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Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
Achieving mdg  progress and prospects of bangladesh
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Achieving mdg progress and prospects of bangladesh

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  • 1. Term Paper on BANGLADESH ISSUES PROGRESS & PROSPECTS OF BANGLADESH Md. Alamgir Hossen Statistical Officer Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Statistics and Informatics Division Ministry of Planning Email: alamgir.so@bbs.gov.bd August 19, 2010Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre Savar, Dhaka [1]
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI whole heartedly express my pleasure and satisfaction to acknowledge the coursemanagement of 46th Foundation Training Course of BPATC, Savar, Dhaka to integrate a‘Term Paper’ in the training Course Module and give me an opportunity to do a research-based work.I would like to express my heartfelt thanks and gratitude to Mrs. Kanka Jamil, CourseDirector and especially to Md. Fazle Rabbi, Deputy Director and Module Director ofModule ‘Term Paper on Bangladesh Issues’ for his valuable supervision and guidance inall phases of the study.This acknowledgment would be uncompleted without paying thanks to Mr. ASMObaidullah, one of the Course Coordinator of 46th Foundation Training Course for hiswhole-hearted Guidance and kind co-operation in all aspects.I also express my profound gratitude to Mr. Md. Golam Mehede, Mrs. Nurunnahar, Mrs.Munira Sultana, and Mr. M. Rezaul Karim Course Coordinators of 46th FoundationTraining Course for their valuable guidance and advice in all phases of the research work.I also appreciate and recognize all cooperation and support provided by the other facultymembers, librarian and all other staffs of the centre. [I]
  • 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYMillennium Development Goals are backed by a political consent agreed to by the leadersof all UN member states in 2000. They offer a comprehensive and multidimensionaldevelopment framework and set clear quantifiable targets to be achieved by 2015.Meeting the Goals involve a significant reorientation of development policies to focus onvarious aspects of growth, including those associated with the implementation process.This report describes in general the background of the Millennium Declaration andemphasis of progress and prospects in achieving the MDG. In relation to the MDG targetssuch as reduction of infant mortality and child mortality, expansion of primary andsecondary education, reduction in many aspects of gender disparity, eradication of hungerand environmental sustainability, Bangladesh has done well comparing the situation inthe year 1990 with the year 2009. Apart from these achievements, the areas in need ofattention are poverty reduction and employment generation, increases in the primaryschool completion rate and adult literacy rate, creation of more wage employment forwomen, reduction of the maternal mortality ratio and increase in the presence of skilledhealth professionals at delivery, increase in correct and comprehensive knowledge ofHIV/AIDS, increase in forest coverage, and coverage of Information and CommunicationTechnology. The present government has been taking interventions to promote ICTamong all spheres of people, including the population in hard-to-reach areas, in order tofulfill the government vision of a ‘Digital Bangladesh’ by 2021. Developed countriesshould come forward and assist the least developed countries in exploiting potentials ofinternational trade and should fulfill their obligation as signatories to the MDGs. [II]
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgements................................................................................................... IExecutive Summary.................................................................................................. IITable of Contents...................................................................................................... IIIList of Figures............................................................................................................ IVList of Tables............................................................................................................... VI. Introduction........................................................................................................... 01 1.1 Background of the Study................................................................................... 01 1.2 Objective of the Study ...................................................................................... 01 1.3 Scope of the Study............................................................................................. 01 1.4 Methodology of the Study ................................................................................ 01 1.5 Limitations of the Study ................................................................................. 01II. MDGs in Bangladesh: Progress at a Glance...................................................... 02 2.1 Goal 1: Eradicate Poverty and Hunger.............................................................. 02 2.2 Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education ................................................ 03 2.3 Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women ............................... 04 2.4 Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality ....................................................................... 05 2.5 Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health .................................................................... 06 2.6 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases ............................... 07 2.7 Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability .................................................. 08 2.8 Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development ................................. 10III. Prospect of achieving MDG in Bangladesh by 2015....................................... 11IV. Conclusions......................................................................................................... 12V. Recommendations................................................................................................ 13VI. Appendices.......................................................................................................... 14VII. References List.................................................................................................. 18 [III]
