The Australian Diaspora, Its Size, Nature And Significance

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The Australian Diaspora, Its Size, Nature And Significance

  1. 1. THE REAL STORY : THE AUSTRALIAN DIASPORA, ITS SIZE, NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE by Graeme Hugo Federation Fellow Professor of Geography and Director of the National Centre for Social Applications of GIS The University of Adelaide Presentation to Advance : Global Australian Professionals, Board Room, Australian Mission to the United Nations, New York 3rd May 2006
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • Introduction • What is a Diaspora? • Measuring Australia’s Diaspora • The Scale of the Diaspora • Who are the Diaspora? • What Linkages do they Maintain with Australia • The Significance of Diaspora • Policy • Conclusion
  3. 3. Traditional concepts of the diaspora refer to expatriate communities, often in exile and tightly connected by tight bonds of a common religion, ethnicity and/or nationality.
  4. 4. Four Defining Criteria of the Modern Diaspora Source: Butler 2001, 192 • Scattering of two or more destinations • Relationship with an actual or imagined homeland • Common group identity • Existence across two generations
  5. 5. The New International Migration • Increasing scale and diversity • Now involves most nations – globalisation, internationalisation • Increasing circulation Vs settlement • Increasing transnationalism • High degree of selectivity, bifurcation • The brain drain phenomenon, brain circulation
  6. 6. What is the National Population? Diagrammatic Representation of a National Population
  7. 7. National Diasporas in Relation to Resident National Populations Source: US Census Bureau, 2002a and b; Southern Cross, 2002; Bedford, 2001; Ministry of External Affairs, India, http://indiandiaspora.nic.in; Naseem, 1998; Sahoo, 2002; Iguchi, 2004; Gutièrrez, 1999; Dimzon, 2005; Asian Migration News, 15-31 January 2006; OECD USA: 7 million – 2.5 percent of national population Australia: 900,000 – 4.3 percent of national population New Zealand: 850,000 – 21.9 percent of national population Philippines: 7.5 million – 9.0 percent of national population India: 20 million – 1.9 percent of national population Pakistan: 4 million – 2.8 percent of national population China: 30 to 40 million – 2.9 percent of national population Japan: 873,641 – 0.7 percent of national population Mexico: 19 million* – 19 percent of national population Singapore 100-150,000 – 3.5 percent of national population Niue 5,884 – 294.2 percent of national population Tokelau 2,019 – 138.5 percent of national population Samoa 78,253 – 44.5 percent of national population Fiji 128,284 – 15.8 percent of national population * Mexican diaspora in the U.S.
  8. 8. Expatriates as a Percentage of all Native-born, OECD Countries Source: Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 10
  9. 9. Diaspora and Development • Reports by World Bank, Asia Development Bank, DIFD, IOM, etc. • Positive effects of emigration on destination areas especially Less Developed Nations. • Remittances USBillion $130 (300) • Return Migration • Investment • Beachheads • Networks
  10. 10. Australia: A Country of Immigration • 23 percent born overseas • One fifth Australia-born with an overseas-born parent(s) • 590,566 persons temporarily present at 30/6/04 • 289,300 with the right to work • 345,761 given temporary residence in 2002-03 • 111,590 incoming permanent settlers in 2003-04
  11. 11. Measuring Diaspora • Stocks • Flows
  12. 12. Measuring the Diaspora : Flows • Emigration Data • Not collected by most nations • Differentiating permanent, long term and short term
  13. 13. Permanent Departures of Australia-Born and Overseas-Born Persons from Australia, 1959-60 to 2004-05 Source: DIMIA, Australian Immigration Consolidated Statistics and Immigration Update, various issues; DIMIA unpublished data Australian Resident Long Term Departures from Australia, 1959-60 to 2004-05 Source: DIMIA, Australian Immigration Consolidated Statistics and Immigration Update, various issues; DIMIA unpublished data 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 1959-60 1962-63 1965-66 1968-69 1971-72 1974-75 1977-78 1980-81 1983-84 1986-87 1989-90 1992-93 1995-96 1998-99 2001-02 2004-05 Year Number Overseas-born Australia-born 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000 1959-60 1962-63 1965-66 1968-69 1971-72 1974-75 1977-78 1980-81 1983-84 1986-87 1989-90 1992-93 1995-96 1998-99 2001-02 2004-05 Year Number
  14. 14. In 2004-05 there were 123,424 permanent settler arrivals 62,606 permanent departures 31,027 Australia-born permanent departures 303,496 long term arrivals 186,342 long term departures 91,635 Australian resident long term departures
  15. 15. Australia: Permanent Departures by Country of Intended Residence, 1993-94 to 2003-04 Source: DIMIA unpublished data
  16. 16. Country of Birth of Recent1 Immigrants to Australia, 2001 Source: ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing 1. Country of birth of recent immigrants, overseas-born at 2001 census who arrived in Australia 1996 onwards
