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Argosy University ePorfolio

Argosy University ePorfolio

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  • 1. 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Diana Carrington
    BA Psychology, 2011
  • 2. Personal Statement
    When I'm 64
    Well, I think it was around 1964 that the Beatles’ released their
    song “When I’m 64.” That seems like a century away. I was
    junior in high school, hoping that I would not have to continue an
    additional four more years of girls’ schools if my family decided to
    send me back east to a girl’s college. I only had one year left to
    convince them that I would be better off going to the San Francisco Community
    College (coincidentally, a large group of my friends were going to attend “City
    College.” I did it! I would be attending “City College” with my friends.
    It’s a good thing that I’m a quick learner, and more importantly, I learn from my
    mistakes. Too much freedom, protesting, no uniforms, going to school with
    guys, this was all too much stimulation for my senses, and my focus was gone.
    My grades were less than stellar, so was my emotional state. I knew that was
    not my authentic self, I knew I had (still do have it) drive, stamina, determination
    and a never give up spirit.
  • 3. Personal Statement
    Page 2
    When I make a determination to do something, it’s as good as done! I felt sorry
    for myself for about 2 weeks. I decided to go back to “City College” taking
    classes in the day and night. I received my Associates degree and was on my
    way to making my high school goal and become a teacher. I spent one year at
    a State College, when opportunity knocked. There is nothing I love better than
    to challenge myself to learn skills and accomplish a new feat! Yes, I accept all
    challenges (within reason of course). I had been offered a position as a
    resident and office manager of 105 unit senior citizen and disabled citizen
    apartment complex. I told myself that I would always go back to school, so I
    kept that under wraps for a long time. Meanwhile, I not only turned over a huge
    profit by keeping a fully occupied complex, the residents, were like the
    grandparents I never had. It was a win-win situation. I learned so many skills
    regarding accounting, learning government forms and processing of subsidized
    housing, how to deal with vendors, setting up filing and office management
  • 4. Personal Statement
    Page 3
    The one thing I didn’t count on was the sadness as the residents started to
    pass on. I felt as if my work was done there, as another opportunity arrived. I
    was offered a temp position at Charles Schwab Brokerage in 1978 when the
    company was just getting off its feet. I didn’t know anything about stocks,
    bonds and never heard of option trading. Starting in customer service in the
    lobby, I learned quickly when the bell rang at 6:30 a. m. there was
    pandemonium on the trading floor and in the lobby with the customers. I had
    become a favorite with the customers and received many compliments about
    my efficiency in handling the new accounts, so I was promoted to Supervisor of
    New Accounts. I passed the exam and received my broker’s license just in time
    to start a new position as liaison between the headquarter office and the branch
    managers in the field. I loved the fast pace of the brokerage industry, so it
    wasn’t long before I accepted a position at Montgomery Securities, the largest
    institutional trading firm outside of New York, which soon became Banc of
    America Securities.
  • 5. Personal Statement
    Page 4
    This was totally different from personal account trading. The trading floor was
    just like in the movie “Wall Street.” There were 300 people on the floor, four
    letter words were common, and you really had to have a thick skin. Once
    again, I had taken on a challenge, mastered it, and really having a ball.
    Then, Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, an autoimmune disease of the liver hits me
    hard. I had to go on permanent disability. When I left the trading floor on
    Friday, July 24, 1992, I would never return there or any other place to work
    outside of the home. I moved to Sacramento in 1999 to have a liver transplant,
    and had a successful surgery in 2002, and I am in the best of health. There is
    something about having a life and death situation that really helps you to put
    things in perspective and to prioritize. The entire process took 2 years prior and
    2 years afterwards to get back on track, and figure out what to do with myself
    now that my broker’s license had expired and what was I to do?
  • 6. Personal Statement
    Page 5
    Two long time goals that had been on the back burner: return to college and
    start my own greeting card business. I started my company CarringtonCards
    and I will be graduating October, 2011 with my BA in Psychology with a 3.86
    GPA, at age 64!
    I am in a unique situation right now. I have gained a wealth of knowledge in the
    field of psychology and I have my established greeting card company. I have
    decided to create a line of psychological healing and encouragement cards.
    We ALL need healing and encouragement. Those that are struggling with
    mental and emotional illness, battling addiction, have lost hope and found
    despair, are the ones in particular that I want to reach with my healing and
    encouragement cards.
