Success stories 2012-03

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How companies and organisations use standards effectively and participate in standardisation work.
Learn from the experience of others:
- How to use standards in everyday work.
- How to use proven knowledge.
- How to keep the state-of-the-art of technology.
- How standards assure the profit of a company.
- How to set standards.
http://www.as-institute.at/index.php?id=2575&L=1

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Success stories 2012-03

  1. 1. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.Success with Standards Testimonials from companies and organizations A collection of best-practice reports Member of CEN and ISO | ISO 9001:2008 certified
  2. 2. Austrian Standards manages a unique network of some 5,900 experts to bring together their manifold knowledge and expertise. Thereby, we create the basis for the development of generally accepted standards. We make this know-how accessible through publications, training and further services for application. Standards guarantee high quality and security and promote competitiveness and economic growth. Imprint: Success with Standards – Examples of Austrian Enterprises Publisher: Austrian Standards Institute, 1020 Wien | Vienna, Heinestrasse 38 // www.as-institute.at Editing & Design: Dr. Johannes Stern (Austrian Standards Institute, PR & Media) Translation: EuroTextServices, C. Plunger & R. Thaller OEG E-Mail: media@as-institute.at © – ASI 2012-032 Success with Standards
  3. 3. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value. The sun only has to shine 4 On the basis of a standard, Johann Brandmayr developed a new, highly efficient measurement technique solar thermal collectors and earned the Innovation Award of the University of Applied Sciences of Wels. To know the standards means to know what is required 6 – the advice of KommR Ing. Franz Bamberger for all those who want to succeed – just like he did – in the markets of Russia and Eastern Europe Strong through standards 8 Berndorf Bäderbau: Standards ensure high quality and open the door to the East. High levels with standards 10 Klagenfurt Regional Hospital: The level of sterilisation of medical instruments improved dramatically with the help of standards. The quality makers 12 Protected Workshop St. Pölten: Quality management, standards and certificates ensure a good position in the free market. For the safety of the youngest 14 MAM baby products: Participation in European standardzation significantly raised the safety of pacifiers and secured MAM’s market position. New wood with standards 16 MIRAKO Thermoholz: Innovation, determi­­ nation and European standards pave the way to market leadership. What counts is the best solution 18 Schindler Aufzüge und Fahrtreppen: Ing. Anton Marschall about standards as a success factor and standardisation as a career springboard. Effectiveness in hospitals 22 OÖ. Gesundheits- und Spitals-AG: How online standards management saves time and money in Upper Austria‘s hospitals.»Without standards, I would have had to close down« 24 The diving expert Martin Denison rescued his company by standardization and raised diving safety world-wide. Swiss Risk Management based on Austrian Standards 26 For the first time a government introduced such a system – based on ON Rule ONR 49000. Success with Standards 3
  4. 4. © Austrian Institute of Technology The sun only has to shine His newly developed measure- ment technique for characterizing solar thermal collectors earned R Ing. Johann Brandmayr (31) the enewable energies undisputedly are a Innovation Award of the Universi- promising solution for the future of ty of Applied Sciences of Wels. energy supply. The Climate Change and Energy Package adopted by the This gives Austrian Standards European Union in 2008 defined a 20 percent good reason to take a closer share of renewable energies in energy consump- tion as a legally binding objective. The related look at the standard-based Austrian Climate Strategy drawn up in 2010 innovation and talk with gives special emphasis to solar thermal energy, i.e. the conversion of solar energy into usable the successful developer. thermal energy. To reach the EU’s ambitious objective, energy production systems must be deployed optimally. The determination of their effectiveness and effi- ciency requires valid performance indicators. The basis for performance und reliability testing is laid down in the European Standard EN 12975-2 “Thermal solar systems and compo- nents – Solar collectors – Part 2: Test methods”. The modernization of the specifications resulted in new requirements for the field testing of these products. The Upper Austrian engineer Johann Brandmayr recognized this opportunity: For the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), he and AIT engineer Franz Helminger developed a new, highly efficient measurement technique that pro- vides an improved characterization of solar ther- mal collectors.4 Success with Standards
  5. 5. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.Certified quality is a data from the measurement points to calculatingcompetitive advantage the test results. “This significantly reduces labour Austria is one of the leading nations in the intensity, while the information content of the re-p­ roduction of solar thermal equipment. Almost sults is optimized. Thus, Austrian solar manufac-one in four collectors installed in the EU is “made turers can be even more competitive in interna-in Austria”, and the high quality of Austrian prod- tional markets,” explains Mr. Zeller.ucts is in demand world-wide. Competition, The testing process itself did not change radi-however, increases and major players enter the cally. The distinguishing characteristic of the © FH Welsmarket. Thus, quality control and proof of verified new test stand is its automated operation. Theperformance data become ever more important. previous method required optimal conditions Up to now, tests required considerable time and constant parameters, e.g. for solar radiationand human resources. Nevertheless, it was not and cloudiness, and therefore had to be continu- “ In order to innovatepossible to create a really comprehensive calcu- ously monitored. successfully, you havelation model. to rely to standards.” Deviations improve results Presentation of theStandards raise quality For the new technique, the sun only has to Innovation Award of the Johann Brandmayr addressed this aspect: shine. In contrast to previous testing practice University of Applied“Conventional methods measure the perfor- and in line with ÖNORM EN 12975-2, changing Sciences of Wels tomance of a collector under almost stable condi- parameters are explicitly desired. Owing to the Ing. Johann Brandmayr (r.)tions. The collector remains on the test stand for new calculation model based on multiple linearseveral days as the values measured must be regression, deviations improve the quality ofconstant for 10 to 15 minutes. During that peri- measurements since tests can be performed un-od, parameters such as solar radiation, irradia- der real-life conditions.tion angle and cloudiness must not change. As a Moreover, the measurement data obtained areresult, continuous monitoring is required so that also comparable across different testing insti-testing is highly time-consuming and labour- tutes. As the system is certified under the Solarintensive.” Keymark scheme of the European Committee for ÖNORM EN 12975-2 permits testing condi- Standardization CEN (www.estif.org/solarkey-tions that are close to reality. Johann Brand- mark/index.php respectively www.solarkeymark. org) it bears an internationally accepted quality label that is based on standards and the comparability of measurement results. The award-winning scientist Johann Brandmayr emphasizes that this is ultimately a must. Brandmayr: “In order to innovate successfully, you have to rely to standards. After all, compli- ance with applicable standards assures the quality of products and processes and permits sustainable development and improvements. Herbert HirnerTest stand for thermal solar systems on theAustrian Institute of Technologymayr’s solar test stand for the characterization ofsolar thermal collector under quasi-dynamicconditions meets these requirements very well. Brandmayr: “On account of the standard, aprogram had to be developed for gathering, sav-ing and analysing the data measured. I developedthe required software for my test stand, took itinto operation and verified it at the AustrianInstitute of Technology.” Distribution of the measurement points recorded under dif-Innovation improves efficiency ferent conditions According to Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Peter Zeller whoteaches at the University of Applied Sciences in ÖNORM EN 12975-2 Thermal solar systems andWels, the advantage of this innovation is that it components – Solar collectors; Part 2: Test methodsallows for test automation – from loading the Success with Standards 5
