
  • 44. Precure Tread Installation • Texturize tread end & cement. • tread straight holding tightly. Feed • cut point even or slightly longer. Mark • straight & match tread design if possible. Cut • cushion between tread ends. Place • splice with least amount of hump. Butt • rubber toward splice & from center out. Work • Install DOT identification code. • Apply poly. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 44
  • 45. Precure Tread Installation & Cutting Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 45
  • 46. Gum Cushion Base Material Connects Tread Ends Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 46
  • 47. Poly Installation Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 47
  • 48. DOT Identification Code Installation Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 48
  • 49. Select Tire Envelope Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 49
  • 50. Envelope on Expander Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 50
  • 51. Envelope Expanded Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 51
  • 52. Tire Insertion Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 52
  • 53. Envelope Adjustment Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 53
  • 54. Rim & Flange Installation Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 54
  • 55. Prepared Tires For Chamber Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 55
  • 56. Curing in Autoclave or Chamber Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 56
  • 57. Track Installation Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 57
  • 58. Envelope & Rim Pneumatic Connections Envelope Rim Connection Connection Vacuum Pressure Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 58
  • 59. Seal & Lock Chamber Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 59
  • 60. Set Time & Temperature Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 60
  • 61. Post Vulcanization Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 61
  • 62. Final Inspection Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 62
  • 63. References Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 63
  • 64. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 64
  • 65. Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 65
  • 66. Dr. McElroy Examining Retreaded Tire The End Canadian Association of Technical Accident Investigators and Reconstructionists - 1999 66