  • 7. Table of Contents
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Research Skills
    Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Foundations of Psychology
    Applied Psychology
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • 8. Critical Thinking
    False Memory
    Diana Carrington
    Argosy University
    Cognitive Psychology
    PSY 363
    Dr. Diane Sorrentino
    August 08, 2011
  • 9. Critical Thinking
    False Memory
    False memory is a situation in which people either remember events that never
    happened, or remembered them differently from the way they actually
    happened (Roediger III & McDermott, 1995). In the same (Roediger III et al,
    1995) study, the subjects are presented a list of words, all of which are
    associates of a target word; e. g., bed, pillow, tired, wake…, and the special
    target word is sleep. At the end of the word presentation, the subjects are
    asked to report which words they had seen. The subjects will report confidently
    recall “sleep: even though it was not presented. A special distractor is a word
    that is associated with the words on the list but is not actually presented on the
    list. In my CogLab experiment, it was predicted that the special distractor would
    be recalled often, even though it was not shown on the list; “this experiment
    demonstrates one methodology that biases people to recall things that did not
    occur” (Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab, p. 1 2011). My percentage
    of recall of the special distractor was 100%.
  • 10. Critical Thinking
    Page 2
    If I had remembered seeing my doctor wearing a stethoscope, but later found
    out that, because of a hearing impairment, the doctor does not use a
    stethoscope, I would have been mistaken because of the bias of recalling a
    doctor’s medical accoutrement includes a stethoscope, and once again, false
    memory has caused me to include a stethoscope because of the instruments
    associated with doctors. In a presentation between a professor of psychology
    and a professor of law, at Stanford Law School, the topic was: The Problem
    with Eyewitness Testimony (Tversky & Fisher, 1999). “George Fisher,
    Professor of Law, placed Barbara Tversky’s, Professor of Psychology, research
    on memory fallibility into the context of police investigations and jury verdicts,
    discussing the relevance of such research to our system of justice”(Tversky &
    Fisher, 1999, p. 1). An example, a witness to a crime sees a female perpetrator
    in clear daylight, gives a description to the police, who pick up a woman fitting
    the description from the witness, and put her in a line-up with other people
    fitting the same general description (e.g. 5 foot white female, red hair).
  • 11. Critical Thinking
    Page 3
    The witness picks out the suspect out of the line-up, and she is later convicted
    of the crime. However, several years later, after being apprehended in an
    unrelated incident, another female who looks like the convicted female
    confesses to the original crime with information that only the perpetrator could
    possess. The original female convicted of the crime was falsely recognized
    because of visual similarity to the actual criminal (Tversky & Fisher, 1999).
    “DNA has exonerated more than 230 men in mostly sex crimes and murder
    cases, criminologists have been able to go back and study what went wrong in
    those investigations. What they’ve honed in on is faulty eyewitness testimony:
    over 75 percent of these innocent men convicted in part because an eyewitness
    fingered the wrong person. Investigators have discovered that in all the cases
    where eyewitnesses were wrong, the real perpetrator was not in the initial
    lineup” (Finkelstein, 2009, p. 5).
  • 12. Critical Thinking
    Page 4
    There have been studies that have shown that eyewitness identification is
    highly fallible:
    • In cases where DNA has exonerated wrongfully convicted people, 90% of the cases were mistaken identity (Wells, Small, Penrod, Malpass, Fulero, Brimacombe, 1998).
    • 13. (Huff, 1987) concluded that after 500 wrongful convictions, mistaken eyewitness identification occurred in 60%.
    I do not think that eyewitness testimony should carry as much weight as it does
    now, because of its high fallibility. I believe that the more scientific testing is
    involved, the more accuracy will be provided in apprehending the correct
  • 14. Critical Thinking
    Cognitive Psychology Wadsworth CogLab. (2011). CogLab: False Memory. Retrieved from CogLab 2.0 Online Laboratory:
    Finkelstein, S. (Producer). (2009). 60 Minutes [Television series]. New York, NY: Columbia Broadcasting System.
    Huff, C. (1987). Societal tolerance of injustice. Research in Societal Problems and Public Policy, 4, 99-115.
    Roediger III, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.
