1 Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Diana Carrington BA Psychology, 2011
Personal Statement When I'm 64 Well, I think it was around 1964 that the Beatles’ released their song “When I’m 64.” That seems like a century away. I was junior in high school, hoping that I would not have to continue an additional four more years of girls’ schools if my family decided to send me back east to a girl’s college. I only had one year left to convince them that I would be better off going to the San Francisco Community College (coincidentally, a large group of my friends were going to attend “City College.” I did it! I would be attending “City College” with my friends. It’s a good thing that I’m a quick learner, and more importantly, I learn from my mistakes. Too much freedom, protesting, no uniforms, going to school with guys, this was all too much stimulation for my senses, and my focus was gone. My grades were less than stellar, so was my emotional state. I knew that was not my authentic self, I knew I had (still do have it) drive, stamina, determination and a never give up spirit.
Personal Statement Page 2 When I make a determination to do something, it’s as good as done! I felt sorry for myself for about 2 weeks. I decided to go back to “City College” taking classes in the day and night. I received my Associates degree and was on my way to making my high school goal and become a teacher. I spent one year at a State College, when opportunity knocked. There is nothing I love better than to challenge myself to learn skills and accomplish a new feat! Yes, I accept all challenges (within reason of course). I had been offered a position as a resident and office manager of 105 unit senior citizen and disabled citizen apartment complex. I told myself that I would always go back to school, so I kept that under wraps for a long time. Meanwhile, I not only turned over a huge profit by keeping a fully occupied complex, the residents, were like the grandparents I never had. It was a win-win situation. I learned so many skills regarding accounting, learning government forms and processing of subsidized housing, how to deal with vendors, setting up filing and office management systems.
Personal Statement Page 3 The one thing I didn’t count on was the sadness as the residents started to pass on. I felt as if my work was done there, as another opportunity arrived. I was offered a temp position at Charles Schwab Brokerage in 1978 when the company was just getting off its feet. I didn’t know anything about stocks, bonds and never heard of option trading. Starting in customer service in the lobby, I learned quickly when the bell rang at 6:30 a. m. there was pandemonium on the trading floor and in the lobby with the customers. I had become a favorite with the customers and received many compliments about my efficiency in handling the new accounts, so I was promoted to Supervisor of New Accounts. I passed the exam and received my broker’s license just in time to start a new position as liaison between the headquarter office and the branch managers in the field. I loved the fast pace of the brokerage industry, so it wasn’t long before I accepted a position at Montgomery Securities, the largest institutional trading firm outside of New York, which soon became Banc of America Securities.
Personal Statement Page 4 This was totally different from personal account trading. The trading floor was just like in the movie “Wall Street.” There were 300 people on the floor, four letter words were common, and you really had to have a thick skin. Once again, I had taken on a challenge, mastered it, and really having a ball. Then, Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, an autoimmune disease of the liver hits me hard. I had to go on permanent disability. When I left the trading floor on Friday, July 24, 1992, I would never return there or any other place to work outside of the home. I moved to Sacramento in 1999 to have a liver transplant, and had a successful surgery in 2002, and I am in the best of health. There is something about having a life and death situation that really helps you to put things in perspective and to prioritize. The entire process took 2 years prior and 2 years afterwards to get back on track, and figure out what to do with myself now that my broker’s license had expired and what was I to do?
Personal Statement Page 5 Two long time goals that had been on the back burner: return to college and start my own greeting card business. I started my company CarringtonCards and I will be graduating October, 2011 with my BA in Psychology with a 3.86 GPA, at age 64! I am in a unique situation right now. I have gained a wealth of knowledge in the field of psychology and I have my established greeting card company. I have decided to create a line of psychological healing and encouragement cards. We ALL need healing and encouragement. Those that are struggling with mental and emotional illness, battling addiction, have lost hope and found despair, are the ones in particular that I want to reach with my healing and encouragement cards.