  6. 6. To know the standards means to know what is required hans / www.pixelio.de You should get well-informed in ad­ ance that is the advice of v KommR Ing. Franz Bamberger, the Eastern Europe/Russia officer of the Presidents Group of Austrian Standards Institute, for all those who want to succeed – just like he did – in the markets of I Russia and Eastern Europe. “ f you know the standards, you know what is required. Especially in economic relations with Russia, standards are of great importance. And therefore, you should get information in advance”, recom- mends KommR Ing. Franz Bamberger to all enterprises who want to go East and enter the markets of Russia and the CIS region. Mr Bamberger, who has been extremely suc- cessful as a “small countryside stonemason” – as he modestly describes himself – since the 1980s, knows what he is talking about: “The products must comply with standards there, and this has to be evidenced by certificates.” If you do not have certificates or the product differs from the standards, you are in trouble. The lorry is stuck at the border until a valid certificate is submitted. This again may result in further de- lays. Therefore – according to Mr Bamberger, who has been vice-president of the Austrian Stan- dards Institute for many years and Eastern Europe/Russia officer of the Presidents Group since June 2011 — you need to familiarize yourself with the requirements and obtain the6 Success with Standards
  7. 7. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.relevant certificates. These relate mainly to Rus- these occupations and that the crafts are ansian GOST standards, but increasingly also to economic factor. In this context, Austrian com-British BS standards because numerous foreign panies also have the major task of transferringarchitects, especially from the US, are active in know-how if they want to promote craftsman-Russia today who use standards drawn up in ship and skills. SMEs are of special importanceEnglish. in this respect.»Kreisky is to blame.« CEN membership of Russia? The managing partner of Franz Bamberger To Mr Bamberger’s regret, European stan-Steinmetzbetriebe that include a total of five dards do not really play a role in Russia yet. Thiscompanies and around 100 employees already will probably only change if — according to hisstarted his business activities in Eastern Europe wish — Russia becomes a member of the Euro-and Russia before the fall of the Iron Curtain in pean Committee for Standardization (CEN) or at1989. “Then Federal Chancellor Kreisky is to bla- least moves closer to European standardization.me,” he says with a wink in his eye. In the early “You need to ‘embrace’ Russia further in order1980s. the first projects funded by Kontrollbank to achieve common solutions that go beyond thewere implemented in Hungary and then in Po- existing Memorandum of Understanding bet-land where small companies were able to ride ween CEN and GOST.” After all, one thing isalong as subcontractors of big Austrian con- clear for him: “If you want a globalized economy,struction enterprises and gained a foothold in there is no way around finding a common inter-the East. national language for trade. And that’s what In concrete terms, this meant: establishing standards are.” –J. Sterncontacts to a financially strong client base andoffering stone and marble for banks, hotels andincreasingly private homes. Today, Bamberger’sfocus is on Russia and specifically Moscowwhere stone has a certain tradition so that thecompany now also has its own administrative of-fice in Moscow. Prefabricated products are still manufacturedin Austria, the project supervisors are from Au-stria, too, and the material itself comes from allover the world. When asked why he venturedinto the markets of the East and Russia, Mr.Bamberger refers to his curiosity and taste foradventure, but also states that “when you wantto grow as a medium-sized Austrian companyyou have to expand to other markets. Austria istoo small for that. And in this context, the coun-tries of Eastern Europe and then Russia simplywere a natural choice.” KommR Ing. Franz Bamberger, Eastern Europe/Russia officer of the Presidents Group of the Austrian StandardsUseful hints Institute In addition to the good advice of familiarizingoneself with the standards and certificates re-quired in future markets, Opera buff Bamberger,who speaks a little Russian himself, is fluent inSerbo-Croatian and travels to Moscow approxi-mately every six weeks, has a few more hints for The GOST-Certificateentrepreneurs wishing to succeed in the East In many cases, a GOST-certificate is obligatoryand Russia: “You have to adjust, you need to for exports to Russia (Russian Federation). Thisget to know the mentalities and habits, which no legal requirement for marketing and customslonger include the cliché of Vodka drinking ses- clearance of goods in Russia, you can achieve atsions. Then you will also discover many similari- Austrian Standards plus Certification (AS+C).ties.” At any rate, sound craftsmanship is in high Learn more: www.as-plus.at/en/certification/demand, adds Bamberger, who highlights certification-of-products/gost-certificateAustria’s excellent reputation in this field. Many countries still have to catch up especial-ly with regard to crafts and the training of skilledworkers because, during Communist times, thefocus primarily was on industry rather than oncrafts. The Czech Republic and Poland alreadyrealized that thorough training is required for Success with Standards 7
  8. 8. Strong through standards When people hear the name “Berndorf”, they usually think of cutlery. A subsidiary of the Lower Austrian steel processing company, however, has specialised in quite a different field: pool construction. Standards open up the door to the East. Customers demand certi- ficates and high quality, and that is the focus of the corporate philosophy.8 Success with Standards