    Tversky, B., & Fisher, G. (1999, April 5). The problem with eyewitness testimony. Stanford Journal of Legal Studies, 1(1), 1-5. Retrieved from
    Wells, G., Small, M., Penrod, S., Malpass, R., Fulero, S., & Brimacombe, C. (1998). Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads. , 22, 603-647. Retrieved from
  • 15. Research Skills
    The Power of Persuasion and the PSA
    Diana Carrington
    Argosy University
    Social Psychology
    PSY 310
    Lisa Linkin
    May 29, 2011
  • 16. Research Skills
    The Power of Persuasion and the PSA
    In order to recruit participants from the public to test the persuasive powers of a
    public service announcement film about pro-recycling, first I would define these
    individuals who are going to be a subset of the population who will be doing the
    testing-this is called a sample-the process of selecting is called a sampling
    (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Basically, I am looking
    for individuals who will fit certain characteristics pertinent to this study by:
    “listing those basic characteristics such as age, gender, income, marital status;
    identify a location where I can select the sample (it may be a virtual location;
    ask participants to suggest other participants who qualify-ask participants in an
    online survey to forward a link to friends; finally refining the list by elimination”
    (Koenig, n.d., p. 1). Through random sampling each individual has an equal
    chance of being selected (Shaughnessy et al., 2009).
  • 17. Research Skills
    Page 2
    Random assignment (placement by chance) determines “those who receive the
    persuasive message (in the experimental group) or those who do not receive it
    (in the control group)” (Kendrick, Neuberg, & Cialdini, 2007, p. 153). The
    independent variable is “the factor (s) that the researcher controls or
    manipulates to determine their effect on behavior (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p.
    33); in this research it is the public service film about pro-recycling. The
    dependent variables are the “measures of behavior that used to assess the
    effect (if any) of the independent variables” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 34).
    In this experiment the power of persuasiveness of the public service
    announcement film is the dependent variable. “The After Only Design, in which
    the experimental group watches the message and their attitudes are measured;
    then the control group does not watch the message and their attitude is
    measured; then if the attitudes on the after-measure alone are significantly
    more favorable to the message in the experimental group than in the control
    group, the message was probably effective” –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153).
  • 18. Research Skills
    Page 3
    –“the after-only design allows you to draw conclusions about attitude change
    even though no actual change is measured” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 153).
    Using an unobtrusive behavioral measure in this research is more appropriate
    because some individuals may want to appear to be more “green oriented” than
    they really are (Kendrick et al., 2007); and researchers can observe their
    “attitude relevant” behavior (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 151). Sometimes, the
    direct way is the best way and that is to ask people to report what they are
    feeling; the flip side of that is that they not want to reveal their feelings if it might
    be socially in appropriate such as not seeing the value of recycling (Kendrick et
    al., 2007).
    “Non reactive measurement is measurement that does not change a subject’s
    responses while recording them” (Kendrick et al., 2007, p. 152). Convert
    techniques or unobtrusive behavioral measures are less likely to distort the
    response; while self reporting is preferred because the attitude is inquired more
    directly (Kendrick et al., 2007).
  • 19. Research Skills
    Page 4
    When the researcher does not trust the random assignment, the pretest is used
    to match groups (Shaughnessy et al., 2009). “The challenge is to select a
    pretest that equates the groups on a dimension that is relevant to the outcome
    of the experiment-the matched groups design is useful only when a good
    matching task is available” (Shaughnessy et al., 2009, p. 236).
    “The larger the sample size, the more sure you can be that the answers truly
    reflect the population; the confidence level is expressed as a percentage and
    represents hw often the true percentage of the population who would pick an
    answer lies within the confidence level”(Creative Research Systems, 2007
    2010, p. 1).
  • 20. Research Skills
    Creative Research Systems. (2007-2010). Sample size calculator terms: Confidence interval & confidence level. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from
    Kendrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Social psychology: Goals in interaction. Boston, MA: Pearson.
    Koenig, D. (n.d.). How to select research participants for qualitative research. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from
    Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2009). Research methods in psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • 21. Communication Skills - Written
    Has Method Acting Gone Too Far?
    Diana Carrington
    PSY 405: Interviewing Techniques
    Argosy University
  • 22. Communication Skills - Written
    Has Method Acting Gone Too Far?
    The competition in Hollywood is fierce. All actors want to effectively portray their
    characters. Sometimes, this means altering your physical appearance such as
    Christian Bale in his Oscar wining performance in The Fighter. He lost forty
    pounds for the role (National Post Staff, 2010, p. 2). Sometimes actors take
    method acting too far and get psychologically connected to your character such
    as the late Heath Ledger in his portrayal as The Joker in The Dark Knight. The
    late Australian actor was told to seek professional for his personal problems
    while filming ‘The Dark Knight’, and was warned that he had become too
    obsessed with his portrayal of iconic Batman villain ‘The Joker’ "Heath Ledger’s
    method acting", 2008, p. 2-3). Chris Knight, chief film critic, National Post
    comments in (National Post Staff, 2010, p.2) “When I spoke to Sam
    Rockwell at TIFF about his role in Conviction, he told me he had been in
    therapy as an aid to his work: ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to
    examine your own human behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect
    other people’s human behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able to play yourself like an instrument.’”