Table of Contents Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Research Skills Communication Skills: Oral and Written Ethics and Diversity Awareness Foundations of Psychology Applied Psychology Interpersonal Effectiveness
False Memory Diana Carrington Argosy University Cognitive Psychology PSY 363 Dr. Diane Sorrentino August 08, 2011
Critical Thinking False Memory False memory is a situation in which people either remember events that never happened, or remembered them differently from the way they actually happened (Roediger III & McDermott, 1995). In the same (Roediger III et al, 1995) study, the subjects are presented a list of words, all of which are associates of a target word; e. g., bed, pillow, tired, wake…, and the special target word is sleep. At the end of the word presentation, the subjects are asked to report which words they had seen. The subjects will report confidently recall “sleep: even though it was not presented. A special distractor is a word that is associated with the words on the list but is not actually presented on the list. In my CogLab experiment, it was predicted that the special distractor would be recalled often, even though it was not shown on the list; “this experiment demonstrates one methodology that biases people to recall things that did not occur” (Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab, p. 1 2011). My percentage of recall of the special distractor was 100%.
Critical Thinking Page 2 If I had remembered seeing my doctor wearing a stethoscope, but later found out that, because of a hearing impairment, the doctor does not use a stethoscope, I would have been mistaken because of the bias of recalling a doctor’s medical accoutrement includes a stethoscope, and once again, false memory has caused me to include a stethoscope because of the instruments associated with doctors. In a presentation between a professor of psychology and a professor of law, at Stanford Law School, the topic was: The Problem with Eyewitness Testimony (Tversky & Fisher, 1999). “George Fisher, Professor of Law, placed Barbara Tversky’s, Professor of Psychology, research on memory fallibility into the context of police investigations and jury verdicts, discussing the relevance of such research to our system of justice”(Tversky & Fisher, 1999, p. 1). An example, a witness to a crime sees a female perpetrator in clear daylight, gives a description to the police, who pick up a woman fitting the description from the witness, and put her in a line-up with other people fitting the same general description (e.g. 5 foot white female, red hair).
Critical Thinking Page 3 The witness picks out the suspect out of the line-up, and she is later convicted of the crime. However, several years later, after being apprehended in an unrelated incident, another female who looks like the convicted female confesses to the original crime with information that only the perpetrator could possess. The original female convicted of the crime was falsely recognized because of visual similarity to the actual criminal (Tversky & Fisher, 1999). “DNA has exonerated more than 230 men in mostly sex crimes and murder cases, criminologists have been able to go back and study what went wrong in those investigations. What they’ve honed in on is faulty eyewitness testimony: over 75 percent of these innocent men convicted in part because an eyewitness fingered the wrong person. Investigators have discovered that in all the cases where eyewitnesses were wrong, the real perpetrator was not in the initial lineup” (Finkelstein, 2009, p. 5).
Critical Thinking Page 4 There have been studies that have shown that eyewitness identification is highly fallible:
In cases where DNA has exonerated wrongfully convicted people, 90% of the cases were mistaken identity (Wells, Small, Penrod, Malpass, Fulero, Brimacombe, 1998).
(Huff, 1987) concluded that after 500 wrongful convictions, mistaken eyewitness identification occurred in 60%.
I do not think that eyewitness testimony should carry as much weight as it does now, because of its high fallibility. I believe that the more scientific testing is involved, the more accuracy will be provided in apprehending the correct perpetrator.
Critical Thinking References Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab. (2011). CogLab: False Memory. Retrieved from CogLab 2.0 Online Laboratory: http://coglab.Wadsworth.com/experiments/FalseMemory.shtml Finkelstein, S. (Producer). (2009). 60 Minutes [Television series]. New York, NY: Columbia Broadcasting System. Huff, C. (1987). Societal tolerance of injustice. Research in Societal Problems and Public Policy, 4, 99-115. Roediger III, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814. Tversky, B., & Fisher, G. (1999, April 5). The problem with eyewitness testimony. Stanford Journal of Legal Studies, 1(1), 1-5. Retrieved from http://agora.stanford.edu/sjls/Issue%20One/fisher&tversky.htm Wells, G., Small, M., Penrod, S., Malpass, R., Fulero, S., & Brimacombe, C. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. , 22, 603-647. Retrieved from http://wwsw.visualexpert.com/Resources/mistakenid.html
The Power of Persuasion and the PSA Diana Carrington Argosy University Social Psychology PSY 310 Lisa Linkin May 29, 2011
Research Skills The Power of Persuasion and the PSA In order to recruit participants from the public to test the persuasive powers of a public service announcement film about pro-recycling, first I would define these individuals who are going to be a subset of the population who will be doing the testing-this is called a sample-the process of selecting is called a sampling (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Basically, I am looking for individuals who will fit certain characteristics pertinent to this study by: “listing those basic characteristics such as age, gender, income, marital status; identify a location where I can select the sample (it may be a virtual location; ask participants to suggest other participants who qualify-ask participants in an online survey to forward a link to friends; finally refining the list by elimination” (Koenig, n.d., p. 1). Through random sampling each individual has an equal chance of being selected (Shaughnessy et al., 2009).