  9. 9. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.S“ tandards are our theme every day,“ point accuracy. Formerly, irregularities occurred says Dipl.-Ing. Peter Jauschowetz. The when the stainless steel panels were cut. “We technical director of Berndorf Bäder- checked the process and found that the dimen- bau knows exactly what he is talking sions had been correctly scanned, but discove- about. The Lower Austrian company constructed red that one of the cutters did not wear his glas- around 5,000 swimming pools in the past thirty ses at the most important moment.” The issue years. The stainless steel pools that will last for was resolved very 2,000 years comply with applicable standards quick­y. When it comes l and even offer more than that: Rounded steps to criticising standards, under water, punched knobs to prevent slipping Gruber has to think a and tested drainage devices and heads. while before one thing comes to his mind: He The stricter, the better would like to be able After all, building and selling is not enough. to copy and distribute Peter Jauschowetz, who is a trained facility and standards bought in mechanical engineer with a special focus on en- the company. ergy technology, gives priority to standards. At the Austrian Standards Institute, he contributes European trend to to standardisation because “Berndorf traditional- more safety ly prefers strict standards. Whenever there is a Let us come back to German and an Austrian standard on a specific pool construction pro- topic, we opt for the stricter one.” There are ap- per: Current standards proximately 40 standards for the construction, contain many aspects planning and operation of swimming pools. They of safety, qu<ality and give top priority to safety and hygiene, which is hygiene. However, the- regulated in the Act on Hygiene at Swimming re is still work for Mr. Pools and Bathing Waters in Austria. Jauschowetz in the standardisation committees: “A gap relates to play equipment at swimming In black and white pools.” Ropes, high bars, parallel bars as well as Safety and hygiene are not just a legal require- climbing walls and towers are not covered by ment, but also a demand made by the custo- standards yet. The guests usually feel safer above mers. “The customers call for certificates and water and therefore experts have to give further confirmations,” explains Mr. Jauschowetz with thought to this equipment. Mr. Jauscho- wetz ex- regard to his core markets in Austria, Germany, pects that a preliminary draft will be available in Switzerland, Southern Tyrol and Luxembourg. In 2009. This project could also provide an impetus Eastern Europe, the situation is quite different. for standardisation at the European level. There, standards are not a matter of course and not as well integrated into everyday life as in Au- The next priorities stria. “In the new markets, we set the standard Before that, basic requirements will change in and thereby define the quality level when we Austria. In April 2008, the Act on Hygiene at build municipal or hotel pools,” states Mr. Swimming Pools was amended and, as a result, Jauschowetz. From Slovakia to Lithuania. Russia the related standards had to be revised as well. and Latvia, the stainless swimming pools made There is a trend to higher safety. This can also by Berndorf are in high demand and Peter be seen in European standardisation: Risk analy- Jauschowetz counts on standards there. sis will become a routine element of safety engi- neering. “We do not want be taken by surprise. Managed with quality Therefore, we prefer to contribute to the deve- Standards not only prevail in the spacious pro- lopment of standards,” says Mr. Jauschowetz duction hall, but also in the offices. The compa- out of conviction. He can only identify potential ny has been certified according to the quality for improvements in the case of standardised re- management standard ISO 9001 since 1995. quirements that are not fully understandable. “Our employees do not notice the standards any Such cases are seldom, but they still exist, e.g. more as they are practiced day by day,” explains impact testing for installed parts whereas two Dieter Gruber, Quality Manager of Berndorf Bä- different materials do not come into contact in derbau. Drawing up project descriptions and do- stainless steel structures. cumenting processes are a matter of course. In For Berndorf Bäderbau, standards pave the parallel to moving to new offices on the compa- way to success. Since 1990, the number of em- ny’s premises, an administrative innovation was ployees has risen from 70 to 200 plus 50 additio- introduced: an internal logistics programme that nal ones in subsidiaries. “By actively participating is based on ISO 9001. Quality Manager Gruber in standardisation, we can have a positive influ- much appreciates the high transparency of the ence on developments and know about new focal processes. Errors can be identified in a targeted issues before other competitors,” says Peter Link: way and processes can be optimised with pin- Jauschowetz looking at his strong brand. –P.K. www.berndorf-baederbau.at Success with Standards 9
  10. 10. High levels with standards S When the surgeon calls for scissors in the operating theatre, he gets a “ tandards have become my hobby,” ex- plains Horst Taferner with a smile. The sterile instrument. That seems to be former head of the Central Sterilisation Supply Department (CSSD) at the Klagen- a matter of course. However, there furt Regional Hospital achieved an accomplishment are different levels of sterility. At the within five years that would have been impossible without standards: Building an internationally renow- Klagenfurt Regional Hospital, the ned management structure for instrument cleaning, sterility of medical instruments has raising the quality of sterilisation and integrating tests into routine work. dramatically improved in recent “Again and again, teams of visitors come to us to years because a committed team learn more about our operations and to get new ideas for their own work,” Mr. Taferner explains integrated tests into routine proudly. processes based on standards A decisive resolution and — almost as a by-product It all started several years ago. In 2000, the — raised the level of a hospital’s management decided to centralise sterili- sation operations. Up to that time, there was a wor- related equipment kroom for preparing surgical instruments next to standard. each of the 26 operating theatres. Because of this decision, a centralised unit was established and con- struction work started. Parts of the basement of one building were adapted and new instrument washers according to ÖNORM EN 15883 as well as additional surgical instruments — for logistical reasons — were purchased. Moreover, the sterilisation equipment was also brought in line with ÖNORM EN 285. Thus, the CSSD lives up to the state of the art. Horst Taferner was the ideal man for implementing the new standards. After starting as an intensive-ca- re nurse in 1982, he moved to the operating theatres and then on to sterilisation where he had worked as a team member for eight years before taking the helm — and responsibility for the big restructuring.10 Success with Standards
  11. 11. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.Clear structures veloped over the years. “The suppliers were up- The new centralised unit needed a new ma- set when we told them that their previously goodnagement. Mr. Taferner prepared the ground for equipment was not in line with the standard de-certification according to ISO 9001:2000. That manded in the call for tenders.” The equipmentrequired clear instruction flows, development of manufacturers have learnt. And so did Tafernerguidelines, traceable paths and processes, error and his team.monitoring and continuous staff training. Fiveyears later, the certificate was obtained. Why did Audits creating added valueit take so long? With 35,000 surgical interventi- Therefore, it took five years up to the first vali-ons per year, certification was a large-scale pro- dation according to the standards ÖNORM ENject. Moreover, by creating the infrastructure, Mr. 554, EN ISO 15883 1-2 and the ON Rule ONRTaferner brought about a crisis for the equip- 112069. In 2005, the time had come. The staffment manufacturers that eventually resulted in was trained, the system was in place. “Each au-products of a higher quality benefitting all other dit took us one step further,” explains Taferner.sterilisation units as well. However, let us start After 2005, training was improved. An error ma-from the beginning. nagement system was introduced, which raised the satisfaction of surgeons and nurses. In con-Perfecting equipment tests crete terms, this means that the surgeons can Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Sandra Eder, Medical instruments are first washed and then file complaints. By