  17. 17. Country of Birth of Longstanding1 Immigrants to Australia, 2001 Source: ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing 1. Country of birth of longstanding immigrants, overseas-born at 2001 census that arrived in Australia before 1996
  18. 18. Measuring the Diaspora : Stocks • Difficult to establish • Can use censuses of destinations • Other sources • Need for consideration of new methods
  19. 19. Limitations of Destination Censuses • Some nations don’t have censuses • Some censuses don’t identify migrants • Some exclude non citizens • Many migrants avoid censuses • Excludes second and later generations
  20. 20. Australia-born Population Living in Foreign Nations Around 2001 and Counted in Population Censuses Country Year Source Number New Zealand 2001 Statistics New Zealand, 2001 Census 56,259 Japan 2001 OECD 2003 9,200 a Germany 2001 Federal Statistics Office, Germany 8,322 Austria 2001 Statistics Austria 1,686 Finland 2002 Statistics Finland 673 Thailand 2000 National Statistical Office, Thailand 1,400 b Hong Kong 2001 Commissioner for Census and Statistics, Hong Kong 6,251 c USA 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 75,314 Belgium 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 1,136 Canada 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 20,155 Switzerland 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 3,420 Czech Republic 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 230 Denmark 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 1,663 Spain 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 3,913 France 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 4,216 Great Britain 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 107,871 Greece 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 20,449 Hungary 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 258 Ireland 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 6,107 Luxembourg 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 96 Mexico 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 281 Netherlands 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 9,529 Norway 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 1,101 Poland 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 608 Portugal 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 1,192 Slovak Republic 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 52 Sweden 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 2,525 Turkey 2001 Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 33 2,938 Indonesia 2002 Soeprobo 2004 2,279 Korea 2002 Park 2004 1,623 Total 350,747 a Population with Australian nationality b Australian citizens c Population with Australian/New Zealander ethnicity born outside of Hong Kong
  21. 21. Australian Citizens Living Abroad, 31 December 2001 Source: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra
  22. 22. Number of Hits from Foreign Nations on the Australian Football League Website Source: Australian Football League
  23. 23. Distribution of Australians in the United States, 2000 Source: US Bureau of the Census
  24. 24. Characteristics of Diaspora - Demographic • Young adults dominant • Highly educated • Highly skilled • The “Best of the Best” • Rite of passage VS Internationalisation of labour market
  25. 25. London: Age-Sex Structure of the Australia-born Population, 2001 Source: UK National Statistics Office 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 Age Persons Males Females
  26. 26. Australia: Permanent Departures by Occupation, 1997-98 to 2004-2005 Source: DIMIA unpublished data Percent Percent Australia Born Overseas Born Australia Born Overseas Born 1.Manager & Administrators 21,473 18,999 18.3 16.7 2.Professionals 50,860 38,655 43.4 33.9 3.Associate Professionals 10,839 13,901 9.3 12.2 4.Tradespersons 6,351 10,339 5.4 9.1 5.Advanced Clerical & Sales 5,191 3,447 4.4 3.0 6.Intermediate Clerical, Sales & Service 15,788 14,533 13.5 12.8 7.Intermediate Production & Transport 1,451 3,921 1.2 3.4 8.Elementary Clerical, Sales & Service 4,018 6,306 3.4 5.5 9. Labourers 1,091 3,770 0.9 3.3 Total 117,062 113,871 100.0 100.0
  27. 27. Australia: Age Sex Structures of Permanent Departures of the Australia-born, Permanent Arrivals and Australian Resident Long Term Departures, 2002-03 Source: DIMIA Movements Data Base Permanent Departures of the Australia-Born 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0-4 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54 60-64 Agegroup Percentage Males Females Settler Arrivals 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0-4 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54 60-64 Agegroup Percentage Males Female s Australian Resident Long Term Departures 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 0-4 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54 60-64 Agegroup Percentage Males Females
  28. 28. Survey of Expatriates • A sample drawn from selected Australian university alumni lists indicating former students residing in foreign nations: 1,327 persons representing a 33.5 percent response rate. • Responses to an open invitation to participate in the survey issued on the websites of a number of expatriate organisations: 745 persons responded.