Research Skills Page 2 Random assignment (placement by chance) determines “those who receive the persuasive message (in the experimental group) or those who do not receive it (in the control group)” (Kendrick, Neuberg, & Cialdini, 2007, p. 153). The independent variable is “the factor (s) that the researcher controls or manipulates to determine their effect on behavior (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 33); in this research it is the public service film about pro-recycling. The dependent variables are the “measures of behavior that used to assess the effect (if any) of the independent variables” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 34). In this experiment the power of persuasiveness of the public service announcement film is the dependent variable. “The After Only Design, in which the experimental group watches the message and their attitudes are measured; then the control group does not watch the message and their attitude is measured; then if the attitudes on the after-measure alone are significantly more favorable to the message in the experimental group than in the control group, the message was probably effective” –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153).
Research Skills Page 3 –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153). Using an unobtrusive behavioral measure in this research is more appropriate because some individuals may want to appear to be more “green oriented” than they really are (Kendrick et al., 2007); and researchers can observe their “attitude relevant” behavior (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 151). Sometimes, the direct way is the best way and that is to ask people to report what they are feeling; the flip side of that is that they not want to reveal their feelings if it might be socially in appropriate such as not seeing the value of recycling (Kendrick et al., 2007). “Non reactive measurement is measurement that does not change a subject’s responses while recording them” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 152). Convert techniques or unobtrusive behavioral measures are less likely to distort the response; while self reporting is preferred because the attitude is inquired more directly (Kendrick et al., 2007).
Research Skills Page 4 When the researcher does not trust the random assignment, the pretest is used to match groups (Shaughnessy et al., 2009). “The challenge is to select a pretest that equates the groups on a dimension that is relevant to the outcome of the experiment-the matched groups design is useful only when a good matching task is available” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 236). “The larger the sample size, the more sure you can be that the answers truly reflect the population; the confidence level is expressed as a percentage and represents hw often the true percentage of the population who would pick an answer lies within the confidence level”(Creative Research Systems, 2007 2010, p. 1).
Research Skills References Creative Research Systems. (2007-2010). Sample size calculator terms: Confidence interval & confidence level. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm Kendrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Boston, MA: Pearson. Koenig, D. (n.d.). How to select research participants for qualitative research. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/print/how_7639438_select-research-participants-qualitative-research.html Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2009). Research methods in psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Communication Skills - Written Has Method Acting Gone Too Far? Diana Carrington PSY 405: Interviewing Techniques Argosy University
Communication Skills - Written Has Method Acting Gone Too Far? The competition in Hollywood is fierce. All actors want to effectively portray their characters. Sometimes, this means altering your physical appearance such as Christian Bale in his Oscar wining performance in The Fighter. He lost forty pounds for the role (National Post Staff, 2010, p. 2). Sometimes actors take method acting too far and get psychologically connected to your character such as the late Heath Ledger in his portrayal as The Joker in The Dark Knight. The late Australian actor was told to seek professional for his personal problems while filming ‘The Dark Knight’, and was warned that he had become too obsessed with his portrayal of iconic Batman villain ‘The Joker’ "Heath Ledger’s method acting", 2008, p. 2-3). Chris Knight, chief film critic, National Post comments in (National Post Staff, 2010, p.2) “When I spoke to Sam Rockwell at TIFF about his role in Conviction, he told me he had been in therapy as an aid to his work: ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to examine your own human behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect other people’s human behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able to play yourself like an instrument.’”