means of a new bar code, it MBA, and Horst Taferner,sterilised. For decades, this has been done — to is possible to track the method and time of Head of the Central Sterili-draw a comparison with everyday life — in a dis- cleaning and the person in charge for each in- sation Supply Departmenthwasher and then in a pressure cooker. The le- strument. Further structural and technical chan- of the Klagenfurt Regionalvel of cleanliness is defined in ÖNORM EN ges were a matter of course. Then an auditor rai- Hospital15883. The efficacy of cleaning was verified — sed a new challenge for Mr. Taferner by asking ato put it simply — by soiling the instruments with simple question: “How can you prove that thetest soiling made up of mashed potatoes, egg instruments are as clean as you think they are?”and food colouring agents, cleaning them and The next project was born.checking the result. A new test method usingsheep blood developed by the Institute of Ap- Research follows developmentplied Hygiene in Graz was optimised in co-ope- In 2006, the re-positioned sterilisation unitration with the team of the sterilisation unit in launched a research project. The main issue wasKlagenfurt. “Sheep blood is closest to human how is it possible to prove that the instrumentsblood,” says Taferner and goes on with a little are clean in everyday operation? Since Octoberbit of pride: “All over Europe, the equipment 2005, the chemist Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Sandra Eder hasmarket collapsed.” been working at the Klagenfurt Regional Hospi- tal. Mr. Taferner contacted her — with success.Complex surgical equipment Within eight months, they implemented a re- The new standard was followed by another search project during full operation. Three testschallenge from Klagenfurt. After all, not all the in- — a wipe test, a washing test and a laboratorystruments are as simple as tweezers or surgical test — were examined. With the help of the che-knives. Out of the 35,000 surgeries performed in mist and the hospital’s Institute of LaboratoryKlagenfurt, almost 3,000 are complicated inter- Diagnostics, the tests were prepared for theventions requiring complex equipment. Heart users in a practice-oriented way. The team de-surgery, laparoscopy and lower abdomen inter- veloped a test set that can be easily applied byventions increasingly rely on minimally invasive the staff — no university graduates — and thattechniques. This means that the patients do not is both effective and inexpensive. The next majorhave any long incisions but only two or three audit will take place for certification in 2008, and“holes” near the surgical field. The surgeon ma- Mr. Taferner — now responsible for improvingnipulates handles that are connected to the in- the nursing care system within the hospital ma-struments by a long tube. These instruments are nagement — is looking forward to it.made of complex materials — mixtures of metaland plastics —, have many angles and bends International attentionand have to be disassembled before cleaning. The Central Sterilisation Supply Department became a model for many because of its stan-Improving the equipment dards-compliant organisation. After its presenta- To clean complicated instruments — screwed tion at the World Forum for Hospital Sterile Sup-links, tubes and sleeves — in accordance with ply, international companies came to see howthe new standard, the interior of the cleaning the system really worked in practice. And thereequipment had to be re-designed and built was only one way to achieve success accordinganew. Metal pipes with holes for cleaning tubes, to Sandra Eder: “I cannot ‘sell’ a standard alone,washing processes going in both directions and, but only within the overall package of practicalin some cases, clamps for bringing small parts application. Thereby, the standard is filled withinto the right position were needed and also de- life and improved.” –P.K. Success with Standards 11
  12. 12. The quality makers Doorplates, camera housings, control systems for escalators in London and bespoke parts for car doors: What do these things have in common? They are all made by the Protected Workshop St. Pölten. The company has conquered its place in the free market by specifically counting on quality management, standards and certificates.12 Success with Standards
  13. 13. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.S“ tandards define a framework in which for him. With his foot, he can lift and tilt the table we can use our creativity and flexibility so that he can continue to work. Such adaptati- in a targeted way,” says Ing. Alfred ons go far beyond any standard and regulation. Daxbacher. In his function as the qua- lity manager of Geschützte Werkstätte St. Pölten The best way Ges.m.b.H. (Protected Workshop St. Pölten), he Standards are important for the company es- is at the interface between organisation, work pecially in its external presentation. “We adjust and external presentation. The offices of the the quality of our products and services to the headquarters in Hart near St. Pölten prove that requirements of the customers and the market,” this is not only his personal opinion: Right in the explains Mr. Daxbacher. He is responsible for lobby, the company showcases the ISO 9001 quality management certification according to certificate, an environmental management ÖNORM EN ISO 9001 in the company and will award, quality labels and other “quality trophi- make efforts to obtain international product cer- es”. tificates in the future. Gradually, the planning sy- stem is aligned to ISO 14001 (environmental ma- A great variety nagement), but the Protected Workshop still The Workshop does not merely manufacture a wants to wait before embarking single product. Its activities range from contract on certification. “Standards ensu- processing to the supply of components and re compatibility, define a code of entire systems. The product range covers seven good practice and provide areas. The most important segments are electri- guidance,” states Mr. Daxbacher. cal assembling as well as metal working and processing. For the big customers SIMEA (Sie- International success mens Industrial Manufacturing, Engineering and The success achieved proves Applications) and Schindler (elevators and esca- the strategy right. Since the lators), for example, the company produces con- company’s foundation approxi- trol cabinets, cable harnesses, controls, thyristor mately 25 years ago, the small groups, high-performance heat sinks, turned, workshop that had less than ten milled, stamped and bent parts and much more. employees grew to become a me- At the headquarters in Hart, the focus is on dium-sized and eventually into a Ing. Daxbacher: “We take account of the re- diverse metal working and locksmith products: big industrial company — at least quirements laid down in standards because car components, special parts for gearboxes by Austrian standards. It employs we want to achieve our objectives.” and specialised welding work. In the nearby pro- approximately 450 people who duction hall in St. Pölten, control cabinets are manufacture products for diversified markets. assembled for international customers, cables Ten percent of the production is exported, e.g. are perfectly pre-assembled and, in most cases, to Germany, England and North America. SIMEA the related housings are produced individually. has already awarded the preferred supplier sta- The factory located in Gmünd processes textiles. tus to the Protected Workshop St. Pölten several Last year, the Protected Workshop generated times. revenues of 25 million euro. Persons with special needs account for 71 percent of its employees. A wrong attitude Hence, sanitary facilities for handicapped em- Standards are seldom experienced as an ob- ployees and ramps for wheelchair users are a stacle. “If the users do not realise the purpose matter of course. and meaning of standards, further explanations are needed,” says Mr. Daxbacher. Frequently Special needs people believe that standards are prescriptions Some of those who work at the Protected that must be observed. Mr. Daxbacher holds a Workshop suffered an injury on their skilled jobs different view: “We take account of the require- that made it impossible for them to return to a ments laid down in standards because we want “normal” workplace, e.g. the installer who broke to achieve our objectives.” And this attitude may three vertebrae. Today, he can work here and be the secret behind the success of the Protec- meticulously installs cables in control cabinets. ted Workshop St. Pölten. –P.K. As he cannot sit or stand any longer after one Link: hour, a specially designed worktable was built www.gw-stpoelten.com Success with Standards 13