  • 5. LIST OF FIGURESMap 2.1: Population below the poverty line in the districts of Bangladesh, 2005..................... 02Chart 2.1: Drop-out rate in primary school & Secondary School by gender and grade, 2009... 03Chart 2.2: Gender parity index by area and education level, 2006 and 2009.............................. 04Chart 2.3: Infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate by area, 2009............................... 05Chart 2.4: Assistance at delivery, 2009........................................................................................ 06Chart 2.5: Any skilled attendant at delivery, 2006 and 2009....................................................... 06Chart 2.6: Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among women aged 15-24, 2006 and 2009............... 07Chart 2.7: Households using a tube well that are aware that their water source has been tested for arsenic contamination, 2009........................................................................ 08Chart 2.8: Trend in sanitation coverage 1990-2015...................................................................... 08Map 2.2: Proportion of the population using a hygienic sanitation facility by district, 2009.... 09 [IV]
  • 6. LIST OF TABLES2.1 Progress and Estimation of Goal-1......................................................................................... 022.2 Progress and Estimation of Goal-2......................................................................................... 032.3 Progress and Estimation of Goal-3......................................................................................... 042.4 Progress and Estimation of Goal-4......................................................................................... 052.5 Progress and Estimation of Goal-5......................................................................................... 062.6 Progress and Estimation of Goal-6......................................................................................... 082.7 Progress and Estimation of Goal-7......................................................................................... 092.8 Progress and Estimation of Goal-8......................................................................................... 10 [V]
  • 7. I. INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study:The universal vision of improving the quality of life globally implanted in eight thrustareas was decoded into the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and mandated by theUnited Nations (UN) in September 2000. Bangladesh as a member state has acommitment to achieve the MDGs within the predetermined timeframe of 2015.1.2 Objectives of the study:The objectives of the study are-  To find out to what extent MDGs are achieved.  To evaluate the prospect of achieving MDGs by 2015.1.3 Scope of the Study:The study highlights the challenges for Bangladesh facing in achieving MDGs targets.The targets are- Eradicate Extreme Poverty & Hunger, Achieve Universal PrimaryEducation, Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women, Reduce Child Mortality,Improve Maternal Health, Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, EnsureEnvironmental Sustainability and Develop a Global Partnership for Development.1.4 Methodology of the Study:The study contains the secondary data of the national level sample surveys collected fromthe relevant secondary sources including various surveys and census data of BBS likeHousehold Income & Expenditure Survey-2005; Sample Vital Registration System-2008;Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey-2009; Population Census-2001; Employment Survey-2009; and Welfare Monitoring Survey-2009. These show the current status, baseline data,estimated figures based on present trends and the targets by each indicator.1.5 Limitations of the Study:The study has been conducted using various secondary data produced by differentgovernment organization. In many cases base line and updated data could not be foundfor every indicator. For some indicators, different agencies used different definitionswhich may misinterpret the comparison of data. [1]
  • 8. II. MDGs IN BANGLADESH: PROGRESS AT A GLANCE2.1. Goal 1: Eradicate Poverty and Hunger:Three targets had been set for achieving the goal. The targets were-  Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day.  Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.  Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1, 2, 3 & 6 (HIES, 2005); Indicator 4 (Employment Survey, 2009); Indicator 5 (CNS, 2006)There are large differences inthe rate of poverty reductionin various areas of thecountry. In some districts, aremarkable decline in povertyhas been noticed, whereas incomparatively a few otherspoverty actually rose. Map 2.1: Population below the poverty line in the districts of Bangladesh, 2005. [2]
  • 9. Source: HIES 2005, BBS. [3]
  • 10. 2.2 Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education:To Achieve Goal 2, the following two goals have been set by 2015:  Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.  Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.Universal primary school enrollment is one of the main education-related MDGs. Thegoal is to ensure that the net primary enrollment rate rises to 100% by 2015, and that allthe students entering grade I are retained until grade V. on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1, 2, & 4 (MICS, 2009); Indicator 3 (Welfare Monitoring Survey, 2009).Chart 2.1: Drop-out rate in primary school & Secondary School by gender and grade, 2009. (MICS 2009). [4]
  • 11. 2.3 Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality And Empower Women:The Goal 3 is as follows:  Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.Gender equality and women empowerment is a heart MDG. Its achievement is essentialfor attaining the goal of poverty reduction.Chart 2.2: Gender parity index by area and education level, 2006 and 2009. [MICS 2009].Bangladesh could achieve good progress in the target of removing gender disparity inprimary schooling. At secondary level, remarkable numbers of girls are now enrolled.Thus this goal can be said to have been already achieved. on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1& 2 (MICS, 2009); Indicator 3 Year book of BBS, 2009). [5]