Communication Skills - Written Page 2 ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to examine your own human behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect other people’s human behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able to play yourself like an instrument.’” In order to ensure and maintain the mental stability of their actors, (and prevent any law suits), Carrington Studios in Hollywood has taken ground breaking action and has hired a professional counselor to perform intake and clinical interviews for actors portraying intense, psychological characters in their movies. A professional is required because to undertake these types of interviews without professional clinical training in psychology…will result in erred information and /or unusable information (Argosy University, 2011). This action by the studio is to take preliminary of any possible pre-existing problems that could be triggered and surface during the production.
Communication Skills - Written Page 3 Some of the questions applicable to intake counseling interviews will provide insight into the actor’s background, that possibly would not have been revealed except through these probing questions such as: if there is a history of mental illness in the family; is there current use of alcohol or non prescription drugs and if so, what is the frequency; has there been previous counseling; if there have been any thoughts of suicide, and there are also questions about feelings, behaviors and symptoms (Argosy University, 2011). If the counselor is able to establish a good rapport, it is possible to discover the expectations and apprehensions about the interview and attitudes about the counselor, calm any fears or reservations the actor may have. (Steward & Cash, 2008, p. 359). The test in recognizing a successful counseling intake interview is whether or not the counseling interviewer has established a trusting and working relationship with the client (Argosy University, 2011).
Communication Skills - Written Page 4 Under these circumstances, an additional guide for a successful counseling interview is the relaxed and comfortable dialogue that the actor can have with the counselor, allowing full honesty. This will ensure that the actor’s mental capacity is strong enough for an intense psychological portrayal, and that hopefully a mentally strong actor will be able to put more effort and emphasis in their role-to provide a win-win situation.
Communication Skills - Written References Argosy University. (2011). Interviewing Techniques. Retrieved on February 27, 2011 from http://www.myeclassonline.com. Heath Ledger’s method acting. (2008, April 15, 2008). Monsters and Critics, 2-3. Retrieved from http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/news/article_1399940.php/Heath_Ledger_s_method_acting National Post Staff. (2010, December 15, 2010). Culture Club: Body image, method acting and the case of Christian Bale. National Post, 1-3. Retrieved from http://arts.nationalpost.com/2010/12/15/culture-club-body-image-method-acting-and-the-case-of-christian-bale/ Steward, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (2008). Interviewing: Principles and practices (12th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Misunderstanding of Probability Diana Carrington PSY 210: Psychological Statistics Argosy University
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Misunderstanding of Probability Dr. Eugene Bendar, a forensic psychologist, has been contracted by a large city police department to prepare a report of racial profiling and crime. The department chief is interested in knowing what type of certain “groups” is more likely to commit criminal acts than other groups (Argosy University. (2011). Using race as a factor in conducting stops, searches or other investigative procedures is a definition of racial profiling used by former President George W. Bush (Bush, 2001, p. 521). Using race as a factor in determining criminal behavior makes a great assumption that criminal behavior is a result of one variable only. There are many variables that contribute to a tendency toward criminal behavior and involvement in crimes such as: parental illegal behavior and drug use creating a dysfunctional home life, living in a crime-filled environment, poor participation and attendance in school, and developmental problems (Sun, 2009).
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Page 2 An unawareness of the distinction between absolute frequency and relative frequency regarding criminal behavior, along with ignorance of the multiplication rule, can give misleading statistics (Argosy University, 2011). The number of items in a given category is the absolute frequency. The absolute frequency divided by the total number of items is the relative frequency (James & James, 1992, p. 173), Sun, (2009) gives an example of research showing that people with only high school education are more likely to commit crime than people with graduate degrees. Let’s assume that 90% are those with only high school education and 10% are those with graduate degrees. The 90% does not represent 90% of people with high school education will commit a crime; it is the relative frequency of the tendency in comparison. The absolute frequency is the number of offenders with the attribute out of the total population with the same attribute in the United States. That figure is approximately 5% below the total population.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness Page 3 The ignorance of the multiplication rule of probability for criminal behavior can create bias and racial profiling. In certain offender profiling, there are many variables that need to be taken into consideration such as gender, age, marital status and race (Sun, 2009). If you narrow your variables to only one, your chances of apprehending the perpetrator are narrowed as well.