  14. 14. For the safety of the youngest Maximum safety to the benefit of the youngest: That was the focus P of European standardisers when acifiers — small objects of everyday use — are veritable high-tech products that are well they developed ÖNORM EN 1400 conceived in every detail, have to meet many — under Austrian convenorship. safety requirements and pass very tough tests. All that is laid down in ÖNORM EN 1400. Not only ma- nufacturers and consumers, but also experts of various disciplines, such as medicine, were involved in the de- velopment of that European standard under the leader- ship of Austrian Peter Röhrig, CEO of MAM Babyartikel GmbH. The primary objective of the “pacifier standard” is to reduce accident hazards. Pacifiers, as they are found in the everyday life of young parents, satisfy the natural need of babies to suck between meals and comfort them. Therefore, they are designed in such a way that they can stay in baby mouths for a longer time. A paci- fier must not have any protruding, sharp tips and edges, and its surface has to be smooth. It should be as easy to grip as possible so that it can be easily removed from the child’s mouth. Stickers or parts that may come off are not permitted. The mouth shield must have a mini- mum size and at least two vent holes sized 20 square millimetres each. Thus, the child can breathe if the paci- fier should get stuck in the mouth by accident and the pacifier cannot be sucked into the larynx because of a partial vacuum. Orthodontic studies also yielded fin- dings on the ideal characteristics of this soothing object: it should not be too hard and not too soft to prevent jaw deformations. –sz14 Success with Standards
  15. 15. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.»Nobody wants to make any mistakes here.«An interview with Which advantages does a “standard-compliant” have access to sound studies and documentati-Peter Röhrig, CEO pacifier have for babies? ons.of MAM Babyartikel Röhrig: Quite recently, pacifiers were still frow-GmbH, who has pro- ned upon because they were said to deform the The work on the European pacifier standardduced pacifiers since jaw. Today, we know that the opposite is true. took almost ten years. Why did it take so long?1976 and has been On ultrasound images, you can already see foeti Röhrig: There were already national pacifieractive in standardisa- with a thumb in their mouths. Children have a standards in some countries and it was difficulttion for many years. natural need to suck and, if they are allowed to to find a common line as several countries at-He paints a lively pic- satisfy it with pacifiers, they stop by their third tached great importance to detailed issues andture of the complex birthday in two out of three cases. Only 20 per- cherished different philosophies.origin of the European cent of the children who suck fingers or cloth [...] Hence, many opinions and methods had topacifier standard and tips abandon this habit at the same age. The ol- be reconciled in this standardisation project. Itexplains the benefits der they get the higher the risk of irreparable de- was also necessary to strike a balance betweenof actively contribu- formations caused by sucking. Up to the fourth chemical and mechanical requirements. Physi-ting to standards. birthday at the latest, there is a certain self-he- cians and university clinics were also involved aling effect, i.e. when the force is no longer ap- and important new findings were obtained. It is plied, the teeth re-align. Thereafter, the child is quite interesting to note that there were hardly sure to need braces. Therefore, dentists are in- any discussions between manufacturers, test in- creasingly active in preventive research. stitutes and consumer representatives but rather Pacifiers, however, have a much greater varie- between countries. ty of medical aspects. It is a well-recognised fact that saliva is involved in digestion, kills two- How did the work develop? thirds of bacteria and prevents caries. Frequent- Röhrig: Das Thema Kinder ist sehr emotional, ly, however, the glands of babies do not function und niemAny topic related to children is highly properly during the night and pacifiers stimulate emotional, and nobody wants to make any mi- salivation. People who produce little saliva are stake here. On average, 25 persons participated demonstrably more prone to disease. in the meetings and, over the years, team spirit In neonatology where special pacifiers are developed. Personal animosities were put aside used, sensational success was achieved. These to get a good development going. When the de- premature infants still have to learn the sucking legates themselves had already achieved agree- reflex so that they take in food more quickly and ment, the toughest challenge was to convince gain weight. Thus, tiny babies with a birth weight everybody in the respective home countries. Es- of 650 g were able to survive. pecially authorities and agencies raised many In the past ten years, several studies on the objections. sudden infant death syndrome found that child- [...] An important point is that there are a great ren with pacifiers are less at risk than control number of safety warnings for the users, e.g. groups. This is the reason why Dutch health au- they should not dip the pacifier in a sugary sub- thorities officially recommend the use of paci- stance and should not tie a ribbon to it. Based fiers. on the intensive examination of accident re- search results, we know that people do not no- How safe are pacifiers according to EN 1400? tice many details if they are not explicitly made Röhrig: There is no absolutely safe product. Life aware of them. Just think of a toothbrush for always involves risks, but all known hazards children: 18-month-old toddlers should never run were taken into consideration. around while cleaning their teeth because the We can now say that the efforts were wor- consequences could be fatal if the child simply thwhile: A highly comprehensive and very strin- slips while holding the toothbrush. Parental con- gent standard was produced. On average, the trol is a must here. The toothbrushes must not good national standards were further improved be too colourful and funny because otherwise, and those countries that did not have any speci- the children would see them as toys. fications before, profit very much from the new It is always good to co-operate with product de- standard. signers who, on the one hand, are aware of con- sumer preferences and can create a visually ap- How did you benefit from participating in Euro- pealing article and who, on the other hand, are pean standardisation? familiar with production processes and medical Röhrig: The personal benefit that you get as an studies helping them to align products to the active contributor to standardisation is obvious: physical and mental development stages of You learn about all risks in your field of activities children. as you hear straight from the source when inci-Link: dents happen. You also learn to differentiatewww.mambaby.com between what has to be taken seriously and you Success with Standards 15
