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Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portf_carrington_d

Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portf_carrington_d



Argosy University ePorfolio

Argosy University ePorfolio



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    Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portf_carrington_d Au psy492 m7_a3_e_portf_carrington_d Presentation Transcript

    • 1
      Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
      Diana Carrington
      BA Psychology, 2011
    • Personal Statement
      When I'm 64
      Well, I think it was around 1964 that the Beatles’ released their
      song “When I’m 64.” That seems like a century away. I was
      junior in high school, hoping that I would not have to continue an
      additional four more years of girls’ schools if my family decided to
      send me back east to a girl’s college. I only had one year left to
      convince them that I would be better off going to the San Francisco Community
      College (coincidentally, a large group of my friends were going to attend “City
      College.” I did it! I would be attending “City College” with my friends.
      It’s a good thing that I’m a quick learner, and more importantly, I learn from my
      mistakes. Too much freedom, protesting, no uniforms, going to school with
      guys, this was all too much stimulation for my senses, and my focus was gone.
      My grades were less than stellar, so was my emotional state. I knew that was
      not my authentic self, I knew I had (still do have it) drive, stamina, determination
      and a never give up spirit.
    • Personal Statement
      Page 2
      When I make a determination to do something, it’s as good as done! I felt sorry
      for myself for about 2 weeks. I decided to go back to “City College” taking
      classes in the day and night. I received my Associates degree and was on my
      way to making my high school goal and become a teacher. I spent one year at
      a State College, when opportunity knocked. There is nothing I love better than
      to challenge myself to learn skills and accomplish a new feat! Yes, I accept all
      challenges (within reason of course). I had been offered a position as a
      resident and office manager of 105 unit senior citizen and disabled citizen
      apartment complex. I told myself that I would always go back to school, so I
      kept that under wraps for a long time. Meanwhile, I not only turned over a huge
      profit by keeping a fully occupied complex, the residents, were like the
      grandparents I never had. It was a win-win situation. I learned so many skills
      regarding accounting, learning government forms and processing of subsidized
      housing, how to deal with vendors, setting up filing and office management
    • Personal Statement
      Page 3
      The one thing I didn’t count on was the sadness as the residents started to
      pass on. I felt as if my work was done there, as another opportunity arrived. I
      was offered a temp position at Charles Schwab Brokerage in 1978 when the
      company was just getting off its feet. I didn’t know anything about stocks,
      bonds and never heard of option trading. Starting in customer service in the
      lobby, I learned quickly when the bell rang at 6:30 a. m. there was
      pandemonium on the trading floor and in the lobby with the customers. I had
      become a favorite with the customers and received many compliments about
      my efficiency in handling the new accounts, so I was promoted to Supervisor of
      New Accounts. I passed the exam and received my broker’s license just in time
      to start a new position as liaison between the headquarter office and the branch
      managers in the field. I loved the fast pace of the brokerage industry, so it
      wasn’t long before I accepted a position at Montgomery Securities, the largest
      institutional trading firm outside of New York, which soon became Banc of
      America Securities.
    • Personal Statement
      Page 4
      This was totally different from personal account trading. The trading floor was
      just like in the movie “Wall Street.” There were 300 people on the floor, four
      letter words were common, and you really had to have a thick skin. Once
      again, I had taken on a challenge, mastered it, and really having a ball.
      Then, Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, an autoimmune disease of the liver hits me
      hard. I had to go on permanent disability. When I left the trading floor on
      Friday, July 24, 1992, I would never return there or any other place to work
      outside of the home. I moved to Sacramento in 1999 to have a liver transplant,
      and had a successful surgery in 2002, and I am in the best of health. There is
      something about having a life and death situation that really helps you to put
      things in perspective and to prioritize. The entire process took 2 years prior and
      2 years afterwards to get back on track, and figure out what to do with myself
      now that my broker’s license had expired and what was I to do?
    • Personal Statement
      Page 5
      Two long time goals that had been on the back burner: return to college and
      start my own greeting card business. I started my company CarringtonCards
      and I will be graduating October, 2011 with my BA in Psychology with a 3.86
      GPA, at age 64!
      I am in a unique situation right now. I have gained a wealth of knowledge in the
      field of psychology and I have my established greeting card company. I have
      decided to create a line of psychological healing and encouragement cards.
      We ALL need healing and encouragement. Those that are struggling with
      mental and emotional illness, battling addiction, have lost hope and found
      despair, are the ones in particular that I want to reach with my healing and
      encouragement cards.