  29. 29. Male and Female Respondents by Country of Residence Overseas Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  30. 30. Selected Characteristics of Respondents by Major Destination Countries Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  31. 31. Reasons Given for Emigration to USA and Canada (Percentage Indicating ‘Yes’ to a List of Specified Reasons) Source: Emigration Survey 2002 Reasons Ranked by Popularity of Total Response USA and Canada (n=819) Better Employment Opportunities 45.8 Professional Development 38.6 Higher Income 35.4 Promotion/career Advancement 24.1 Lifestyle 16.2 Marriage/partnership 27.0 Overseas Job Transfer 23.4 Education/Study 19.7 Partner’s Employment 11.8 To be Close to Family/Friends 3.2 To Establish Business 2.6
  32. 32. Response to ‘Still Call Australia Home’ - Citizenship of Respondent USA Source: Emigration Survey 2002 USA Still Call Australia Home (n=51) Yes 37.3 No 56.9 Undecided 5.9 Total 100.0
  33. 33. Intentions to Return to Australia to Live by Major Destination Country USA - Canada Source: Emigration Survey 2002 Intention to Return USA-Canada (n=819) Yes 44.8 No 19.3 Undecided 35.9 Total 100.0
  34. 34. Reasons Given by Male and Female Respondents Who Stated That They Intended to Return to Australia to Live (Percentage Indicating ‘Yes’ to a List of Specified Reasons) Source: Emigration Survey 2002 Reasons for Intending to Return (Ranked by Popularity of Total Response) Males (n=576) Females (n=474) Persons (n=1050) Lifestyle 82.6 83.1 82.9 Family 68.4 75.3 71.5 Work 16.8 14.3 15.7 Education 8.9 10.3 9.5
  35. 35. Relationship with Homeland • Myriad of networks, linkages • Family, professional and media • Revolution in information and communication • Frequency of return
  36. 36. “When I open emails from loved ones, I hear the words read to me in their voices, their unique body gestures.” “My heart aches because it is pulled and stretched across seas, across lands, to encompass births, deaths, marriages, first homes, losing a job, gaining a job, major successes, major setbacks. When the phone receiver is replaced I smile in a distant land.” A. Azure 2003, 30 Development in Telecommunication and Information Technology
  37. 37. Persons Most Likely to Return • Australian spouse • In late 30s, early 40s • Have, or intend to have, children
  38. 38. Emigration Survey: Percentage of Visits by Expatriates, Still Living in Country of First Move to Australia by Time They Had Been Away Source: Emigration Survey 2002 Time away overseas One year or less 2-5 years 6-10 years 10+ years Total No. of Visits % % % % % None 46.7 38.2 6.7 8.4 100.0 1-4 times 9.5 56.9 17.5 16.2 100.0 5-9 times 0.3 22.0 30.6 47.1 100.0 10-19 times 0.0 10.6 15.6 73.8 100.0 20 + times 0.0 4.3 10.9 84.8 100.0 Total 11.7 38.7 17.8 31.7 100.0 N=172 N=568 N=261 N=465 N=1,466
  39. 39. “It has really been since I have lived overseas that I have been more acutely aware of my sense of being Australian.” Awareness of Group Identity
  40. 40. Identity as an Expatriate • Development of formal and informal expatriate groups - originally single country eg Indonesia - also often partly business - increasingly web based and international • Emergence of an Australian expatriate culture
  41. 41. “Perhaps my husband and I are slipping towards some expatriate no mans land outsiders not only in the country we have chosen to live in but our own country as well. We wonder if we will ever settle contentedly into Australia again, and fear we won’t. Perhaps we have entered, without even realising it, that strange state of exile where a memory of home is all we have left.” Nikki Gemnell 2003