  16. 16. »New wood« with innovation & standards T Hubert Mitteramskogler is not an he high-temperature kiln does not look average businessman. In the past particularly exciting: a metal box as big two decades, his hardwood sawmill as a booth in a car repair shop that is hollow inside and has black walls. It has become the market leader in the smells of a mixture of smoked meat and cara- segment of thermal wood based on mel. The smallest of the four chambers has room for ten cubic metres of wood and the big- innovation and determined efforts. gest one for 36. “There the hardwood is submit- Almost as a by-product, European ted to controlled heat treatment until it has the characteristics that we need,” explains Hubert standards were developed on Mitteramskogler. Hardwood is input and wood this topic. having the quality of tropical wood is output. It is called “thermal wood” in the market and “ther- mal modified wood” in standardisation. Innovation born from an old idea “When we started there were no standards and we simply had to try everything ourselves,” says inventive Mr Mitteramskogler with pride. In August this year, the pre-standard ÖNORM CEN/TS 15679 on thermal wood was issued.16 Success with Standards
  17. 17. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.Its origins date back several years. At the end of “The heat eliminates OH groups, the wood be-the 1990s, Mr. Mitteramskogler discovered a comes drier and loses volume. In parallel, itslong-forgotten technique through literature re- structure changes so that water can hardly besearch. In 1924, coniferous wood was thermally introduced,” explains Mr. Mitteramskogler.treated in Canada: this raised the quality ofwood by making it harder, more durable and Pest resistance without chemicalsmore resistant to pests. Then, trials started in The product holds another trump card: it is re-Upper Austria. sistant to pests. Conventional wood is treated with lacquers and preservatives to prevent infe-Ingenious beginning station by longhorn beetles, auger beetles and The very first steps: Experimenting and tinke- fungi. Thermal wood can pass the tests withoutring. In a do-it-yourself approach, Hubert Mit- chemicals. As it is as compact as tropical wood,teramskogler and his team started with a high- there is no room for wood-degrading fungi andtemperature kiln from a glassworks in the year bacteria. In addition, there is still another envi-2000. After the trial phase, the first industrial kiln ronmental aspect relevant for climate protection:was built two years later. However, Mr. Mit- Transport routes are short.teramskogler did not have to do everything sin-gle-handedly. For research and tests, he co- The issue of colouroperated with research institutes near and far: Mr. Mitteramskogler sees further potential forHis partners were and are EMPA Switzerland, standardisation in the future. There is one spe-ihd – Institut für Holztechnologie Dresden and cial issue that is constantly on his mind: “Colouruniversities in Liverpool, Madrid, Hamburg and is clearly related to wood quality.” In order toFreiburg. prepare the ground for standardising this relati- onship, sensors are mounted in the high-tempe-Standardisation makes sense rature kilns. Continuous monitoring permits the The products made by MIRAKO (Mitterams- accurate production of specific wood grades. Itkogler) are now more than varied: splash-proof is still open when a standard on this topic will bewooden flooring for bathrooms, pool decks, drawn up. Mr. Mitteramskogler has investedflooring for balconies, noise barriers and even much time and money in research and standar-musical instruments such as oboes and organ disation. What comes now after the period ofpipes. However, ingenious Mr. Mitteramskogler sowing? — The harvest! Thermal wood productshas even more new ideas: for example, a fully made in Gaflenz are in high demand from Scan-developed façade system made up of wooden dinavia to Asia. The quality delivered in the mar-cladding and support structure. ket is guaranteed by standards. –P.K. Standards are of special importance to him:“Similar products that do not live up to the highquality that we supply have appeared in the mar-ket. I see standards as a protection.”Definitely superior Related standards Oak, beech and ash are typical hardwood ty-pes whose quality is raised by the thermal treat- Prestandard ÖNORM CEN/TS 15679 Thermalment at MIRAKO’s plant. For instance, its dura- modified timber – Definitions and characteristicsbility significantly increases as measured in line ÖNORM EN 351-2 Durability of wood and wood-with ÖNORM EN 351-2. It can achieve a quality based products – Preservative-treated solid wood;class of 1 to (at worst) 3. Moreover, the stability Part 2: Guidance on sampling for the analysis ofof the material considerably increases after it is preservative-treated wood Link:submitted to temperatures of more than 160 °C. www.mirako.atStandards are of specialimportance to MIRAKO’sManaging Director Hubert Austrian wood finds new fields of application: FromMitteramskogler instrument making to bathrooms. Success with Standards 17
  18. 18. »What counts is the best solution« When the safety of lifts is discussed in Austria, you soon come across one name: Ing. Anton Marschall. The 52-year old Lower Austrian has substan- tially influenced this debate in the past few years – in his func- tions as the head of the lift de- partment of TÜV Austria and as the chairman of the competent technical committee at the Au- strian Standards Institute. In October 2009, he joined Schindler Austria, a leading manufacturer of lifts and escala- tors, to take over the manage- ment of the company at the beginning of 2010. Interview with Ing. Anton Marschall, top manager at “Schindler Österreich”, about standards as a success factor and standardisation as a career springboard.18 Success with Standards
  19. 19. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value.Why do you feel so safe in lifts, You said that standardisation is manage-Mr. Marschall? ment. What is your management philoso-Marschall: Simply because lifts are among the phy as the new managing director ofbest regulated and best tested products. All the Schindler Austria? What is the mosttechnical aspects and requirements are fully promising approach?covered by standards so that safety and reliabil­ Marschall: Many books have already beenity are guaranteed. This development already published to present different views and manystarted very early on, which also applies to the more will still be written about this theme. The“division of labour” between legislation and tech- spectrum ranges from authoritarian manage-nical standardisation — e.g. in the European ment, democratic management or laissez-faireLifts Directive, and has proved well over the management to the “one-minute manager”.years. From my perspective, sustainability is a vital basis for the success of a company. The keyHas standardisation always been important qualifications that you need to achieve it are: Ing. Anton Marschall,to you? technical qualifications or knowing the subject born in 1957, graduatedMarschall: I have dealt with lifts since 1976 matter, conceptual qualifications or setting from a secondary schooland, hence, standardisation has always been an objectives, methodological qualifications or for electrical engineering,important factor in my work. Each lift component achieving the objectives and, of course, commu- subsequently worked forrelies on standards that, in fact, only contain nication qualifications or leading people. Finally, a lift manufacturer for fourmandatory requirements in this field. Of course, you also need social responsibility, i.e. moral years and then as a liftit was only natural that I started to con­ribute to t and ethics, and most of all, you need to be expert and head of the liftthe development of standards. In 2001, I was authentic. engineering departmentelected chairman of the lift TC 017 for the