  • 23. Communication Skills - Written
    Page 2
    ‘I recommend therapy to all actors. You need to examine your own human
    behavior before you’re able to imitate and reflect other people’s human
    behavior up on the screen. It’s helpful to know yourself well enough to be able
    to play yourself like an instrument.’” In order to ensure and maintain the mental
    stability of their actors, (and prevent any law suits), Carrington Studios in
    Hollywood has taken ground breaking action and has hired a professional
    counselor to perform intake and clinical interviews for actors portraying intense,
    psychological characters in their movies. A professional is required because to
    undertake these types of interviews without professional clinical training in
    psychology…will result in erred information and /or unusable information
    (Argosy University, 2011). This action by the studio is to take preliminary
    of any possible pre-existing problems that could be triggered and surface during
    the production.
  • 24. Communication Skills - Written
    Page 3
    Some of the questions applicable to intake counseling interviews will provide
    insight into the actor’s background, that possibly would not have been revealed
    except through these probing questions such as: if there is a history of mental
    illness in the family; is there current use of alcohol or non prescription drugs
    and if so, what is the frequency; has there been previous counseling; if there
    have been any thoughts of suicide, and there are also questions about feelings,
    behaviors and symptoms (Argosy University, 2011). If the counselor is able to
    establish a good rapport, it is possible to discover the expectations and
    apprehensions about the interview and attitudes about the counselor, calm any
    fears or reservations the actor may have. (Steward & Cash, 2008, p. 359).
    The test in recognizing a successful counseling intake interview is whether or
    not the counseling interviewer has established a trusting and working
    relationship with the client (Argosy University, 2011).
  • 25. Communication Skills - Written
    Page 4
    Under these circumstances, an additional guide for a successful counseling
    interview is the relaxed and comfortable dialogue that the actor can have with
    the counselor, allowing full honesty. This will ensure that the actor’s mental
    capacity is strong enough for an intense psychological portrayal, and that
    hopefully a mentally strong actor will be able to put more effort and emphasis in
    their role-to provide a win-win situation.
  • 26. Communication Skills - Written
    Argosy University. (2011). Interviewing Techniques. Retrieved on February 27, 2011 from
    Heath Ledger’s method acting. (2008, April 15, 2008). Monsters and Critics, 2-3. Retrieved from
    National Post Staff. (2010, December 15, 2010). Culture Club: Body image, method acting and the case of Christian Bale. National Post, 1-3. Retrieved from
    Steward, C. J., & Cash, W. B. (2008). Interviewing: Principles and practices (12th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  • 27. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Misunderstanding of Probability
    Diana Carrington
    PSY 210: Psychological Statistics
    Argosy University
  • 28. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Misunderstanding of Probability
    Dr. Eugene Bendar, a forensic psychologist, has been contracted by a large city
    police department to prepare a report of racial profiling and crime. The
    department chief is interested in knowing what type of certain “groups” is more
    likely to commit criminal acts than other groups (Argosy University. (2011).
    Using race as a factor in conducting stops, searches or other investigative
    procedures is a definition of racial profiling used by former President George W.
    Bush (Bush, 2001, p. 521). Using race as a factor in determining criminal
    behavior makes a great assumption that criminal behavior is a result of one
    variable only. There are many variables that contribute to a tendency toward
    criminal behavior and involvement in crimes such as: parental illegal behavior
    and drug use creating a dysfunctional home life, living in a crime-filled
    environment, poor participation and attendance in school, and developmental
    problems (Sun, 2009).
  • 29. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Page 2
    An unawareness of the distinction between absolute frequency and relative
    frequency regarding criminal behavior, along with ignorance of the
    multiplication rule, can give misleading statistics (Argosy University, 2011). The
    number of items in a given category is the absolute frequency. The absolute
    frequency divided by the total number of items is the relative frequency
    (James & James, 1992, p. 173), Sun, (2009) gives an example of research
    showing that people with only high school education are more likely to commit
    crime than people with graduate degrees. Let’s assume that 90% are those with
    only high school education and 10% are those with graduate degrees. The 90%
    does not represent 90% of people with high school education will commit a
    crime; it is the relative frequency of the tendency in comparison. The absolute
    frequency is the number of offenders with the attribute out of the total
    population with the same attribute in the United States. That figure is
    approximately 5% below the total population.