    • Table of Contents
      Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
      Research Skills
      Communication Skills: Oral and Written
      Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Foundations of Psychology
      Applied Psychology
      Interpersonal Effectiveness
    • Critical Thinking
      False Memory
      Diana Carrington
      Argosy University
      Cognitive Psychology
      PSY 363
      Dr. Diane Sorrentino
      August 08, 2011
    • Critical Thinking
      False Memory
      False memory is a situation in which people either remember events that never
      happened, or remembered them differently from the way they actually
      happened (Roediger III & McDermott, 1995). In the same (Roediger III et al,
      1995) study, the subjects are presented a list of words, all of which are
      associates of a target word; e. g., bed, pillow, tired, wake…, and the special
      target word is sleep. At the end of the word presentation, the subjects are
      asked to report which words they had seen. The subjects will report confidently
      recall “sleep: even though it was not presented. A special distractor is a word
      that is associated with the words on the list but is not actually presented on the
      list. In my CogLab experiment, it was predicted that the special distractor would
      be recalled often, even though it was not shown on the list; “this experiment
      demonstrates one methodology that biases people to recall things that did not
      occur” (Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab, p. 1 2011). My percentage
      of recall of the special distractor was 100%.
    • Critical Thinking
      Page 2
      If I had remembered seeing my doctor wearing a stethoscope, but later found
      out that, because of a hearing impairment, the doctor does not use a
      stethoscope, I would have been mistaken because of the bias of recalling a
      doctor’s medical accoutrement includes a stethoscope, and once again, false
      memory has caused me to include a stethoscope because of the instruments
      associated with doctors. In a presentation between a professor of psychology
      and a professor of law, at Stanford Law School, the topic was: The Problem
      with Eyewitness Testimony (Tversky & Fisher, 1999). “George Fisher,
      Professor of Law, placed Barbara Tversky’s, Professor of Psychology, research
      on memory fallibility into the context of police investigations and jury verdicts,
      discussing the relevance of such research to our system of justice”(Tversky &
      Fisher, 1999, p. 1). An example, a witness to a crime sees a female perpetrator
      in clear daylight, gives a description to the police, who pick up a woman fitting
      the description from the witness, and put her in a line-up with other people
      fitting the same general description (e.g. 5 foot white female, red hair).
    • Critical Thinking
      Page 3
      The witness picks out the suspect out of the line-up, and she is later convicted
      of the crime. However, several years later, after being apprehended in an
      unrelated incident, another female who looks like the convicted female
      confesses to the original crime with information that only the perpetrator could
      possess. The original female convicted of the crime was falsely recognized
      because of visual similarity to the actual criminal (Tversky & Fisher, 1999).
      “DNA has exonerated more than 230 men in mostly sex crimes and murder
      cases, criminologists have been able to go back and study what went wrong in
      those investigations. What they’ve honed in on is faulty eyewitness testimony:
      over 75 percent of these innocent men convicted in part because an eyewitness
      fingered the wrong person. Investigators have discovered that in all the cases
      where eyewitnesses were wrong, the real perpetrator was not in the initial
      lineup” (Finkelstein, 2009, p. 5).
    • Critical Thinking
      Page 4
      There have been studies that have shown that eyewitness identification is
      highly fallible:
      • In cases where DNA has exonerated wrongfully convicted people, 90% of the cases were mistaken identity (Wells, Small, Penrod, Malpass, Fulero, Brimacombe, 1998).
      • (Huff, 1987) concluded that after 500 wrongful convictions, mistaken eyewitness identification occurred in 60%.
      I do not think that eyewitness testimony should carry as much weight as it does
      now, because of its high fallibility. I believe that the more scientific testing is
      involved, the more accuracy will be provided in apprehending the correct
    • Critical Thinking
      Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab. (2011). CogLab: False Memory. Retrieved from CogLab 2.0 Online Laboratory: http://coglab.Wadsworth.com/experiments/FalseMemory.shtml
      Finkelstein, S. (Producer). (2009). 60 Minutes [Television series]. New York, NY: Columbia Broadcasting System.
      Huff, C. (1987). Societal tolerance of injustice. Research in Societal Problems and Public Policy, 4, 99-115.
      Roediger III, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.