first for TÜV Austria for 29time. Hence, standardisation has always been a How did you experience standardisation years; in October 2009,crucial issue for me — especially contributions so far? he joined Schindler Au-to it at the European level. Marschall: In my experience, a technical stria and took over the committee is a forum of equal partners without management of SchindlerWhat does it take to be successful in hierarchies that is characterised by virtually Fahrtreppen und Aufzügestandardisation? grassroots democratic processes. In it, people GmbH at the beginning ofMarschall: Standardisation is management. with different interests meet to develop 2010.Standards allow you to ensure sustainability, something that will have sustained success. Thewhich is the reason why you standardise focus is not on reaching compromises, but what Committment to stan-something. To do this, you need qualifications — counts is the best solution. dardisation: Until De-you must technically understand the subject International and European meetings are cember 2009, he chairedmatter — and you need clear objectives: what particularly interesting as the participants come the Technical Committeedo we want to achieve and by when? The basis from different cultures and have different 017 on Lifts, Escalatorsfor this is communication. A good standards ma- concerns. These meetings that are well-groun- and Passenger Convey-nager must be able to explain to everybody in- ded on mutual recognition and appreciation aim ors at Austrian Standardsvolved what is to be gained so that they want to at creating a “product” that provides a sound Institute and served ascontribute and are full of enthusiasm. basis for all of Europe. At the international level, the Austrian delegate to you are integrated into a big network: you know the European and Inter- all the partners in Europe and you are known national TCs on “Escala- and appreciated. tors and passenger con- veyors” (CEN/TC 10 and Speaking of networks: In recent years, you ISO/TC 178) and on the were also involved as an expert in nu- Board of the Austrian merous projects that were organised and Standards Institute as implemented by Austrian Standards Insti- one of the two tute Consulting with the EU’s support and representatives of TC funding. Which experiences did you make chair­ ersons. p in these projects? Marschall: The value of these EU projects cannot be overestimated. They make an impor- tant contribution to knowledge transfer in those countries wishing to approach or join the Euro- pean Economic Area. When you work as a speaker and trainer, you learn very much in such projects. You broaden your own knowledge and very intensively reflect on what you actually do in order to be able to pass your know-how on and share it with others. During these projects, you establish contacts which you can also use to the benefit of the company you work for. Of course, Success with Standards 19
  20. 20. »What counts is the best solution« this is not a one-way street, but rather a process of giving and taking. The Austrian Standards Institute has built enormous expertise in this field that, hopefully, will also be used extensively in the future. From TÜV Austria to the helm of one of the biggest lift and escalator manufacturer: Ing. Marschall about … was standardisation of help to you in this career move? TÜV Austria: “In the 29 years that Lifts and, along with them, standardisation have I worked for TÜV Austria, it changed decisively shaped my professional life to date. from an ‘Austrian’ lift testing institute into The experiences that I gained and the networks a notified body recognised at the European that I am involved in form part of my biography level and from a non-profit organisation into and, of course, have been very helpful. an internationally active enterprise that operates in free competition in line with economic How important is standardisation to principles.” Schindler? Is it a management priority? Marschall: Standardisation and co-operation Schindler Austria: “Schindler Aufzüge und in standards development is an important part of Fahrtreppen GmbH lives up to high quality and safety management at our company. It lays the founda- standards. The Schindler Group is active globally – tion for success in business. The benefit it this is very clearly reflected by our motto: »Schindler generates is clearly communicated to the actors ­ oves 900 million people every day!« It enjoys a high m involved. We make sure that our interests and reputation among its customers world-wide. My tasks those of our customers are advocated so that at Schindler’s constitute a seamless continuation of my we can offer high quality at a favourable price. previous professional development.” What do you think about the significance of standards in economic policy? Marschall: In European legislation, the New Approach calls for standards. They describe how the requirements laid down in EU directives can be met and how the principles defined by policy- makers can be implemented. Standardisation has breathed life into the European idea. Just take the example of the European Standard series EN 81 “Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts”. In this field, it is the most widely used standard world-wide. It is applied all over the world, also in China and Russia. This clearly is a competitive advantage. The same is true for EN 115 on escalators and moving walks.20 Success with Standards
  21. 21. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value. You did not only chair the technical committee for lifts and participate as a delegate in European and international meetings, but also are a member of the Board of the Austrian Standards Institute. What will be the position of Austrian Standards in roughly five years? Marschall: Let me describe it vividly by means of a newspaper article on a private household from the year 2015: The networking of app- liances, building technology and communication technology has progressed so far that every-day tasks are accomplished automatically — from vacuuming to daily shopping. And the reader learns: standardisation makes it possible. The Austrian Standards Institute is the key contact when it comes to bringing together processes and technical interfaces. The mission statement »Setting Standards. Creating Values.« has proved well. You made a career change in 2009. What does change mean for you? Marschall: Continuous development is the basis of success. Here, the principle is: Nothing is so good that you cannot improve it.This interview wascarried out byDr. Johannes Stern Success with Standards 21
  22. 22. Effectiveness in hospitals T en locations, 9,300 employees and a standards manager who, in addition to his “normal” tasks in the organi­ sation, invests five to seven hours of his time per month: The “OÖ. Gesundheits- und Spitals-AG” (gespag, for short) always keeps abreast of the latest developments in standardi- sation with just a few mouse clicks by means of the effect services of Austrian Standards plus. Having a market share of around 45 percent, gespag is Upper Austria’s biggest hospital organisation and operates eight general and two specialised hospitals. They have to observe a high number of stand­ ards. The latest version of all these documents always has to be available. Therefore, gespag opted for the effect services of Austrian Stand­ ards plus. Managing standards centrally Dipl.-HTL-Ing. Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Karl Müller is a pioneer user of these new services. Represent­ ing the owner, he is responsible for implement­ ing projects related to building services and electrical equipment as well as catering equip- ment. The aim was to manage centrally the en­ tire body of standards and automatically receive information on new, revised or amended stand­ ard documents. The costs involved were an important criterion for decision-making. Previously, the hospitals managed their standards independently from one another. With around 2,500 documents in total, it was difficult and time-consuming to keep up-to-date. Uncertainties and multiple purchases occurred — the latter mainly because it was impossible to transfer utilisation rights How online standards manage- when different entities purchased the docu- ments. ment saves time and money in Upper Austria’s hospitals. 120 persons have access The effect services considerably simplified matters. All ten hospitals gathered under one virtual roof. Around 120 persons – executives from diverse disciplines – can access the plat- form and also report whether they require addi­ tional standards, and these experts are frequent- ly able to assess these needs better than the staff at the headquarters.22 Success with Standards
  23. 23. Institute Setting Standards. Creating Value. No two customers are alike Gerald Hinterberger, customer advisor at Austrian Standards plus, who tailors the set-up the effect services to each customer passed on the suggestions to the internal programmers. “Online standards management is not an off-the- shelf product. There is a basic idea that is useful for many customers, but, of course, each of them has special needs. We respond to these as far as possible. Thus, the software becomes even more user-friendly over time.” Dipl.-Ing. Karl Müller about the effect services: “It is Quality management made easy self-explanatory. Even new Dipl.-Pflegew. (FH) Ingrid Wimmer works in the users find it easy to use.” field of quality management with a focus on patient care and manages interdisciplinary pro- jects, such as the gespag-wide documentation project. She is one of those having access to the system and lets us have an inside view of every- day work with the effect services. The docu­ mentation covers both IT issues and many pro- cesses of day-to-day hospital operations. Here, you have to reflect carefully on how various The transition developed step by step. Nego­ aspects are considered and where contents cantiations with Austrian Standards plus Publishing be optimised or pooled. The needs of the mater-on the scope and licensing conditions were nity ward naturally differ from the requirementsfollowed by thorough reflections on the stand­ in trauma surgery or the care of multi-morbidards that absolutely have to be available at all geriatric patients. Many departments of thehospitals. gespag hospitals are certified under ISO 9001 and use a multitude of standards – be it in the Dipl.-Pflegew. (FH) IngridCosts pay off blood analysis laboratory, be it in nuclear medi- Wimmer: “Being involved The portfolio included approximately 1,500 cine or pathology. The task of the management costs money and resour-standards at the start and has grown continu­ is to make sure that the employees observe the ces, but it is absolutelyously ever since. In retrospect, Karl Müller says: standards. It takes care of implementation and necessary. It is worth it!”“Implementation and initial acquisitions consti- for providing adequate training to everybody.tuted a significant financial investment. How­ ver, eyou must not forget that the costs pay off later ... then you have won.on as other cost factors are eliminated.” He is Ingrid Wimmer finds working without the effectvery satisfied with using the system: “It is self- services difficult to imagine even though teeth­ng iexplanatory. Even new users find it easy to use. troubles had to be overcome. She reports:Up to now, I had hardly any requests for help.” “When you start to work with standards you The flexible user permission system ensures virtually have to learn a new language. However,that everything can be well organised and that once you have digested the contents that, as ityou always have a good overview. An important were, are stated at a meta level so that youaspect is the automatic update of the entire understand what they have to do with your ownportfolio. Outdated documents belong to the operations, then you have won. Then, standardspast. Access to new orders is very rapid and, offer clear structures and orientation. This faci-hence, standards can be made available to the litates your work and prevents rank growth.”users in next to no time. To ensure that the Ingrid Wimmer also contributes to standardisa­system really works for all users, they must have tion – in working group 250.03 on qualityprompt access to the standard they need. management in patient care – and highly appre- Feedback from customers like gespag is in­ ciates the insights gained from these activities.valuable for the further development of the effect The management fully supports her participa­ion. tservices. Karl Müller still has a few items on his “Being involved costs money and resources, butwish list: “Sometimes colleagues do not search it is absolutely necessary. It is worth it!” she sayscarefully and want to order a standard that with conviction and remembers: “When you pre-actually is already in our portfolio – a kind of pare working instructions it is vital to draw onalert would be helpful in such cases. And access existing standards or ON Rules. Of course, youstatistics would be important for internal control- sometimes think ‘That’s self-evident, I knew thatling.” It would also make sense to get an auto- anyway!’, but sometimes it is good and helpfulmatic warning upon duplicate orders and, when contents are presented in a well structuredadditionally, this could reduce search efforts way.”before ordering. Regina Slameczka, MAS Success with Standards 23
  24. 24. »Without standards, I would have had to close down.« F rom Austria to the whole wide world. For once, this is neither a story about Austrian music or painting nor the sto- ry of the Austrian diving pioneer Hans Hass. It is the simple story of a standard develo- ped in Austria that spread to the whole wide world in just a few years. Starting in the clear la- How the Austrian-British diving kes of Salzkammergut, it now makes diving safer and worry-free throughout the world. expert Martin Denison discovered How did it all start? As usual in standardisati- standardisation, thereby rescued his on, a specific requirement and a concrete ne- cessity stood at the beginning. And, as Plato al- company and, almost as a by-product, ready new, necessity is the mother of invention raised diving safety world-wide. as well as the mother of any standard. Martin Denison, Austrian diving expert with British roots, realised that in the mid-1990s. Teaching at the Vienna University Sports Insti- tute, he was responsible for training diving in- structors within the Austrian Diving Federation. In 1994, he started up his own business and trai- ned instructors in line with the system of the US- based Scuba Schools International (SSI). Then, in the run-up to Austria’s accession to the EU in 1995, a new Sports Act was adopted in Upper Austria, which severely threatened his work. Denison: “The certificates that we issued would have been invalid after the Act’s entry into force. Training teachers or instructors who are not allowed to work because their qualifications are not recognised makes as little sense as pro- ducing nuts and bolts that do not match.” Solution by a service standard What now? To solve this problem, the idea was born to create a standard, a special service standard. At that time, the theme of services in standardisation was intensively discussed for the first time — at the national level as well as at the European and international level. Reflections were made on transferring the system of volun- tary standardisation that had proved well for products for many decades to the field of ser- vices — not least to make the European market more transparent or even open it up. In fact, the area of scuba training and related services tur- ned into one of the (first) great success stories of services standardisation.24 Success with Standards

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