  • 30. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Page 3
    The ignorance of the multiplication rule of probability for criminal behavior can
    create bias and racial profiling. In certain offender profiling, there are many
    variables that need to be taken into consideration such as gender, age, marital
    status and race (Sun, 2009). If you narrow your variables to only one, your
    chances of apprehending the perpetrator are narrowed as well.
  • 31. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Argosy University. (2011). Psychological Statistics. Retrieved on January 29, 2011 from
    Bush, G. W. (2001). Memorandum for the Attorney General (Policy Brief). Retrieved from Racial Profiling, Statistical Discrimination, and the Effect of a Colorblind Policy on the Crime Rate website:
    James, R. C., & James, G. (1992). Mathematics Dictionary (5th ed.). Retrieved from
    Sun, K. (2009, September 13). Racial profiling and a misunderstanding of probability. Psychology Today. Retrieved from
  • 32. Foundations of Psychology
    Decision Making in Groups and Effective Communication
    Diana Carrington
    Argosy University
    Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    PSY 320
    Dr. JoLene Klumpp
    April 17, 2011
  • 33. Foundations in Psychology
    In recent years, organizations are utilizing group decision making over
    individual because they believe that there are certain advantages of group over
    individual decision making. This may be true in certain situations, such as
    those major decisions that impact on the group members or work procedures
    rather than by an official far removed from the work atmosphere; however there
    are some negative consequences in group decision making as well (Riggio,
    2008). This paper will discuss five factors that lead to ineffective decision
    making in groups: social loafing, free riding, the sucker effect, process loss, and
    groupthink. Effective communication is vital among employees and between
    employees and management. This paper will also discuss the best ways a
    manager can effectively communicate his expectations regarding group work to
    his employees.
  • 34. Foundations of Psychology
    Decision Making in Groups
    Organizations are increasing their focus on work groups, implying that the
    presence of others may improve the individual’s performance; hence those
    working in groups should perform better than those working alone-this is the
    concept of social facilitation (Argosy University, 2011). Li, the CEO of Celia
    Jane, a medium-sized furniture design firm, believes that working in groups also
    aids creativity and productivity. In order to help improve the productivity of
    Celia Jane, Li will have to be aware of the negative consequences of working in
    Five Factors That Lead to Ineffective Decision Making in Groups
    Social loafing: “The phenomena whereby individuals working in groups exert less effort than when working alone” (Riggio, 2008, p. 319).
    Free riding: “This occurs when an individual does not bear a proportional amount of work and yet shares the benefits of the group” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, p. 2).
  • 35. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 2
    The sucker effect: “The act of group members carrying a free rider or social loafer has been termed playing the sucker role. Avoiding playing the sucker role by reducing one’s individual effort has been termed the sucker effect” (Piezon & Donaldson, 2005, 0p. 6).
    Process loss: “The difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 5 of 7).
    Groupthink: “Group members are so concerned with not “rocking the boat” that they become reluctant to challenge the group’s decisions and often fail to consider outside information” (Argosy University, 2011, Social Influence in Groups 6 of 7).
  • 36. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 3
    Bruce Tuckman’s Five-Stage Model of Group Development
    “Dr. Bruce Tuckman published four stages of his group development model in 1965; he added a fifth stage in the 1970’s” ("Bruce Tuckman’s model", p. 1). This model is an explanation how a group develops, and how workers’ behavior affects their performance (Argosy University, 2011).
    Forming-stage one: “High dependence on leader for guidance; individual roles and responsibilities are unclear.”
    Storming-stage two: “Decisions do not come easy within the group; cliques and factors form; possible power struggles; clarity of purpose increases but many uncertainties.”
    Norming-stage three: “Agreement and consensus is largely formed among the group; the group discusses and develops its processes and working style.”
    Performing-stage four: “The group is more strategically aware and knows why it is doing what it is doing; has a shared vision.”
    Adjourning-stage five: “This is the break-up of the group, when the task is completed successfully” (“Bruce Tuckman’s model,” p.2-4).
  • 37. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 4
    Since the Celia Jane employees have traditionally worked in groups of eight,
    they are comfortable with each other, work together to accomplish group goals
    and experience a cohesiveness. Groupthink would be a factor to be aware of
    because this happens more often in cohesive groups (Argosy University, 2011).
    Maximizing the Productivity of the Work Groups
    There are several ways to maximize productivity in groups: working in
    smaller groups as opposed to working in groups of eight has they have been
    doing at Celia Jane. People working in smaller groups can be more productive
    than those in larger groups, and there is a less chance of members blocking
    another member (production blocking) (Argosy University, 2011). Setting group
    goals that are specific and difficult with rewards for group success can improve
    group productivity. The group is cohesive, and is able to work together towards
    the group objective so this would be a good fit for the employees of Celia Jane
    (Argosy University, 2011).