      Tversky, B., & Fisher, G. (1999, April 5). The problem with eyewitness testimony. Stanford Journal of Legal Studies, 1(1), 1-5. Retrieved from http://agora.stanford.edu/sjls/Issue%20One/fisher&tversky.htm
      Wells, G., Small, M., Penrod, S., Malpass, R., Fulero, S., & Brimacombe, C. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. , 22, 603-647. Retrieved from http://wwsw.visualexpert.com/Resources/mistakenid.html
    • Research Skills
      The Power of Persuasion and the PSA
      Diana Carrington
      Argosy University
      Social Psychology
      PSY 310
      Lisa Linkin
      May 29, 2011
    • Research Skills
      The Power of Persuasion and the PSA
      In order to recruit participants from the public to test the persuasive powers of a
      public service announcement film about pro-recycling, first I would define these
      individuals who are going to be a subset of the population who will be doing the
      testing-this is called a sample-the process of selecting is called a sampling
      (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Basically, I am looking
      for individuals who will fit certain characteristics pertinent to this study by:
      “listing those basic characteristics such as age, gender, income, marital status;
      identify a location where I can select the sample (it may be a virtual location;
      ask participants to suggest other participants who qualify-ask participants in an
      online survey to forward a link to friends; finally refining the list by elimination”
      (Koenig, n.d., p. 1). Through random sampling each individual has an equal
      chance of being selected (Shaughnessy et al., 2009).
    • Research Skills
      Page 2
      Random assignment (placement by chance) determines “those who receive the
      persuasive message (in the experimental group) or those who do not receive it
      (in the control group)” (Kendrick, Neuberg, & Cialdini, 2007, p. 153). The
      independent variable is “the factor (s) that the researcher controls or
      manipulates to determine their effect on behavior (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p.
      33); in this research it is the public service film about pro-recycling. The
      dependent variables are the “measures of behavior that used to assess the
      effect (if any) of the independent variables” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 34).
      In this experiment the power of persuasiveness of the public service
      announcement film is the dependent variable. “The After Only Design, in which
      the experimental group watches the message and their attitudes are measured;
      then the control group does not watch the message and their attitude is
      measured; then if the attitudes on the after-measure alone are significantly
      more favorable to the message in the experimental group than in the control
      group, the message was probably effective” –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153).
    • Research Skills
      Page 3
      –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change
      even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153).
      Using an unobtrusive behavioral measure in this research is more appropriate
      because some individuals may want to appear to be more “green oriented” than
      they really are (Kendrick et al., 2007); and researchers can observe their
      “attitude relevant” behavior (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 151). Sometimes, the
      direct way is the best way and that is to ask people to report what they are
      feeling; the flip side of that is that they not want to reveal their feelings if it might
      be socially in appropriate such as not seeing the value of recycling (Kendrick et
      al., 2007).
      “Non reactive measurement is measurement that does not change a subject’s
      responses while recording them” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 152). Convert
      techniques or unobtrusive behavioral measures are less likely to distort the
      response; while self reporting is preferred because the attitude is inquired more
      directly (Kendrick et al., 2007).
    • Research Skills
      Page 4
      When the researcher does not trust the random assignment, the pretest is used
      to match groups (Shaughnessy et al., 2009). “The challenge is to select a
      pretest that equates the groups on a dimension that is relevant to the outcome
      of the experiment-the matched groups design is useful only when a good
      matching task is available” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 236).
      “The larger the sample size, the more sure you can be that the answers truly
      reflect the population; the confidence level is expressed as a percentage and
      represents hw often the true percentage of the population who would pick an
      answer lies within the confidence level”(Creative Research Systems, 2007
      2010, p. 1).
    • Research Skills
      Creative Research Systems. (2007-2010). Sample size calculator terms: Confidence interval & confidence level. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm
      Kendrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Boston, MA: Pearson.
      Koenig, D. (n.d.). How to select research participants for qualitative research. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/print/how_7639438_select-research-participants-qualitative-research.html
      Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2009). Research methods in psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Has Method Acting Gone Too Far?
      Diana Carrington
      PSY 405: Interviewing Techniques
      Argosy University
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Has Method Acting Gone Too Far?
      The competition in Hollywood is fierce. All actors want to effectively portray their
      characters. Sometimes, this means altering your physical appearance such as
      Christian Bale in his Oscar wining performance in The Fighter. He lost forty
      pounds for the role (National Post Staff, 2010, p. 2). Sometimes actors take
      method acting too far and get psychologically connected to your character such
      as the late Heath Ledger in his portrayal as The Joker in The Dark Knight. The
      late Australian actor was told to seek professional for his personal problems
      while filming ‘The Dark Knight’, and was warned that he had become too
      obsessed with his portrayal of iconic Batman villain ‘The Joker’ "Heath Ledger’s
      method acting", 2008, p. 2-3). Chris Knight, chief film critic, National Post
      comments in (National Post Staff, 2010, p.2) “When I spoke to Sam
      Rockwell at TIFF about his role in Conviction, he told me he had been in
      therapy as an aid to his work: ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to
      examine your own human behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect
      other people’s human behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able to play yourself like an instrument.’”