Ethics and Diversity Awareness References Argosy University. (2011). Psychological Statistics. Retrieved on January 29, 2011 from http://www.myeclassonline.com. Bush, G. W. (2001). Memorandum for the Attorney General (Policy Brief). Retrieved from Racial Profiling, Statistical Discrimination, and the Effect of a Colorblind Policy on the Crime Rate website: http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/econ/dbjerk/JPET_reprint.pdf James, R. C., & James, G. (1992). Mathematics Dictionary (5th ed.). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=UyIfgBIwLMQC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=absolute+and+relative+frequency&source=bl&ots=VV3N5LQmwF&sig=20and%20relative%20frequency&f=false Sun, K. (2009, September 13). Racial profiling and a misunderstanding of probability. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-justice-and-responsibility-league/200909/racial-profiling-and-misunderstanding-probability
Foundations of Psychology Decision Making in Groups and Effective Communication Diana Carrington Argosy University Industrial/Organizational Psychology PSY 320 Dr. JoLene Klumpp April 17, 2011
In recent years, organizations are utilizing group decision making over individual because they believe that there are certain advantages of group over individual decision making. This may be true in certain situations, such as those major decisions that impact on the group members or work procedures rather than by an official far removed from the work atmosphere; however there are some negative consequences in group decision making as well (Riggio, 2008). This paper will discuss five factors that lead to ineffective decision making in groups: social loafing, free riding, the sucker effect, process loss, and groupthink. Effective communication is vital among employees and between employees and management. This paper will also discuss the best ways a manager can effectively communicate his expectations regarding group work to his employees.
Foundations of Psychology Decision Making in Groups Organizations are increasing their focus on work groups, implying that the presence of others may improve the individual’s performance; hence those working in groups should perform better than those working alone-this is the concept of social facilitation (Argosy University, 2011). Li, the CEO of Celia Jane, a medium-sized furniture design firm, believes that working in groups also aids creativity and productivity. In order to help improve the productivity of Celia Jane, Li will have to be aware of the negative consequences of working in groups. Five Factors That Lead to Ineffective Decision Making in Groups Social loafing: “The phenomena whereby individuals working in groups exert less effort than when working alone” (Riggio, 2008, p. 319). Free riding: “This occurs when an individual does not bear a proportional amount of work and yet shares the benefits of the group” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, p. 2).
Foundations of Psychology Page 2 The sucker effect: “The act of group members carrying a free rider or social loafer has been termed playing the sucker role. Avoiding playing the sucker role by reducing one’s individual effort has been termed the sucker effect” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, 0p. 6). Process loss: “The difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 5 of 7). Groupthink: “Group members are so concerned with not “rocking the boat” that they become reluctant to challenge the group’s decisions and often fail to consider outside information” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 6 of 7).
Foundations of Psychology Page 3 Bruce Tuckman’s Five-Stage Model of Group Development “Dr. Bruce Tuckman published four stages of his group development model in 1965; he added a fifth stage in the 1970’s” ("Bruce Tuckman’s model", p. 1). This model is an explanation how a group develops, and how workers’ behavior affects their performance (Argosy University, 2011). Forming-stage one: “High dependence on leader for guidance; individual roles and responsibilities are unclear.” Storming-stage two: “Decisions do not come easy within the group; cliques and factors form; possible power struggles; clarity of purpose increases but many uncertainties.” Norming-stage three: “Agreement and consensus is largely formed among the group; the group discusses and develops its processes and working style.” Performing-stage four: “The group is more strategically aware and knows why it is doing what it is doing; has a shared vision.” Adjourning-stage five: “This is the break-up of the group, when the task is completed successfully” (“Bruce Tuckman’s model,” p.2-4).
Foundations of Psychology Page 4 Since the Celia Jane employees have traditionally worked in groups of eight, they are comfortable with each other, work together to accomplish group goals and experience a cohesiveness. Groupthink would be a factor to be aware of because this happens more often in cohesive groups (Argosy University, 2011). Maximizing the Productivity of the Work Groups There are several ways to maximize productivity in groups: working in smaller groups as opposed to working in groups of eight has they have been doing at Celia Jane. People working in smaller groups can be more productive than those in larger groups, and there is a less chance of members blocking another member (production blocking) (Argosy University, 2011). Setting group goals that are specific and difficult with rewards for group success can improve group productivity. The group is cohesive, and is able to work together towards the group objective so this would be a good fit for the employees of Celia Jane (Argosy University, 2011).