  • 12. 2.4 Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality:The Goal 4 is as follows:  Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.Child mortality is symbolized as a huge waste of human resources. Bangladesh hascompleted significant progress in reducing the child mortality rate.Chart 2.3: Infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate by area, 2009. (MICS 2009) on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1& 2 (MICS, 2009); Indicator 3 MICS (2006) [6]
  • 13. 2.5 Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health:The Goal 5 is as follows:  Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.  Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive healthImproving maternal health is an important MDG. Reproductive health care continues toremain a main weakness of the health care system in Bangladesh.Chart 2.4: Assistance at delivery, 2009. [MICS 2009].Top priority needs to be given to reducing maternal malnutrition in the country. Poormothers should be given special concentration. on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1, SVRS (2008), 2 MICS, (2009).Chart 2.5: Any skilled attendant at delivery, 2006 and 2009 [7]
  • 14. 2.6. MDG 6: Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases:The target under goal 6 states below:  Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.  Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it.Health is a constitutionally accepted fundamental right of the people. It is also devoted toachieving the MDG of combating HIV/AIDS and other killer diseases. Fortunately,Bangladesh is in safe position still now.Chart 2.6: Knowledge of HIV and AIDS among women aged 15-24, 2006 and 2009 [MICS 2009].Proper concept is the first step toward raising awareness to protect people fromHIV/AIDS. Misconceptions regarding HIV are frequent and can mislead younggeneration which may cause hamper prevention measures. on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1, SVRS (2008), Indicator 2 MICS, (2009), Indicator 3 DG Health. [8]
  • 15. 2.7. MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability:The objectives under goal 7 are in below:  Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.  Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Chart 2.7: Households using a tube well that are aware that their water source has been tested for arsenic contamination, 2009. [MICS 2009]The more noticeable environmental problems are related with regenerative resources.These comprise animal, bird, plant, fish, populations, land, water and air.Chart 2.8: Trend in sanitation coverage 1990-2015 (MICS 2009) [9]
  • 16.  on Track,  will be achieved before 2015/already achieved,  Not achievable by 2015Sources: Indicators 1, (DoF), Indicator 2 & 3 MICS, (2009).Map 2.2: Proportion of the population using a hygienic (GoB definition) sanitation facility by district, 2009. (MICS 2009). [10]
  • 17. 2.8. MDG 8: Developing A Global Partnership For Development:The Targets under Goal 8 are as follows:  Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.  In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications.Sources: Indicators 1, 2 & 3 (ERD), Indicator 4 & 5 Welfare Monitoring Survey (2009), Indicator 6 BTRC. [11]
  • 18. III. PROSPECT OF ACHIEVING MDG IN BANGLADESH BY 2015Bangladesh seems to be on track to achieve some of the UN millennium developmentgoals such as universal primary school enrollment and gender parity. A recent UNDPreport says that Bangladesh could be a role model for UNDP by showing that sustainedimprovement in human development is possible even in poor countries at relativelymodest levels of income growth (UNDP, 2005).Though Bangladesh could achieve some goals by this time, there are some constraints toachieve the rest goals in time. It comprises institutional inability to effectively implementpolicies and programmes; inefficiency and corruption; lack of transparency andaccountability; and, poor law and order conditions; limited domestic resources etc.There is great dilemma in receiving foreign aid. The development partners give aid withconditions which are not effective as well. Bangladesh met such problems all too oftenwith donors, including mutual lending agencies. [12]
  • 19. IV. CONCLUSIONSBangladesh is at a crossroad when it comes to achieving the UN MillenniumDevelopment Goals by 2015. Economic and social inequality is marked in form ofcontradiction for accessing the basic needs, such as education, health, and water-sanitation, and poor public expenditure on these essential services runs the risk of failingto reach the MDGs by the 2015 deadline.The overall development strategy of Bangladesh, outlined in the PRSP has been preparedin light of reaching the MDGs. Improvement of the quality of life of the people occupiesthe vital position of all eight MDG targets. Currently, the government of Bangladeshspends more on external debt servicing than on health care. To finance the MDGs, everyyear a staggering $7.5 billion in external budget support is needed which is almost fourtimes the amount of aid/loans currently provided by the international donor community.However, Government has formed new 5 year development plan (2011-2015) to supportMDG. In this context, Geographic concentration is advised as a key poverty reductionstrategy when developing the five-year National Development Plan. [13]
  • 20. V. RECOMMENDATIONSThe following recommendation can be made to accelerate timely achievement of MDG inBangladesh:  Initiate and Implement Geographic Targeting of Basic Social Services to reduce disparity in various areas.  A Central MDG coordinating Cell should be established for working as link-pin.  Accountability and Transparency should be ensured in every sector regarding MDG.  All level of civil servants should be trained up and take under an umbrella through convergence approach for policy implementation.  Building public awareness of hunger and the issues that surround it can provide political leaders with the mandate and support they need to take action. [14]