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Page 2
      ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to examine your own human
      behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect other people’s human
      behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able
      to play yourself like an instrument.’” In order to ensure and maintain the mental
      stability of their actors, (and prevent any law suits), Carrington Studios in
      Hollywood has taken ground breaking action and has hired a professional
      counselor to perform intake and clinical interviews for actors portraying intense,
      psychological characters in their movies. A professional is required because to
      undertake these types of interviews without professional clinical training in
      psychology…will result in erred information and /or unusable information
      (Argosy University, 2011). This action by the studio is to take preliminary
      of any possible pre-existing problems that could be triggered and surface during
      the production.
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Page 3
      Some of the questions applicable to intake counseling interviews will provide
      insight into the actor’s background, that possibly would not have been revealed
      except through these probing questions such as: if there is a history of mental
      illness in the family; is there current use of alcohol or non prescription drugs
      and if so, what is the frequency; has there been previous counseling; if there
      have been any thoughts of suicide, and there are also questions about feelings,
      behaviors and symptoms (Argosy University, 2011). If the counselor is able to
      establish a good rapport, it is possible to discover the expectations and
      apprehensions about the interview and attitudes about the counselor, calm any
      fears or reservations the actor may have. (Steward & Cash, 2008, p. 359).
      The test in recognizing a successful counseling intake interview is whether or
      not the counseling interviewer has established a trusting and working
      relationship with the client (Argosy University, 2011).
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Page 4
      Under these circumstances, an additional guide for a successful counseling
      interview is the relaxed and comfortable dialogue that the actor can have with
      the counselor, allowing full honesty. This will ensure that the actor’s mental
      capacity is strong enough for an intense psychological portrayal, and that
      hopefully a mentally strong actor will be able to put more effort and emphasis in
      their role-to provide a win-win situation.
    • Communication Skills - Written
      Argosy University. (2011). Interviewing Techniques. Retrieved on February 27, 2011 from http://www.myeclassonline.com.
      Heath Ledger’s method acting. (2008, April 15, 2008). Monsters and Critics, 2-3. Retrieved from http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/news/article_1399940.php/Heath_Ledger_s_method_acting
      National Post Staff. (2010, December 15, 2010). Culture Club: Body image, method acting and the case of Christian Bale. National Post, 1-3. Retrieved from http://arts.nationalpost.com/2010/12/15/culture-club-body-image-method-acting-and-the-case-of-christian-bale/
      Steward, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (2008). Interviewing: Principles and practices (12th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Misunderstanding of Probability
      Diana Carrington
      PSY 210: Psychological Statistics
      Argosy University
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Misunderstanding of Probability
      Dr. Eugene Bendar, a forensic psychologist, has been contracted by a large city
      police department to prepare a report of racial profiling and crime. The
      department chief is interested in knowing what type of certain “groups” is more
      likely to commit criminal acts than other groups (Argosy University. (2011).
      Using race as a factor in conducting stops, searches or other investigative
      procedures is a definition of racial profiling used by former President George W.
      Bush (Bush, 2001, p. 521). Using race as a factor in determining criminal
      behavior makes a great assumption that criminal behavior is a result of one
      variable only. There are many variables that contribute to a tendency toward
      criminal behavior and involvement in crimes such as: parental illegal behavior
      and drug use creating a dysfunctional home life, living in a crime-filled
      environment, poor participation and attendance in school, and developmental
      problems (Sun, 2009).
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Page 2
      An unawareness of the distinction between absolute frequency and relative
      frequency regarding criminal behavior, along with ignorance of the
      multiplication rule, can give misleading statistics (Argosy University, 2011). The
      number of items in a given category is the absolute frequency. The absolute
      frequency divided by the total number of items is the relative frequency
      (James & James, 1992, p. 173), Sun, (2009) gives an example of research
      showing that people with only high school education are more likely to commit
      crime than people with graduate degrees. Let’s assume that 90% are those with
      only high school education and 10% are those with graduate degrees. The 90%
      does not represent 90% of people with high school education will commit a
      crime; it is the relative frequency of the tendency in comparison. The absolute
      frequency is the number of offenders with the attribute out of the total
      population with the same attribute in the United States. That figure is
      approximately 5% below the total population.
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Page 3
      The ignorance of the multiplication rule of probability for criminal behavior can
      create bias and racial profiling. In certain offender profiling, there are many
      variables that need to be taken into consideration such as gender, age, marital
      status and race (Sun, 2009). If you narrow your variables to only one, your
      chances of apprehending the perpetrator are narrowed as well.
    • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
      Argosy University. (2011). Psychological Statistics. Retrieved on January 29, 2011 from http://www.myeclassonline.com.
      Bush, G. W. (2001). Memorandum for the Attorney General (Policy Brief). Retrieved from Racial Profiling, Statistical Discrimination, and the Effect of a Colorblind Policy on the Crime Rate website: http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/econ/dbjerk/JPET_reprint.pdf
      James, R. C., & James, G. (1992). Mathematics Dictionary (5th ed.). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=UyIfgBIwLMQC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=absolute+and+relative+frequency&source=bl&ots=VV3N5LQmwF&sig=20and%20relative%20frequency&f=false
      Sun, K. (2009, September 13). Racial profiling and a misunderstanding of probability. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-justice-and-responsibility-league/200909/racial-profiling-and-misunderstanding-probability
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Decision Making in Groups and Effective Communication
      Diana Carrington
      Argosy University
      Industrial/Organizational Psychology
      PSY 320
      Dr. JoLene Klumpp
      April 17, 2011
    • Foundations in Psychology
      In recent years, organizations are utilizing group decision making over
      individual because they believe that there are certain advantages of group over
      individual decision making. This may be true in certain situations, such as
      those major decisions that impact on the group members or work procedures
      rather than by an official far removed from the work atmosphere; however there
      are some negative consequences in group decision making as well (Riggio,
      2008). This paper will discuss five factors that lead to ineffective decision
      making in groups: social loafing, free riding, the sucker effect, process loss, and
      groupthink. Effective communication is vital among employees and between
      employees and management. This paper will also discuss the best ways a
      manager can effectively communicate his expectations regarding group work to
      his employees.
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Decision Making in Groups
      Organizations are increasing their focus on work groups, implying that the
      presence of others may improve the individual’s performance; hence those
      working in groups should perform better than those working alone-this is the
      concept of social facilitation (Argosy University, 2011). Li, the CEO of Celia
      Jane, a medium-sized furniture design firm, believes that working in groups also
      aids creativity and productivity. In order to help improve the productivity of
      Celia Jane, Li will have to be aware of the negative consequences of working in
      Five Factors That Lead to Ineffective Decision Making in Groups
      Social loafing: “The phenomena whereby individuals working in groups exert less effort than when working alone” (Riggio, 2008, p. 319).
      Free riding: “This occurs when an individual does not bear a proportional amount of work and yet shares the benefits of the group” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, p. 2).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 2
      The sucker effect: “The act of group members carrying a free rider or social loafer has been termed playing the sucker role. Avoiding playing the sucker role by reducing one’s individual effort has been termed the sucker effect” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, 0p. 6).
      Process loss: “The difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 5 of 7).
      Groupthink: “Group members are so concerned with not “rocking the boat” that they become reluctant to challenge the group’s decisions and often fail to consider outside information” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 6 of 7).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 3
      Bruce Tuckman’s Five-Stage Model of Group Development
      “Dr. Bruce Tuckman published four stages of his group development model in 1965; he added a fifth stage in the 1970’s” ("Bruce Tuckman’s model", p. 1). This model is an explanation how a group develops, and how workers’ behavior affects their performance (Argosy University, 2011).
      Forming-stage one: “High dependence on leader for guidance; individual roles and responsibilities are unclear.”
      Storming-stage two: “Decisions do not come easy within the group; cliques and factors form; possible power struggles; clarity of purpose increases but many uncertainties.”
      Norming-stage three: “Agreement and consensus is largely formed among the group; the group discusses and develops its processes and working style.”
      Performing-stage four: “The group is more strategically aware and knows why it is doing what it is doing; has a shared vision.”
      Adjourning-stage five: “This is the break-up of the group, when the task is completed successfully” (“Bruce Tuckman’s model,” p.2-4).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 4
      Since the Celia Jane employees have traditionally worked in groups of eight,
      they are comfortable with each other, work together to accomplish group goals
      and experience a cohesiveness. Groupthink would be a factor to be aware of
      because this happens more often in cohesive groups (Argosy University, 2011).
      Maximizing the Productivity of the Work Groups
      There are several ways to maximize productivity in groups: working in
      smaller groups as opposed to working in groups of eight has they have been
      doing at Celia Jane. People working in smaller groups can be more productive
      than those in larger groups, and there is a less chance of members blocking
      another member (production blocking) (Argosy University, 2011). Setting group
      goals that are specific and difficult with rewards for group success can improve
      group productivity. The group is cohesive, and is able to work together towards
      the group objective so this would be a good fit for the employees of Celia Jane
      (Argosy University, 2011).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 5
      Individuals and groups alike can always improve communication. Another
      suggestion would be trying out various communication structures to see which
      one is best for the employees (Argosy University, 2011).
      Effective Brainstorming
      Li believes that one great advantage of working in groups is brainstorming. It
      has been widely used in a variety of businesses, and it would seem that a
      group of people generating creative ideas with no criticism, no idea is too far
      out, and building on each other’s ideas would be the popular technique (Riggio,
      2001). However, after forty years of research, it was determined that group
      dynamics are too powerful, and the creativity in the groups is often inhibited
      (Riggio, 2008). A new version that seems more effective is “electronic
      brainstorming” which uses computers to have members share ideas, this
      lessens the fear of others giving negative feedback, and of possible “free-riders”
      (Riggio, 2008).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 6
      Effective Communication
      Li can communicate his expectations regarding group work using a combination
      of methods. However, whichever method he uses, he must really believe what
      he is telling his employees, he must stand for something-his vision; next he
      must be able to convey his mission so that the employees with understand and
      respond with the same passion that he has (Cornell University Charles H.
      Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management [cornell.edu], clip ID
      8268) . He would be using downward flow of communication as he expresses
      his expectations down to his employees through email, following up with face
      to-face and meetings. He must also be mindful of any barrier to the effective
      flow of communication such as filtering and exaggeration (Riggio, 2008).
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Page 7
      Upward communication, the flow of messages from the employees to him is
      crucial as well. He must be able to provide a way that the employees can give
      feedback through employee suggestion boxes, employee surveys, subordinate
      appraisals of supervisory performance, and basically any management
      technique that provides for employees input will increase upward flow of
      communication (Riggio, 2008).
      In conclusion, decision making in groups and effective communication is an
      important process in organizations today, which will always require the services
      of I/O psychologist to assist in improving the productivity of the organizations.
    • Foundations of Psychology
      Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com
      Bruce Tuckman forming storming norming performing team development model. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
      Cornell University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management . (Producer). Ed Mace shares thoughts on good leadership and importance of communication [DVD]. Available from http://eclips.cornell.edu/search?querytext=Communication&id=id&clipID=8268&tab=TabClipPage.
      Piezon, S. L., & Donaldson, R. L. (2005, winter). Online groups and social loafing: understanding student-group interaction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, VIII (IV). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm
      Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    • Applied Psychology
      The Scientist-Practitioner Model
      Diana Carrington
      Argosy University
      Industrial/Organizational Psychology
      PSY 320
      Dr. JoLene Klumpp
      March 09, 2011
    • Applied Psychology
      The scientist-practitioner model for Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychologists
      has been advocated by the Society for Industrial and Organizational
      Psychology, (SIOP), a division of the American Psychological Association
      (APA). The belief is that I/O psychologists should be trained in science and
      practice. This paper will address several issues of this model: the development,
      the usefulness, and whether it would be problematic if scientists and
      practitioners were distinct. It will address some of the problems of the scientist
      practitioner model, and how the model is demonstrated throughout history.
      Also, this paper will describe the value of I/O psychologists as it pertains to
      organizations and workers, along with two key ethical issues faced by I/O
    • Applied Psychology
      The Scientist-Practitioner Model
      In the science and practice of industrial/organizational psychology the two
      objectives are: research to increase knowledge and understanding of human
      work behavior and using that knowledge to improve work behavior, work
      environment and the psychological conditions of the workers (Riggio, 2008, p.
      4). The scientist-practitioner model as advocated by the Society for Industrial
      and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), in the application of psychology to all
      types of organizations, promotes the integration of research, teaching and
      practice related to the purpose of the Society (American Psychological
      Association website, n.d., Chapter 14).
      Development of the Scientist-Practitioner Model
      The scientist-practitioner model originated in 1949 at the Boulder Conference
      as a model for graduate student training integrating science and practice; the
      student would learn about research and practice, then carry out that research
      and practice under faculty and professionals.
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 2
      In Industrial and Organizational (I/O) psychology, the science-practice has been
      adopted more as a model for the field than a model for graduate training (Rupp
      & Beal, 2007).
      Case Study
      Jack is an organizational development executive at Techzone Communications,
      An international communications and technology company. He has completed
      his PhD in I/O psychology and has been working at Techzone for seven years.