  • 38. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 5
    Individuals and groups alike can always improve communication. Another
    suggestion would be trying out various communication structures to see which
    one is best for the employees (Argosy University, 2011).
    Effective Brainstorming
    Li believes that one great advantage of working in groups is brainstorming. It
    has been widely used in a variety of businesses, and it would seem that a
    group of people generating creative ideas with no criticism, no idea is too far
    out, and building on each other’s ideas would be the popular technique (Riggio,
    2001). However, after forty years of research, it was determined that group
    dynamics are too powerful, and the creativity in the groups is often inhibited
    (Riggio, 2008). A new version that seems more effective is “electronic
    brainstorming” which uses computers to have members share ideas, this
    lessens the fear of others giving negative feedback, and of possible “free-riders”
    (Riggio, 2008).
  • 39. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 6
    Effective Communication
    Li can communicate his expectations regarding group work using a combination
    of methods. However, whichever method he uses, he must really believe what
    he is telling his employees, he must stand for something-his vision; next he
    must be able to convey his mission so that the employees with understand and
    respond with the same passion that he has (Cornell University Charles H.
    Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management [], clip ID
    8268) . He would be using downward flow of communication as he expresses
    his expectations down to his employees through email, following up with face
    to-face and meetings. He must also be mindful of any barrier to the effective
    flow of communication such as filtering and exaggeration (Riggio, 2008).
  • 40. Foundations of Psychology
    Page 7
    Upward communication, the flow of messages from the employees to him is
    crucial as well. He must be able to provide a way that the employees can give
    feedback through employee suggestion boxes, employee surveys, subordinate
    appraisals of supervisory performance, and basically any management
    technique that provides for employees input will increase upward flow of
    communication (Riggio, 2008).
    In conclusion, decision making in groups and effective communication is an
    important process in organizations today, which will always require the services
    of I/O psychologist to assist in improving the productivity of the organizations.
  • 41. Foundations of Psychology
    Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from
    Bruce Tuckman forming storming norming performing team development model. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from
    Cornell University Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management . (Producer). Ed Mace shares thoughts on good leadership and importance of communication [DVD]. Available from
    Piezon, S. L., & Donaldson, R. L. (2005, winter). Online groups and social loafing: understanding student-group interaction. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, VIII (IV). Retrieved from
    Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  • 42. Applied Psychology
    The Scientist-Practitioner Model
    Diana Carrington
    Argosy University
    Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    PSY 320
    Dr. JoLene Klumpp
    March 09, 2011
  • 43. Applied Psychology
    The scientist-practitioner model for Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychologists
    has been advocated by the Society for Industrial and Organizational
    Psychology, (SIOP), a division of the American Psychological Association
    (APA). The belief is that I/O psychologists should be trained in science and
    practice. This paper will address several issues of this model: the development,
    the usefulness, and whether it would be problematic if scientists and
    practitioners were distinct. It will address some of the problems of the scientist
    practitioner model, and how the model is demonstrated throughout history.
    Also, this paper will describe the value of I/O psychologists as it pertains to
    organizations and workers, along with two key ethical issues faced by I/O
  • 44. Applied Psychology
    The Scientist-Practitioner Model
    In the science and practice of industrial/organizational psychology the two
    objectives are: research to increase knowledge and understanding of human
    work behavior and using that knowledge to improve work behavior, work
    environment and the psychological conditions of the workers (Riggio, 2008, p.
    4). The scientist-practitioner model as advocated by the Society for Industrial
    and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), in the application of psychology to all
    types of organizations, promotes the integration of research, teaching and
    practice related to the purpose of the Society (American Psychological
    Association website, n.d., Chapter 14).
    Development of the Scientist-Practitioner Model
    The scientist-practitioner model originated in 1949 at the Boulder Conference
    as a model for graduate student training integrating science and practice; the
    student would learn about research and practice, then carry out that research
    and practice under faculty and professionals.
  • 45. Applied Psychology
    Page 2
    In Industrial and Organizational (I/O) psychology, the science-practice has been
    adopted more as a model for the field than a model for graduate training (Rupp
    & Beal, 2007).
    Case Study
    Jack is an organizational development executive at Techzone Communications,
    An international communications and technology company. He has completed
    his PhD in I/O psychology and has been working at Techzone for seven years.