  • 21. VI. APPENDICES APPENDIX 1Millennium Development Goals, targets and indicators for monitoring progress:Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Indicators: 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day. 2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]. 3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption.Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Indicators: 4. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age. 5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption.Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education.Target 3:Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Indicators: 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education. 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5. 8. Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds.Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015. Indicators: 9. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education. 10. Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24 year-olds. 11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector. 12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament. [15]
  • 22. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality.Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. Indicators: 13. Under-five mortality rate. 14. Infant mortality rate. 15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles.Goal 5: Improve maternal health.Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio. Indicators: 16. Maternal mortality ratio. 17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel.Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTarget 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Indicators: 18. HIV prevalence among 15-24 year old pregnant women. 19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate. 20. Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDSTarget 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Indicators: 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria. 22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures. 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis. 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS).Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Indicators: 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest. [16]
  • 23. 26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area. 27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP). 28. Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons). 29. Proportion of population using solid fuels.Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Indicators: 30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural.Target 11: By, 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. Indicators: 31. Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation. 32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (owned or rented).Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for developmentTarget 12: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally.Target 13: Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes: tariff and quota free access for least developed countries exports; enhanced program of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction.Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked countries and Small Island developing States (through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly).Target 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long termSome of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and Small Island developing States. Official development assistance. [17]
  • 24. Indicators: 33. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income. 34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation). 35. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied. 36. ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs. 37. ODA received in Small Island developing States as proportion of their GNIs Market access. 38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and LDCs, admitted free of duties. 39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries. 40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP. 41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt sustainability. 42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative). 43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$. 44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services.Target 16: In co-operation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth 45. Unemployment rate of 15-24 year-olds, each sex and total.Target 17: In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries. 46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis.Target 18: In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications. Indicators: 47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 populations 48. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 populations. [18]
  • 25. VII. REFERENCES LISTBangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey 2005.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Report on Sample Vital Registration System 2008.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh 2008.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Population Census 2001.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Report on Welfare Monitoring Survey 2009.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Technical Report on Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009.Bangladesh Forest Department. (2007). National Forest and Tree Resources Assessment 2005-2007.Malaria and Parasitic Disease Control Unit. (2008). Annual Report. Dhaka. DG Health.General Economics Division. (2008). Millennium Development Goals: Bangladesh Progress Report 2008. Dhaka. Planning Commission.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Preliminary Report on Progotir Pathey 2009.UNICEF. (2010). A Case for Geographic Targeting of Basic Social Services to Accelerate Poverty Reduction in Bangladesh.Alam, Dr. M. (2006, September). Role and Effectiveness of Bangladesh Civil Service in Achieving Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved August 15, 2010, from http://www.undp.org.bd/projects/prodocs/DCSC/MDGs%20and%20Bangladesh %20Civil%20Service.pdfBangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Millennium Development Goals Bangladesh: Progress At A Glance. Retrieved August 12, 2010, from http://www.bbs.gov.bd/dataindex/Millenium%20Development%20Goals.pdf [19]

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