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The Australian Diaspora, Its Size, Nature And Significance

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  • 1. THE REAL STORY : THE AUSTRALIAN DIASPORA, ITS SIZE, NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE by Graeme Hugo Federation Fellow Professor of Geography and Director of the National Centre for Social Applications of GIS The University of Adelaide Presentation to Advance : Global Australian Professionals, Board Room, Australian Mission to the United Nations, New York 3 rd May 2006
  • 2. Outline of Presentation
    • Introduction
    • What is a Diaspora?
    • Measuring Australia’s Diaspora
    • The Scale of the Diaspora
    • Who are the Diaspora?
    • What Linkages do they Maintain with Australia
    • The Significance of Diaspora
    • Policy
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Traditional concepts of the diaspora refer to expatriate communities, often in exile and tightly connected by tight bonds of a common religion, ethnicity and/or nationality.
  • 4. Four Defining Criteria of the Modern Diaspora Source: Butler 2001, 192
    • Scattering of two or more destination s
    • Relationship with an actual or imagined homeland
    • Common group identity
    • Existence across two generations
  • 5. The New International Migration
    • Increasing scale and diversity
    • Now involves most nations – globalisation, internationalisation
    • Increasing circulation Vs settlement
    • Increasing transnationalism
    • High degree of selectivity, bifurcation
    • The brain drain phenomenon, brain circulation
  • 6. What is the National Population? Diagrammatic Representation of a National Population
  • 7. National Diasporas in Relation to Resident National Populations Source: US Census Bureau, 2002a and b; Southern Cross, 2002; Bedford, 2001; Ministry of External Affairs, India, http://indiandiaspora.nic.in ; Naseem, 1998; Sahoo, 2002; Iguchi, 2004; Gutièrrez, 1999; Dimzon, 2005; Asian Migration News , 15-31 January 2006; OECD
  • 8. Expatriates as a Percentage of all Native-born, OECD Countries Source: Dumont and Lemaitre 2005, 10
  • 9. Diaspora and Development
    • Reports by World Bank, Asia Development Bank, DIFD, IOM, etc.
    • Positive effects of emigration on destination areas especially Less Developed Nations.
    • Remittances USBillion $130 (300)
    • Return Migration
    • Investment
    • Beachheads
    • Networks
  • 10. Australia: A Country of Immigration
    • 23 percent born overseas
    • One fifth Australia-born with an overseas-born parent(s)
    • 590,566 persons temporarily present at 30/6/04
    • 289,300 with the right to work
    • 345,761 given temporary residence in 2002-03
    • 111,590 incoming permanent settlers in 2003-04
  • 11. Measuring Diaspora
    • Stocks
    • Flows
  • 12. Measuring the Diaspora : Flows
    • Emigration Data
    • Not collected by most nations
    • Differentiating permanent, long term and short term
  • 13. Permanent Departures of Australia-Born and Overseas-Born Persons from Australia, 1959-60 to 2004-05 Source: DIMIA, Australian Immigration Consolidated Statistics and Immigration Update , various issues; DIMIA unpublished data Australian Resident Long Term Departures from Australia, 1959-60 to 2004-05 Source: DIMIA, Australian Immigration Consolidated Statistics and Immigration Update , various issues; DIMIA unpublished data
  • 14. In 2004-05 there were
    • 123,424 permanent settler arrivals
    • 62,606 permanent departures
    • 31,027 Australia-born permanent departures
    • 303,496 long term arrivals
    • 186,342 long term departures
    • 91,635 Australian resident long term departures
  • 15. Australia: Permanent Departures by Country of Intended Residence, 1993-94 to 2003-04 Source: DIMIA unpublished data
  • 16. Country of Birth of Recent 1 Immigrants to Australia, 2001 Source: ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing 1. Country of birth of recent immigrants, overseas-born at 2001 census who arrived in Australia 1996 onwards
  • 17. Country of Birth of Longstanding 1 Immigrants to Australia, 2001 Source: ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing 1. Country of birth of longstanding immigrants, overseas-born at 2001 census that arrived in Australia before 1996
  • 18. Measuring the Diaspora : Stocks
    • Difficult to establish
    • Can use censuses of destinations
    • Other sources
    • Need for consideration of new methods
  • 19. Limitations of Destination Censuses
    • Some nations don’t have censuses
    • Some censuses don’t identify migrants
    • Some exclude non citizens
    • Many migrants avoid censuses
    • Excludes second and later generations
  • 20. Australia-born Population Living in Foreign Nations Around 2001 and Counted in Population Censuses
  • 21. Australian Citizens Living Abroad, 31 December 2001 Source: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra
  • 22. Number of Hits from Foreign Nations on the Australian Football League Website Source: Australian Football League
  • 23. Distribution of Australians in the United States, 2000 Source: US Bureau of the Census
  • 24. Characteristics of Diaspora - Demographic
    • Young adults dominant
    • Highly educated
    • Highly skilled
    • The “Best of the Best”
    • Rite of passage VS Internationalisation of labour market
  • 25. London: Age-Sex Structure of the Australia-born Population, 2001 Source: UK National Statistics Office
  • 26. Australia: Permanent Departures by Occupation, 1997-98 to 2004-2005 Source: DIMIA unpublished data
  • 27. Australia: Age Sex Structures of Permanent Departures of the Australia-born, Permanent Arrivals and Australian Resident Long Term Departures, 2002-03 Source: DIMIA Movements Data Base
  • 28. Survey of Expatriates
    • A sample drawn from selected Australian university alumni lists indicating former students residing in foreign nations: 1,327 persons representing a 33.5 percent response rate.
