Enlightenment and the french revolution


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History Unit 2

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Enlightenment and the french revolution

  1. 1. The French RevolutionLiberty Equality Fraternity 1
  2. 2. Key Concept: How did the Enlightenment evolve and affect society and government? ◦ The scientific revolution shattered long-held views about the universe.  This encouraged Enlightenment thinkers to question society and government: ◦ Locke (contract between government and governed) ◦ Montesquieu (checks and balances) ◦ Rousseau (individual freedom and civilization corrupts) ◦ Voltaire (freedom of thought and expression) ◦ Their beliefs in the natural rights of man inspired the American and French Revolutions. ◦ These ideas were RADICAL! 2
  3. 3. Key Concept…Scientific New Newrevolution thinking thinking encouraged leads to revolutions in America and France 3
  4. 4. Ingredients for Revolution 1688: Glorious/Bloodless Revolution in England removes James II ◦ William and Mary take over  No more Catholic kings or queens  No more absolute monarchy ◦ Parliament ◦ Bill of Rights Enlightenment ideas American Revolution (1776) and Constitution (1789) The Estates in France ◦ 1st Estate = clergy = wealthy/no taxes = privileged ◦ 2nd Estate = nobles = wealthy/few taxes = privileged ◦ 3rd Estate = everybody else  Bourgeoisie/middle class = some wealth = high taxes = some rights ◦ Bankers ◦ Merchants ◦ Professionals ◦ Business owners  Farmers and peasants 4
  5. 5. Ingredients for Revolution… Monarchy: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette ◦ Put country in debt  Supporting American Revolution  Personal luxuries ◦ Louis XVI  Weak leader ◦ Couldn’t control country’s spending ◦ Couldn’t control wife’s spending  Needed more money = taxes on the 2nd Estate ◦ 1789: 2nd Estate forces Louis to call a meeting of Estates-General  First such meeting in 175 years  First two estates could out vote the 3rd Estate, even though the 3rd Estate had more people. ◦ Louis sides with 1st and 2nd Estates 5
  6. 6. The Fuse Is Lit! ◦ Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes gets 3rd Estate to declare themselves the National Assembly and become government of France  National Assembly locked out of their meeting room by king  Tennis Court Oath: National Assembly breaks down door to tennis court and vows to stay until a constitution is created ◦ Some nobles and clergy join Painting of the National Assembly in the tennis 6 court at Versailles
  7. 7. The Revolution Goes Off! Rumors ◦ King to use military against National Assembly ◦ King to send troops to Paris to massacre French citizens Citizens arm themselves with whatever they can July 14, 1789: The Bastille prison is stormed by a mob looking for weapons ◦ Release prisoners ◦ Take some guards hostage and killed others 7
  8. 8. The Great Fear Spreads Rumor ◦ Nobles hiring outlaws to attack peasants Citizens break into houses of nobles ◦ Destroy legal papers (can’t owe king or lord what can’t be proved) ◦ Kill nobles ◦ Burn houses  A chateau burns as peasants riot in the countryside 8
  9. 9. The Great Fear Spreads… October 1789: Women riot at Versailles over cost of bread ◦ Demands:  National Assembly provide bread  King and queen return to Paris August 1789: Great Fear spreads to clergy and nobles, more of whom now (out of fear) support National Assembly ◦ National Assembly ends Estate system ◦ Commoners/peasants now equal to clergy and nobles 9
  10. 10. Statement of Revolutionary Ideals August 1789: National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen ◦ Influenced by Enlightenment & U.S. Declaration of Independence  “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” ◦ Rights included  Liberty  Property  Security  Resistance to oppression  Equal justice  Freedom of speech  Freedom of religion  Revolutionary leaders adopt “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”  Illustration of Declaration as motto (fraternity = brotherhood) of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 10
  11. 11. State-Controlled ChurchNational Assembly goes after Catholic Church ◦ Takes lands  Sale of church lands helps pay off French debt ◦ Declares clergy will be elected and paid as state officials ◦ French peasants (mostly Catholics) take offense  Creates division in  Cartoon: “The Zenith of French Glory; revolution The Pinnacle of Liberty.” A French revolutionary watches a beheading while resting his foot on the head of a hanging clergyman. 11
  12. 12. Royals Arrested June 1791: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette try to sneak out of country ◦ Arrested near Austrian border ◦ Attempted escape made revolutionaries even angrier at royalty Arrest of Louis XVI and his Family, Varennes, 1791 12
  13. 13. