Human impacts on natural resources of lampi marine national park


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1. General Description about Lampi Island MNP
2. Natural Resources
3. Biodiversity Values
4. Spiritual and Cultural Values
(Moken Sea Gypsies/Salone in Lampi Area)
5. Human settlement in Lampi Island MNP
6. Threats to the natural resources
7. Management Status

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Human impacts on natural resources of lampi marine national park

  1. 1. Dr Saw Mon Theint Environmental Researcher
  2. 2. Outlines 1. General Description about Lampi Island MNP 2. Natural Resources 3. Biodiversity Values 4. Spiritual and Cultural Values (Moken Sea Gypsies/Salone in Lampi Area) 5. Human settlement in Lampi Island MNP 6. Threats to the natural resources 7. Management Status
  3. 3. 1. General Description about Lampi Island MNP Locality Myeik Archipelago,Tanintharyi Region (Boke Pyin Township) Geographical coordinates Long. 98˚ 04 E - 98˚ 18 E / Lat. 10˚ 41 N - 10˚ 59 N Establishment date 28 February 1996 Size 205 km2 (79.09 mile2) north-south direction, with a length of 48 km(30 mile) & maximum width of about 6 km (7 mile) Altitude Generally hilly and rises steeply from sea level up to 455m Myanmar category Marine National Park IUCN category II (National Park) Protection level Total area Main purposes Conservation Site Governance Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (FD) Natural resources Evergreen forest, Mangrove forest, Beach and Dune forest, Sea grass beds, Coral reefs Key protected resources Coral reefs, Lesser Mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus subsp. Lampensis) and Salone ethnic culture Significant values ASEAN Heritage Site (18,Dec,2003), Important Bird Area (IBA), and designated Myanmar ecotourism site
  4. 4. × × × × × × Kyunsu Town Bokpyin Town Karathuri Town Kawthoung Town Tanintharyi Town 99°0'E 99°0'E 98°30'E 98°30'E 98°0'E 98°0'E97°30'E 12°0'N 12°0'N 11°30'N 11°30'N 11°0'N 11°0'N 10°30'N 10°30'N 10°0'N 10°0'N 105°0'E 105°0'E 100°0'E 100°0'E 95°0'E 95°0'E 90°0'E 90°0'E 30°0'N25°0'N20°0'N15°0'N10°0'N Distance of miles from main lands  90 miles from Myeik  40 miles from Boke Pyin  60 miles from Kawthoung
  5. 5. 2. Natural Resources  Covered by…  22% of evergreen forest type  2% of mangrove forest type  1% of beach and dune forest  75% of marine habitat such as coral reefs, sea grass beds, fresh water streams and swamps.  Two major perennial rivers: Tourist River (Baik chaung/Labi chaung) & Mi Gyaung chaung and many small seasonal streams  Sea grass meadows around Lampi also supports threatened species like the green turtle and the dugong that feed on sea grass.
  6. 6. 195 plant species of the evergreen forest including valuable tree species like Ka-nyin-ni, Ka-nyin-phyu, Ka-nyin-kyaung-che, Thingan, U-ban, Kan-zaw, etc.., 63 mangrove species, 19 mammal, 228 bird, 10 amphibian, 19 reptile, 42 fish, 42 crab, 50 gastropod (snail, slug and whelks), 41 bivalves (oyster, mussel or scallop) , 35 sea cucumber, 73 seaweed, 11 sea grass 333 plankton species were identified during the survey period.
  7. 7. Evergreen forest supports a variety of amphibians, reptiles birds and mammals.
  8. 8. Natural Mangrove Forest (Rhizophora spp.)
  9. 9. Natural Mangrove Forest (Rhizophora spp.) Mangrove forests found in this park in a excellent conservation status. During the survey period, 63 species were recorded. This forests also provide an important habitat for many species of molluscs, crustaceans and fishes.
  10. 10. Natural Mangrove Forest (Lumnitzera littorea) (tdrfhroG,fteD)
  11. 11. Beach and Dune Forest
  12. 12. Sea grass beds
  13. 13. The main market for the Lampi catches is neighboring Thailand.
  14. 14. 3. Biodiversity Values 17 tree species found in Lampi Island MNP are threatened according to IUCN categories: 4 mangrove species of threatened and near threatened species found in Lampi Island MNP are as follow: Kanyin, Kanyin-pyan, Kanyin-ni, Thingan-net (Thit- me), Thingan-magalay, Thit-net(Kadut-ni/Lay- thayet), U-ban (Kaban), Kaungmu CR (Critically Endangered) Taung-bok, Kanyin-phyu, Kanyin-ywet’-thei, U-ban- hput, Tha-byae-ni, Letput-thi-pin EN (Endangered) Thingan, Taung-phyu, Hin-cho-gyi VU (Vulnerable) La-ba, CR (Critically Endangered) Yae-ka-na-zo EN (Endangered) Sar-thar-pin, Yae-tha-man NT (Near Threatened)
  15. 15. Out of 19 recorded mammal species, 7 species are in danger according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened species (2010). A total of 228 bird species were observed in Lampi Island MNP and surrounding areas. Out of these, 8 species are new records for Myanmar. 19 species are listed as threatened and near threatened species. Asian Elephant (tm7Sqif) EN Sunda Pangolin (rav;oif;acGcsyf) EN Dugong (a70uf) VU Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (arsmufywD;) VU Oriental Small-clawed Otter (a-conf;i,fzsH) VU Black Giant Squirrel (vif;ouf) NT Dusky Langur (arsmufrsufuGif;-zL) NT