Foundations of Psychology Page 5 Individuals and groups alike can always improve communication. Another suggestion would be trying out various communication structures to see which one is best for the employees (Argosy University, 2011). Effective Brainstorming Li believes that one great advantage of working in groups is brainstorming. It has been widely used in a variety of businesses, and it would seem that a group of people generating creative ideas with no criticism, no idea is too far out, and building on each other’s ideas would be the popular technique (Riggio, 2001). However, after forty years of research, it was determined that group dynamics are too powerful, and the creativity in the groups is often inhibited (Riggio, 2008). A new version that seems more effective is “electronic brainstorming” which uses computers to have members share ideas, this lessens the fear of others giving negative feedback, and of possible “free-riders” (Riggio, 2008).
Foundations of Psychology Page 6 Effective Communication Li can communicate his expectations regarding group work using a combination of methods. However, whichever method he uses, he must really believe what he is telling his employees, he must stand for something-his vision; next he must be able to convey his mission so that the employees with understand and respond with the same passion that he has (Cornell University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management [cornell.edu], clip ID 8268) . He would be using downward flow of communication as he expresses his expectations down to his employees through email, following up with face to-face and meetings. He must also be mindful of any barrier to the effective flow of communication such as filtering and exaggeration (Riggio, 2008).
Foundations of Psychology Page 7 Upward communication, the flow of messages from the employees to him is crucial as well. He must be able to provide a way that the employees can give feedback through employee suggestion boxes, employee surveys, subordinate appraisals of supervisory performance, and basically any management technique that provides for employees input will increase upward flow of communication (Riggio, 2008). Conclusion In conclusion, decision making in groups and effective communication is an important process in organizations today, which will always require the services of I/O psychologist to assist in improving the productivity of the organizations.
Foundations of Psychology References Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com Bruce Tuckman forming storming norming performing team development model. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm Cornell University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management . (Producer). Ed Mace shares thoughts on good leadership and importance of communication [DVD]. Available from http://eclips.cornell.edu/search?querytext=Communication&id=id&clipID=8268&tab=TabClipPage. Piezon, S. L., & Donaldson, R. L. (2005, winter). Online groups and social loafing: understanding student-group interaction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, VIII (IV). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter84/piezon84.htm Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Applied Psychology The Scientist-Practitioner Model Diana Carrington Argosy University Industrial/Organizational Psychology PSY 320 Dr. JoLene Klumpp March 09, 2011
The scientist-practitioner model for Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychologists has been advocated by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (SIOP), a division of the American Psychological Association (APA). The belief is that I/O psychologists should be trained in science and practice. This paper will address several issues of this model: the development, the usefulness, and whether it would be problematic if scientists and practitioners were distinct. It will address some of the problems of the scientist practitioner model, and how the model is demonstrated throughout history. Also, this paper will describe the value of I/O psychologists as it pertains to organizations and workers, along with two key ethical issues faced by I/O psychologists.
Applied Psychology The Scientist-Practitioner Model In the science and practice of industrial/organizational psychology the two objectives are: research to increase knowledge and understanding of human work behavior and using that knowledge to improve work behavior, work environment and the psychological conditions of the workers (Riggio, 2008, p. 4). The scientist-practitioner model as advocated by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), in the application of psychology to all types of organizations, promotes the integration of research, teaching and practice related to the purpose of the Society (American Psychological Association website, n.d., Chapter 14). Development of the Scientist-Practitioner Model The scientist-practitioner model originated in 1949 at the Boulder Conference as a model for graduate student training integrating science and practice; the student would learn about research and practice, then carry out that research and practice under faculty and professionals.
Applied Psychology Page 2 In Industrial and Organizational (I/O) psychology, the science-practice has been adopted more as a model for the field than a model for graduate training (Rupp & Beal, 2007). Case Study Jack is an organizational development executive at Techzone Communications, An international communications and technology company. He has completed his PhD in I/O psychology and has been working at Techzone for seven years. Although he did research during his PhD studies, he has not been involved in research since that time. Do you think Jack can be considered a scientist practitioner? Discuss why or why not. In order for Jack to be considered a scientist-practitioner, he must be actively engaged in research and practice. He is primarily a practitioner (Argosy University, 2011).