    Although he did research during his PhD studies, he has not been involved in
    research since that time. Do you think Jack can be considered a scientist
    practitioner? Discuss why or why not. In order for Jack to be considered a
    scientist-practitioner, he must be actively engaged in research and practice. He
    is primarily a practitioner (Argosy University, 2011).
  • 46. Applied Psychology
    Page 3
    Usefulness of the Scientist-Practitioner Model in I/O Psychology
    I/O psychologists are both researchers and practitioners; through research they
    are able to increase their knowledge and keep current on the changing needs
    of organizations, while using that knowledge to meet the needs of their clients
    (Argosy University, 2011).
    Is a Model Problematic If Scientists and Practitioners are Distinct?
    There are many references made to the differences between research and
    practical application, and the difficulty of assimilating these diverse goals
    (Brooks, Grauer, Thornbury, & Highhouse, 2003, p. 17). “Modern-day trainees
    and practicing clinicians often express reservations about the scientist
    practitioner model. They cite a divide between research and practice: much
    research is seen as inapplicable to clinical practice (Shapiro, 2002, p. 232).
  • 47. Applied Psychology
    Page 4
    The Scientist-Practitioner Model throughout the History of I/O Psychology
    In pre-World War I, the American Psychological Association was founded in
    1892. At that time psychologists focused on research and worked in
    universities-they were all trained as experimental psychologists. In 1901 Walter
    Dill Scott spoke on the psychological aspects of advertising-this was the first
    time that psychology was used in a business context. During World War I,
    industrial psychologists were asked to develop selection test to assign soldiers
    appropriate positions in the military. After the war, industrial psychologists
    started to work in government and private industries. In 1924, through a series
    of studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant, researchers discovered the
    increased productivity was caused by the employees’ desire to please the
    researchers rather than changes in the environment. This phenomenon was
    called the Hawthorn Effect and revealed the need for sympathy and
    understanding in the workplace, and the need to focus on increasing employee
    growth, development and satisfaction.
  • 48. Applied Psychology
    Page 5
    During World War II, industrial psychologists developed specialized tests for the
    military. It was important to provide an efficient workforce, so companies hired
    industrial psychologists to help reduce absenteeism, improve selection and
    training and measure attitudes. After World War II, large companies began to
    focus on organizational behavior and more universities began training I/O
    psychologists as the country was becoming more sensitized to the needs and
    interests of all workers including minority members (Argosy University, 2011)
    The Values of I/O Psychologists to Organizations
    I/O psychologists help to develop strategies to build better organizations.
    Through encouraging and incorporating diversity; advising on corporate
    structure; encouraging team building, and engaging in change management,
    the I/O psychologist can improve the performance and contribute to the
    success of an organization (Argosy University, 2011).
  • 49. Applied Psychology
    Page 6
    The Values of I/O Psychologists to Workers
    I/O psychologists focus on employees through testing development; selection
    and promotion, performance appraisals; employee satisfaction and improve
    employee attitude and motivation; and leadership development (SIOP).
    Key Ethical Issues Faced by I/O Psychologists
    There are several aspects of the APA ethics code that I/O psychologists should
    be concerned about: informed consent and privacy. They are easy to violate if
    one is not familiar with the code. Informed consent is often ignored by
    nonacademic I/O psychologists because they are unaware. They may
    unintentionally minimize the privacy issues raised by their work because they
    often work with tests and assessments that present little potential for harm
    (Knapp, 2003, p. 164-165).
  • 50. Applied Psychology
    Page 7
    In conclusion, the scientist-practitioner model is an integration of science and
    practice, and through the years the model has allowed Industrial and
    Organizational psychologists, through research and practice, to improve the
    performance and efficiency of organizations, while also assisting employees
    with training, selection and promotion, and motivation. Due to the differences
    between research and practical application and the diverse goals of each, there
    have been problems in assimilation. However, the value of the I/O psychologist
    to organizations and workers will continue to grow as organizations continue to
    expand with new challenges to be met by the industrial and organizational
  • 51. Applied Psychology
    You Can Help to Build Better Organizations by Becoming an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist [Brochure]. : Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
    American Psychological Association website. (n.d.).