  16. 16. Threatened sea turtles of Lampi Island MNP Common name Status (Red list 2010) Note Yellow Tortoise (vdyf0g) EN Live found Loggerhead Turtle (vdyfacG;) EN Carapaces found Green Turtle (_yifomvdyf) EN Carapaces found Olive Ridley Turtle (vdyfavmif;) VU Information from local people
  17. 17. 4. Spiritual and Cultural Values  Spiritual and cultural values are attributed to the site by Moken sea gypsies who consider Lampi as a “Mother island”
  18. 18. Moken Sea Gypsies/Salone in Lampi Area  It is estimated that a total population of 4,000 Moken still inhabit the archipelago both on the Myanmar and Thai side. Less than 100 hhs (about 400 individuals) settled in the surrounding of Lampi Island MNP.
  19. 19. Roaming the sea from island to island, collecting and trading the sea products, settled in some island that offered good shelter and whose forests provided food during the rainy season, built their huts on silts very close to the shore to check the sea and their boats.
  20. 20. 5. Human settlement in Lampi Island MNP In the core area of Lampi Island MNP, there are 5 human settlements;  one village (Makyone Galet village lied on Bo Cho Island, located at the southern part of Lampi),  one private work camp (like a village namely War Kyunn village on War Kyunn Island, located at the north-east side of Lampi Island, with fish and ice factory),  two temporary camps (namely Ko Phawt and Sittat Galet),  one temporary camp located in the proposed buffer zone, called Nyaung Wee Island
  21. 21.  Lampi area has received significant pattern of migration especially since 1996 for tourism and business, before it was a black area with security problems, namely the presence of pirates and insurgents.  In the last 15 years, the population size of the area has dramatically increased as reported in Table 1.
  22. 22. Table 1. Population trend with household ethnic composition trend Survey year 1995 2008 2010 Source FD BANCA OIKOS 1. Makyone Galet 55 hh Only Salone 88 hh 44 hh (50%) Salone 44 hh (50%) other Myanmar 191 hh (825 P) 38 hh Salone 25 hh mixed Salone 11 hh Karen 117 hh Myanmar 2. War Kyunn 172 hh 27 hh Salone 145 hh Myanmar 243 hh Only Myanmar 255 hh (1502 P) Only Myanmar 3. Ko Phawt Not existing 8 hh Only Myanmar 30 hh (200 P) 3 hh Salone 1 hh Karen 26 hh Myanmar 4. Sittat Galet Not existing 9 hh Only Myanmar 26 hh (250 P) 1 hh Salone 1 hh Karen 24 hh Myanmar 5. Nyaung Wee Only boats (227) 27 hh 15 hh Salone 12 hh other Myanmar (375) 62 hh (295 P) 13 hh Salone 8 hh mixed Salone 1 hh Mon (564) 40 hh Myanmar
  23. 23. 6. Threats to the natural resources
  24. 24. Threats recorded in Lampi Island MNP (based on IUCN-CMP threats classification) Threats identified inside Lampi Island MNP Threats identified outside Lampi Island MNP 1. Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Illegal & legal human settlements on 4 small islands causing destruction Growing population in Nyaung Wee & increasing number of fishing boats 2. Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non- timber crops Agricultural expansion (rubber, beetle nut, mango & other plantation in Makyone Galet Forest clearing for rubber plantation in Kyun Pila 5. Biological resource use Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals Heavy poaching of forest mammals (mouse deer, wild pig, monkey, civet) Logging & wood harvesting Illegal logging of mature trees of Dipterocarpus spp. & other valuable species, extraction of rattan & mangrove Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Overfishing, illegal fishing techniques including dynamite fishing. Overharvesting of marine flora & fauna (sea cucumbers, sea shells, prawns, squids, etc.)
  25. 25. 7. Natural system modification Dams and water management/use Unplanned/illegal water use from springs and rivers, for domestic use & commercial use (fish factory in WK) Other ecosystem modifications • Sedimentation especially in the East side • Coral bleaching • Change in sea currents • Sea level rise • Sand digging on Pine Tree Island • Change in sea currents • Sea level rise 9. Pollution Household sewage & urban waste water Waste disposal from existing settlements and visiting fishing boats
  26. 26.  Illegal logging starting from 2005 by using 3 chain-saw  In 2012, increasing in numbers up to 28 chain-saw  Mainly extracted from Lampi and Bo Cho Island.
  27. 27. 8 Sep 2012
  28. 28. Although fishing is prohibited inside the park boundaries, a variety of fishing gears are used by subsistence and commercial fishermen for different catches. Some have collection and carrying license from the Fishery Department and mostly haven’t license. Local fisher used fishing vessels of small-medium dimension and they have frequent disputes with large fishing vessels illegally coming to catch near the shore destroying their traps and nets as
  29. 29. Dynamite fishing is common in Lampi area and it’s destructive effects are visible on the corals around Lampi Island.
  30. 30. 7. Management Status  No staff assigned on site but only on paper  25 people were formally assigned as park staff (wardens and rangers), but they are not yet present in the park.