Applied Psychology Page 3 Usefulness of the Scientist-Practitioner Model in I/O Psychology I/O psychologists are both researchers and practitioners; through research they are able to increase their knowledge and keep current on the changing needs of organizations, while using that knowledge to meet the needs of their clients (Argosy University, 2011). Is a Model Problematic If Scientists and Practitioners are Distinct? There are many references made to the differences between research and practical application, and the difficulty of assimilating these diverse goals (Brooks, Grauer, Thornbury, & Highhouse, 2003, p. 17). “Modern-day trainees and practicing clinicians often express reservations about the scientist practitioner model. They cite a divide between research and practice: much research is seen as inapplicable to clinical practice (Shapiro, 2002, p. 232).
Applied Psychology Page 4 The Scientist-Practitioner Model throughout the History of I/O Psychology In pre-World War I, the American Psychological Association was founded in 1892. At that time psychologists focused on research and worked in universities-they were all trained as experimental psychologists. In 1901 Walter Dill Scott spoke on the psychological aspects of advertising-this was the first time that psychology was used in a business context. During World War I, industrial psychologists were asked to develop selection test to assign soldiers appropriate positions in the military. After the war, industrial psychologists started to work in government and private industries. In 1924, through a series of studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant, researchers discovered the increased productivity was caused by the employees’ desire to please the researchers rather than changes in the environment. This phenomenon was called the Hawthorn Effect and revealed the need for sympathy and understanding in the workplace, and the need to focus on increasing employee growth, development and satisfaction.
Applied Psychology Page 5 During World War II, industrial psychologists developed specialized tests for the military. It was important to provide an efficient workforce, so companies hired industrial psychologists to help reduce absenteeism, improve selection and training and measure attitudes. After World War II, large companies began to focus on organizational behavior and more universities began training I/O psychologists as the country was becoming more sensitized to the needs and interests of all workers including minority members (Argosy University, 2011) The Values of I/O Psychologists to Organizations I/O psychologists help to develop strategies to build better organizations. Through encouraging and incorporating diversity; advising on corporate structure; encouraging team building, and engaging in change management, the I/O psychologist can improve the performance and contribute to the success of an organization (Argosy University, 2011).
Applied Psychology Page 6 The Values of I/O Psychologists to Workers I/O psychologists focus on employees through testing development; selection and promotion, performance appraisals; employee satisfaction and improve employee attitude and motivation; and leadership development (SIOP). Key Ethical Issues Faced by I/O Psychologists There are several aspects of the APA ethics code that I/O psychologists should be concerned about: informed consent and privacy. They are easy to violate if one is not familiar with the code. Informed consent is often ignored by nonacademic I/O psychologists because they are unaware. They may unintentionally minimize the privacy issues raised by their work because they often work with tests and assessments that present little potential for harm (Knapp, 2003, p. 164-165).
Applied Psychology Page 7 Conclusion In conclusion, the scientist-practitioner model is an integration of science and practice, and through the years the model has allowed Industrial and Organizational psychologists, through research and practice, to improve the performance and efficiency of organizations, while also assisting employees with training, selection and promotion, and motivation. Due to the differences between research and practical application and the diverse goals of each, there have been problems in assimilation. However, the value of the I/O psychologist to organizations and workers will continue to grow as organizations continue to expand with new challenges to be met by the industrial and organizational psychologist.