    Argosy University. (2011). Industrial/organizational psychology lecture notes. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from
    Brooks, M. E., Grauer, E., Thornbury, E. E., & Highhouse, S. (2003). Value differences between scientists and practitioners: a survey of SIOP members. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist (TIP), 40(4), 17-23. Retrieved from
    Knapp, D. J. (2003, April). The ethical practice of I-O psychologist. , 40(4), 164-165. Retrieved from
  • 52. Applied Psychology
    Riggio, R. E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Rupp, D. E., & Beal, D. (). Checking in with the scientist-practitioner model: how are we doing?. , 45(4). Retrieved from
    Shapiro, (2002,). Renewing the scientist-practitioner model. The Psychologist, May 2002,15(5), 232-234. Retrieved from
  • 53. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance AbuseDiana CarringtonArgosy UniversitySubstance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice SystemPSY 494Dr. Adria AdamsJune 24, 2011
  • 54. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
    Signs and Symptoms of Depression
    • Feelings of helplessness and hopeless-nothing gets better, nothing works
    • 55. Appetite or weight changes- a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month
    • 56. Sleep changes-either insomnia or oversleeping
    • 57. Loss of energy-feeling fatigued, physically drained
    • 58. Self-loathing- strong feelings of worthlessness or guilt (Smith, Saisan, & Segal, 2011, p. 2)
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
    Signs of Substance Abuse
    • Craves alcohol/drugs
    • 59. Develops increased tolerance of the drug’s effects
    • 60. Develops physical dependence on the drug
    • 61. Engages in risky behavior, such as needle sharing or driving drunk
    • 62. Feels guilty about substance abuse
    • 63. Hides substance abuse from others
    • 64. Is unable to control substance abuse ("Depression and substance abuse", n.d., p. 2)
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
    The Link between Drinking, Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Depression; What Causes the Link between Alcohol and Depression
    • Alcohol depresses the body systems and processes
    • 65. Alcohol use leads to dehydration and prevents the body from receiving proper nutrients
    • 66. Alcohol can cause you to do things you later regret, causing feelings of shame or guilt
    • 67. Depression and anxiety can cause a person to drink more alcohol ("Drinking, Drugs and Depression", n.d., p. 1-2)
    • 68. Links with brain function-some systems that produce low moods and reduced appetite in depression are also affected by alcohol
    • 69. Psychosocial links-stressful life events can trigger both alcohol problems and depression
    • 70. Genetic links-it’s possible to inherit an increased likelihood of both alcohol problems and depression (Mulholland, Misra, & Williams, 2010, p. 3)
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
    Alcohol Depression-How to Brake the Circle
    • Vicious Circle-alcohol depression is a disease that feeds into itself. People who are depressed often drink to feel better, but the alcohol leads them to feel more depressed, which causes them to drink more ("Vicious Circle", n.d., p. 3)
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Depression, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse
    Alcohol and Depression-The Bottle May be Increasing the Depression-Helpful Solutions
    • Depressive symptoms resulting from alcohol might indeed be quite difficult to curb; however, as with anything, the more one works at it, the better the chances of success
    • 71. In addition to dual diagnosis treatment, drug-free methods positive thinking, diet, and proper exercise, causes
    and effects can definitely be overcome (Aje, 2010, p. 3)
  • 72. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Aje, F. (2010). Alcohol and depression: the bottle may be increasing the depression-helpful solutions. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from
    Alcohol depression - how to brake the cycle-vicious circle. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from
    Depression and substance abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from
    Mulholland, C., Misra, A., & Williams, H. M. (2010). What causes links between alcohol and depression. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from
    Smith, M., Saisan, J., & Segal, J. (2011). Understanding depression: signs, symptoms, causes and help. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from
    The link between drinking, alcoholism, drug abuse and depression. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from
  • 73. Reflections
    I am a returning student after a 35 year break. I am pleasantly surprised at my
    academic achievements, discipline to study and the ability to turn in
    assignments on time. It had been such a long time since I was in an academic
    environment, that I wasn’t really sure how I would fare.
    I have always been a person ready to accept a challenge and this was one of
    the biggest I have faced, it was also a heavy loose end hanging over my head. I
    always said that I would return to get my BA. I didn’t know it would take 35
    years to accomplish it. I have discovered that I am an accomplished writer and
    that I have excellent writing skills, sometimes I am my worst critic and don’t
    have the confidence that my professors see in me. I was terrified that I would
    not be able to keep up since I was 64, and probably the oldest if not one of the
    oldest students in the class. Much to my surprise, I am a good student with
    excellent writing skills, and a strong ability to comprehend the material,
    discipline to turn in my assignments on time, and maintain a cumulative GPA of
  • 74. My Future in Learning
    I am a life long learner. Starting in grammar school at age 6, and today at age
    64, I will receive my BA in Psychology, October, 2011. Learning is not restricted
    to the academic arena. You have to have to wisdom to learn from anyone and
    realize that it adds to the richness of our lives.
  • 75. Contact Me
    Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
    For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below.