    • Responses to an open invitation to participate in the survey issued on the websites of a number of expatriate organisations: 745 persons responded.
  • 29. Male and Female Respondents by Country of Residence Overseas Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 30. Selected Characteristics of Respondents by Major Destination Countries Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 31. Reasons Given for Emigration to USA and Canada (Percentage Indicating ‘Yes’ to a List of Specified Reasons) Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 32. Response to ‘Still Call Australia Home’ - Citizenship of Respondent USA Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 33. Intentions to Return to Australia to Live by Major Destination Country USA - Canada Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 34. Reasons Given by Male and Female Respondents Who Stated That They Intended to Return to Australia to Live (Percentage Indicating ‘Yes’ to a List of Specified Reasons) Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 35. Relationship with Homeland
    • Myriad of networks, linkages
    • Family, professional and media
    • Revolution in information and communication
    • Frequency of return
  • 36.
    • “ When I open emails from loved ones, I hear the words read to me in their voices, their unique body gestures.”
    • “ My heart aches because it is pulled and stretched across seas, across lands, to encompass births, deaths, marriages, first homes, losing a job, gaining a job, major successes, major setbacks. When the phone receiver is replaced I smile in a distant land.”
    • A. Azure 2003, 30
    Development in Telecommunication and Information Technology
  • 37. Persons Most Likely to Return
    • Australian spouse
    • In late 30s, early 40s
    • Have, or intend to have, children
  • 38. Emigration Survey: Percentage of Visits by Expatriates, Still Living in Country of First Move to Australia by Time They Had Been Away Source: Emigration Survey 2002
  • 39.
    • “ It has really been since I have lived overseas that I have been more acutely aware of my sense of being Australian.”
    Awareness of Group Identity
  • 40. Identity as an Expatriate
    • Development of formal and informal expatriate groups
    • - originally single country eg Indonesia
    • - also often partly business
    • - increasingly web based and international
    • Emergence of an Australian expatriate culture
  • 41.
    • “ Perhaps my husband and I are slipping towards some expatriate no mans land outsiders not only in the country we have chosen to live in but our own country as well. We wonder if we will ever settle contentedly into Australia again, and fear we won’t. Perhaps we have entered, without even realising it, that strange state of exile where a memory of home is all we have left.”
    • Nikki Gemnell 2003
  • 42.
    • “ Many expatriates are bitterly disappointed how Australians at home, and Australian governments, treat them - perhaps subconsciously – as traitors for having left. At the very least its usually out of sight, out of mind. The “tall poppy” syndrome may play a role, which we will never be able to measure. Expats are also punished – inadvertently perhaps – by the failure of Australian governments to properly consider the impact of laws and policies – in some cases the lack thereof – on Australians living abroad.”
    • A, McGregor 2003 19-20
  • 43.
    • “ I have my husband and family now here in the USA but all the rest of my immediate family are in Australia – it will always be “home” but I also have a home here. I will never give up my Australian citizenship.”
    • “ Being born raised and educated in Australia set the values by which I live today. Had my wife and I had children we would have returned to Australia for their education.”
    Identification with Homeland
  • 44. Development of Multiple Identity
    • “ Dual nationality is important for expatriates as they don’t want to give up their Australian citizenship. Yet for business and other reasons being a citizen in the country they reside in is useful.”
    • “ I have lived in England nearly 40 years but have kept my Australian citizenship.”
    • “ We left Australia because in 1980-81, 2 PhDs in Physics in Adelaide had very little chance of getting reasonably equivalent jobs. We are still here because it is difficult to judge at a distance the costs and benefits of the return… I guess pragmatically we have emigrated but emotionally it feels more like an extended visit.”
  • 45. Terms of Reference of Senate Inquiry
    • the extent of the Australian diaspora;
    • the variety of factors driving more Australians to live overseas;
    • the costs, benefits and opportunities presented by the phenomenon;
    • the needs and concerns of overseas Australians;
    • the measures taken by other comparable countries to respond to the needs of their expatriates; and
    • way in which Australia could better use its expatriates to promote our economic, social and cultural interests.
  • 46. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry
    • Establish web portal providing information and services for expatriates.
    • Establish policy unit within DFAT to co-ordinate expatriate policies.
    • ABS, DIMIA and DFAT improve statistical collection in relation to expatriates.
    • Revise consular role for foreign missions to engage expatriate community.
  • 47. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry (Cont.)
    • Online registration of local expatriates to register professional profiles.
    • Amend citizenship act to allow children of people who renounced or lost their citizenship to become citizens.
    • Conduct a Review of Citizenship Act 1948.
    • Continually review DIMIA website to provide more detailed information to expatriates.
  • 48. Recommendations of Senate Inquiry (Cont.)
    • Provision of an international citizen information phone line.
    • Amend Commonwealth Electoral Act.
    • Web portal should have links to expatriate network websites.
    • NGOs (like universities) encouraged to pursue philanthropic contributions for expatriates.
  • 49. Policy Issues
    • Concern about “brain drain: - divided opinion
    • How can we define Australia’s population?
    • Need for recognition of Australians overseas in the mainstream of Australian life
    • Measurers to “include” expatriates
    • The potential of information technology
  • 50. The Migration and Development Debate
    • Concentrated on less developed countries
    • The positive effects of emigration
    • - remittances
    • - FDI
    • - social remittances
    • - bridgeheads
    • - technology transfer
    • - return migration
    • Involvement of World Bank, USAID
  • 51. A Lack of Evidence for Policy Making
    • To access on-line survey:
    • http://www.aisr.com.au/AustraliansinUS.asp