2. APPLICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Supervisor StudentDr. Nyan Myint Kyaw Ma Phyo Theint Theint HtutProfessor and Head Roll No. C-27Department of Civil Engineering Master of Engineering (Thesis)
Problem Statement High rates of accidents are caused in construction sites because the safety management is not developed in our country. National Laws and regulations are not effective for the Health, Safety and Environmental Management System in our country
Objectives To study the accident theories which aim to clarify the accident phenomena and to explain the mechanisms that lead to accidents. To study the safety management system, theory and procedures from the preparation of the site to the construction of the project. To save the life of construction workers by using the OHSE system commonly in our country
Scope of Study Safety planning, safety procedure, safety training, safety measure, safety requirements are included in the safety management development. Providing growth in safety education and concepts relating to the integrating of aspects of safety into all functions and activities of construction management. To maintain and promote worker’s health and safety at work.
Implementation Program Studying the national laws or regulations require for employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace before the construction site. Studying the information relating to the local safety practice. Studying the safety of working environment present many hazardous substances in construction sites. Providing the welfare facilities at the construction sites. Discussion and conclusion for the safety management system of construction sites.
Expected Outcomes Better safety management system can be considered in the design of new workplaces and processes. Reducing the incidence of injuries and illness among workers at the construction. Improving safety, health and welfare programs for preventing occupational accidents and diseases in the construction sites.
Effective safetymanagementThere are three main objectives for safety management to be effective to make the environment safe; to make the job safe, to make workers safety conscious.
Occupational Health andSafety Management system(OHSE) An Occupational Health and safetyManagement system is a frame work thatallows an organization to consistently identifyand control its health and safety risks, reducethe potential for accidents, help achievecompliance with health and safety legislationand continually improve its performance.
Health and safety Induction training Supervisor and management training On-job training Specific hazard training Work procedures and skills training Emergency procedure training First aid training
The key strategy principles of international and national occupational health and safety policies avoidance of hazards (primary prevention) safe technology optimization of working conditions integration of production and health and safety activities government’s responsibility, authority and competence in the development and control of working conditions primary responsibility of the employer and entrepreneur for health and safety at the workplace recognition of employees’ own interest in occupational health and safety cooperation and collaboration on an equal basis by employers and workers right to participate in decisions concerning one’s own work right to know and principle of transparency Continuous follow-up and development of occupational health and safety
Principles of OccupationalHealth and Safety protection and promotion of the health of workers by preventing and controlling occupational diseases and accidents Development and promotion of healthy and safe work, work environments and work organizations. enhancement of physical, mental and social well-being of workers Enablement of workers to conduct socially and economically productive live
Principles of AccidentPrevention The prevention of accidents is an essential part of good management. Both workers and management must cooperate to reduce accidents. The organization of safety in the plant is the responsibility of the management. Each plant should have a definitive and well known policy on safety. There must be available organization and resources to carry out the policy. The best known method which can be introduced must be applied at the work place.
The benefits of OccupationalHealth and Safety at Workplace Improvement of workers health behaviour due to relaxed atmosphere in the work setting Improved workers health. Improved workers moral and job-satisfaction. Improved workers efficiency and productivity. Lower sickness rates, lower accidents and injury rates. Reduced absenteeism, reduced labor turnover. Reduced health cost to the employee, the management and the employers. Improved corporate image and industrial relations. Lower compensation for occupational illnesses and injuries. Improved intra-personal and inter-personal relationship within the companies, the family and in the community.
Causes of Occupational Diseases Lack of provision of protective (safety) devices by the employers of labor. Inadequate or non use of safety devices by the respective worker. The non compliance to company rules can predispose the worker to various illnesses. The health status of the worker. A worker who is ill and stressed up is likely to be affected. A worker who is anemic due to ill-health like malaria or due to poor nutrition is likely to develop further complications. Poor personal and environmental hygiene. Lack of periodic medical investigation or examinations of the workers to identify those likely or already developing ill-health so that treatment can be started early. Types of medical examination should include x - ray and laboratory investigations. Lack of practice of most containment and preventive measures. Exposure to defective equipment and instruments. Exposure to dermatologic agents which could be endogenic. Such substances include absorption of gold, mercury arsenic agents like Bacillus anthraces and mechanical agents.
Ingestion of toxic substances and dangerous agents such as contaminated food substances, vegetables and fruits. Exposure to hazards like lead, toxic materials, fumes, dust and other substances. Inhalation of gases, fumes, organic substances like silica sulphate, iron dusts, coal dusts and others. Carelessness of workers and hazardous life styles like excessive smoking, alcohol intake and ingestion of non prescribed and adulterated and fake drug. Inability of the worker to go for medical check-up as preventive measure
Advantages of Applying Safetyon construction sitesApplying safety on the construction projectshas many advantages Reduce the accidents on the constructionsites. Help end projects in the early time. Increase employee morals Increased productivity. Decreased the number of compensation.