Applied Psychology References You Can Help to Build Better Organizations by Becoming an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist [Brochure]. : Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. American Psychological Association website. (n.d.). http://www.apa.org/about/division/div14.aspx Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com Brooks, M. E., Grauer, E., Thornbury, E. E., & Highhouse, S. (2003). Value differences between scientists and practitioners: a survey of SIOP members. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (TIP), 40(4), 17-23. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/Apr03/pdf/404-017to023.pdf Knapp, D. J. (2003, April). The ethical practice of I-O psychologist. , 40(4), 164-165. Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/TIP/backissues/Apr03/pdf/404_164-165.pdf
Applied Psychology Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Rupp, D. E., & Beal, D. (). Checking in with the scientist-practitioner model: how are we doing?. , 45(4). Retrieved from http://www.siop.org/tip/July07/04rupp.aspx Shapiro, (2002,). Renewing the scientist-practitioner model. The Psychologist, May 2002,15(5), 232-234. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~psych/graduate/clinical/scientist-practitioner.pdf
Interpersonal Effectiveness Depression, Alcoholism and Substance AbuseDiana CarringtonArgosy UniversitySubstance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice SystemPSY 494Dr. Adria AdamsJune 24, 2011
Interpersonal Effectiveness Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Signs and Symptoms of Depression
Feelings of helplessness and hopeless-nothing gets better, nothing works
Appetite or weight changes- a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month
Is unable to control substance abuse ("Depression and substance abuse", n.d., p. 2)
Interpersonal Effectiveness Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse The Link between Drinking, Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Depression; What Causes the Link between Alcohol and Depression
Alcohol depresses the body systems and processes
Alcohol use leads to dehydration and prevents the body from receiving proper nutrients
Alcohol can cause you to do things you later regret, causing feelings of shame or guilt
Depression and anxiety can cause a person to drink more alcohol ("Drinking, Drugs and Depression", n.d., p. 1-2)
Links with brain function-some systems that produce low moods and reduced appetite in depression are also affected by alcohol
Psychosocial links-stressful life events can trigger both alcohol problems and depression
Genetic links-it’s possible to inherit an increased likelihood of both alcohol problems and depression (Mulholland, Misra, & Williams, 2010, p. 3)
Interpersonal Effectiveness Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Alcohol Depression-How to Brake the Circle
Vicious Circle-alcohol depression is a disease that feeds into itself. People who are depressed often drink to feel better, but the alcohol leads them to feel more depressed, which causes them to drink more ("Vicious Circle", n.d., p. 3)
Interpersonal Effectiveness Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Alcohol and Depression-The Bottle May be Increasing the Depression-Helpful Solutions
Depressive symptoms resulting from alcohol might indeed be quite difficult to curb; however, as with anything, the more one works at it, the better the chances of success
In addition to dual diagnosis treatment, drug-free methods positive thinking, diet, and proper exercise, causes
and effects can definitely be overcome (Aje, 2010, p. 3)
Interpersonal Effectiveness References Aje, F. (2010). Alcohol and depression: the bottle may be increasing the depression-helpful solutions. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.depression-helper.com/alcohol_article.htm Alcohol depression - how to brake the cycle-vicious circle. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.alcoholism-solutions.com/alcohol-depression.html Depression and substance abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.whydepression.info/overview/depression-and-substance-abuse Mulholland, C., Misra, A., & Williams, H. M. (2010). What causes links between alcohol and depression. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/depression/alcoholanddepression_000486.htm Smith, M., Saisan, J., & Segal, J. (2011). Understanding depression: signs, symptoms, causes and help. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http:..www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment.htm The link between drinking, alcoholism, drug abuse and depression. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://www.alcoholismtreatmentcalifornia.com/faq/does-drinking-cause-depression/
Reflections I am a returning student after a 35 year break. I am pleasantly surprised at my academic achievements, discipline to study and the ability to turn in assignments on time. It had been such a long time since I was in an academic environment, that I wasn’t really sure how I would fare. I have always been a person ready to accept a challenge and this was one of the biggest I have faced, it was also a heavy loose end hanging over my head. I always said that I would return to get my BA. I didn’t know it would take 35 years to accomplish it. I have discovered that I am an accomplished writer and that I have excellent writing skills, sometimes I am my worst critic and don’t have the confidence that my professors see in me. I was terrified that I would not be able to keep up since I was 64, and probably the oldest if not one of the oldest students in the class. Much to my surprise, I am a good student with excellent writing skills, and a strong ability to comprehend the material, discipline to turn in my assignments on time, and maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.87.
My Future in Learning I am a life long learner. Starting in grammar school at age 6, and today at age 64, I will receive my BA in Psychology, October, 2011. Learning is not restricted to the academic arena. You have to have to wisdom to learn from anyone and realize that it adds to the richness of our lives.
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