      Although he did research during his PhD studies, he has not been involved in
      research since that time. Do you think Jack can be considered a scientist
      practitioner? Discuss why or why not. In order for Jack to be considered a
      scientist-practitioner, he must be actively engaged in research and practice. He
      is primarily a practitioner (Argosy University, 2011).
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 3
      Usefulness of the Scientist-Practitioner Model in I/O Psychology
      I/O psychologists are both researchers and practitioners; through research they
      are able to increase their knowledge and keep current on the changing needs
      of organizations, while using that knowledge to meet the needs of their clients
      (Argosy University, 2011).
      Is a Model Problematic If Scientists and Practitioners are Distinct?
      There are many references made to the differences between research and
      practical application, and the difficulty of assimilating these diverse goals
      (Brooks, Grauer, Thornbury, & Highhouse, 2003, p. 17). “Modern-day trainees
      and practicing clinicians often express reservations about the scientist
      practitioner model. They cite a divide between research and practice: much
      research is seen as inapplicable to clinical practice (Shapiro, 2002, p. 232).
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 4
      The Scientist-Practitioner Model throughout the History of I/O Psychology
      In pre-World War I, the American Psychological Association was founded in
      1892. At that time psychologists focused on research and worked in
      universities-they were all trained as experimental psychologists. In 1901 Walter
      Dill Scott spoke on the psychological aspects of advertising-this was the first
      time that psychology was used in a business context. During World War I,
      industrial psychologists were asked to develop selection test to assign soldiers
      appropriate positions in the military. After the war, industrial psychologists
      started to work in government and private industries. In 1924, through a series
      of studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant, researchers discovered the
      increased productivity was caused by the employees’ desire to please the
      researchers rather than changes in the environment. This phenomenon was
      called the Hawthorn Effect and revealed the need for sympathy and
      understanding in the workplace, and the need to focus on increasing employee
      growth, development and satisfaction.
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 5
      During World War II, industrial psychologists developed specialized tests for the
      military. It was important to provide an efficient workforce, so companies hired
      industrial psychologists to help reduce absenteeism, improve selection and
      training and measure attitudes. After World War II, large companies began to
      focus on organizational behavior and more universities began training I/O
      psychologists as the country was becoming more sensitized to the needs and
      interests of all workers including minority members (Argosy University, 2011)
      The Values of I/O Psychologists to Organizations
      I/O psychologists help to develop strategies to build better organizations.
      Through encouraging and incorporating diversity; advising on corporate
      structure; encouraging team building, and engaging in change management,
      the I/O psychologist can improve the performance and contribute to the
      success of an organization (Argosy University, 2011).
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 6
      The Values of I/O Psychologists to Workers
      I/O psychologists focus on employees through testing development; selection
      and promotion, performance appraisals; employee satisfaction and improve
      employee attitude and motivation; and leadership development (SIOP).
      Key Ethical Issues Faced by I/O Psychologists
      There are several aspects of the APA ethics code that I/O psychologists should
      be concerned about: informed consent and privacy. They are easy to violate if
      one is not familiar with the code. Informed consent is often ignored by
      nonacademic I/O psychologists because they are unaware. They may
      unintentionally minimize the privacy issues raised by their work because they
      often work with tests and assessments that present little potential for harm
      (Knapp, 2003, p. 164-165).
    • Applied Psychology
      Page 7
      In conclusion, the scientist-practitioner model is an integration of science and
      practice, and through the years the model has allowed Industrial and
      Organizational psychologists, through research and practice, to improve the
      performance and efficiency of organizations, while also assisting employees
      with training, selection and promotion, and motivation. Due to the differences
      between research and practical application and the diverse goals of each, there
      have been problems in assimilation. However, the value of the I/O psychologist
      to organizations and workers will continue to grow as organizations continue to
      expand with new challenges to be met by the industrial and organizational
    • Applied Psychology
      You Can Help to Build Better Organizations by Becoming an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist [Brochure]. : Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
      American Psychological Association website. (n.d.). http://www.apa.org/about/division/div14.aspx
      Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com
      Brooks, M. E., Grauer, E., Thornbury, E. E., & Highhouse, S. (2003). Value differences between scientists and practitioners: a survey of SIOP members. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (TIP), 40(4), 17-23. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/Apr03/pdf/404-017to023.pdf
      Knapp, D. J. (2003, April). The ethical practice of I-O psychologist. , 40(4), 164-165. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/TIP/backissues/Apr03/pdf/404_164-165.pdf
    • Applied Psychology
      Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
      Rupp, D. E., & Beal, D. (). Checking in with the scientist-practitioner model: how are we doing?. , 45(4). Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/tip/July07/04rupp.aspx
      Shapiro, (2002,). Renewing the scientist-practitioner model. The Psychologist, May 2002,15(5), 232-234. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~psych/graduate/clinical/scientist-practitioner.pdf
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance AbuseDiana CarringtonArgosy UniversitySubstance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice SystemPSY 494Dr. Adria AdamsJune 24, 2011
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
      Signs and Symptoms of Depression
      • Feelings of helplessness and hopeless-nothing gets better, nothing works
      • Appetite or weight changes- a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month
      • Sleep changes-either insomnia or oversleeping
      • Loss of energy-feeling fatigued, physically drained
      • Self-loathing- strong feelings of worthlessness or guilt (Smith, Saisan, & Segal, 2011, p. 2)
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
      Signs of Substance Abuse
      • Craves alcohol/drugs
      • Develops increased tolerance of the drug’s effects
      • Develops physical dependence on the drug
      • Engages in risky behavior, such as needle sharing or driving drunk
      • Feels guilty about substance abuse
      • Hides substance abuse from others
      • Is unable to control substance abuse ("Depression and substance abuse", n.d., p. 2)
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
      The Link between Drinking, Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Depression; What Causes the Link between Alcohol and Depression
      • Alcohol depresses the body systems and processes
      • Alcohol use leads to dehydration and prevents the body from receiving proper nutrients
      • Alcohol can cause you to do things you later regret, causing feelings of shame or guilt
      • Depression and anxiety can cause a person to drink more alcohol ("Drinking, Drugs and Depression", n.d., p. 1-2)
      • Links with brain function-some systems that produce low moods and reduced appetite in depression are also affected by alcohol
      • Psychosocial links-stressful life events can trigger both alcohol problems and depression
      • Genetic links-it’s possible to inherit an increased likelihood of both alcohol problems and depression (Mulholland, Misra, & Williams, 2010, p. 3)
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
      Alcohol Depression-How to Brake the Circle
      • Vicious Circle-alcohol depression is a disease that feeds into itself. People who are depressed often drink to feel better, but the alcohol leads them to feel more depressed, which causes them to drink more ("Vicious Circle", n.d., p. 3)
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
      Alcohol and Depression-The Bottle May be Increasing the Depression-Helpful Solutions
      • Depressive symptoms resulting from alcohol might indeed be quite difficult to curb; however, as with anything, the more one works at it, the better the chances of success
      • In addition to dual diagnosis treatment, drug-free methods positive thinking, diet, and proper exercise, causes
      and effects can definitely be overcome (Aje, 2010, p. 3)
    • Interpersonal Effectiveness
      Aje, F. (2010). Alcohol and depression: the bottle may be increasing the depression-helpful solutions. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.depression-helper.com/alcohol_article.htm
      Alcohol depression - how to brake the cycle-vicious circle. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.alcoholism-solutions.com/alcohol-depression.html
      Depression and substance abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.whydepression.info/overview/depression-and-substance-abuse
      Mulholland, C., Misra, A., & Williams, H. M. (2010). What causes links between alcohol and depression. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/depression/alcoholanddepression_000486.htm
      Smith, M., Saisan, J., & Segal, J. (2011). Understanding depression: signs, symptoms, causes and help. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http:..www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment.htm
      The link between drinking, alcoholism, drug abuse and depression. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.alcoholismtreatmentcalifornia.com/faq/does-drinking-cause-depression/
    • Reflections
      I am a returning student after a 35 year break. I am pleasantly surprised at my
      academic achievements, discipline to study and the ability to turn in
      assignments on time. It had been such a long time since I was in an academic
      environment, that I wasn’t really sure how I would fare.
      I have always been a person ready to accept a challenge and this was one of
      the biggest I have faced, it was also a heavy loose end hanging over my head. I
      always said that I would return to get my BA. I didn’t know it would take 35
      years to accomplish it. I have discovered that I am an accomplished writer and
      that I have excellent writing skills, sometimes I am my worst critic and don’t
      have the confidence that my professors see in me. I was terrified that I would
      not be able to keep up since I was 64, and probably the oldest if not one of the
      oldest students in the class. Much to my surprise, I am a good student with
      excellent writing skills, and a strong ability to comprehend the material,
      discipline to turn in my assignments on time, and maintain a cumulative GPA of
    • My Future in Learning
      I am a life long learner. Starting in grammar school at age 6, and today at age
      64, I will receive my BA in Psychology, October, 2011. Learning is not restricted
      to the academic arena. You have to have to wisdom to learn from anyone and
      realize that it adds to the richness of our lives.
    • Contact Me
      Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
      For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below.