  42. 42. “Many expatriates are bitterly disappointed how Australians at home, and Australian governments, treat them - perhaps subconsciously – as traitors for having left. At the very least its usually out of sight, out of mind. The “tall poppy” syndrome may play a role, which we will never be able to measure. Expats are also punished – inadvertently perhaps – by the failure of Australian governments to properly consider the impact of laws and policies – in some cases the lack thereof – on Australians living abroad.” A, McGregor 2003 19-20
  43. 43. “I have my husband and family now here in the USA but all the rest of my immediate family are in Australia – it will always be “home” but I also have a home here. I will never give up my Australian citizenship.” “Being born raised and educated in Australia set the values by which I live today. Had my wife and I had children we would have returned to Australia for their education.” Identification with Homeland
  44. 44. Development of Multiple Identity “Dual nationality is important for expatriates as they don’t want to give up their Australian citizenship. Yet for business and other reasons being a citizen in the country they reside in is useful.” “I have lived in England nearly 40 years but have kept my Australian citizenship.” “We left Australia because in 1980-81, 2 PhDs in Physics in Adelaide had very little chance of getting reasonably equivalent jobs. We are still here because it is difficult to judge at a distance the costs and benefits of the return… I guess pragmatically we have emigrated but emotionally it feels more like an extended visit.”
  45. 45. Terms of Reference of Senate Inquiry • the extent of the Australian diaspora; • the variety of factors driving more Australians to live overseas; • the costs, benefits and opportunities presented by the phenomenon; • the needs and concerns of overseas Australians; • the measures taken by other comparable countries to respond to the needs of their expatriates; and • way in which Australia could better use its expatriates to promote our economic, social and cultural interests.
  46. 46. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry 1. Establish web portal providing information and services for expatriates. 2. Establish policy unit within DFAT to co- ordinate expatriate policies. 3. ABS, DIMIA and DFAT improve statistical collection in relation to expatriates. 4. Revise consular role for foreign missions to engage expatriate community.
  47. 47. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry (Cont.) 5. Online registration of local expatriates to register professional profiles. 6. Amend citizenship act to allow children of people who renounced or lost their citizenship to become citizens. 7. Conduct a Review of Citizenship Act 1948. 8. Continually review DIMIA website to provide more detailed information to expatriates.
  48. 48. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry (Cont.) 9. Provision of an international citizen information phone line. 10. Amend Commonwealth Electoral Act. 11. Web portal should have links to expatriate network websites. 12. NGOs (like universities) encouraged to pursue philanthropic contributions for expatriates.
  49. 49. Policy Issues • Concern about “brain drain: - divided opinion • How can we define Australia’s population? • Need for recognition of Australians overseas in the mainstream of Australian life • Measurers to “include” expatriates • The potential of information technology
  50. 50. The Migration and Development Debate • Concentrated on less developed countries • The positive effects of emigration - remittances - FDI - social remittances - bridgeheads - technology transfer - return migration • Involvement of World Bank, USAID
  51. 51. A Lack of Evidence for Policy Making To access on-line survey: http://www.aisr.com.au/AustraliansinUS.asp

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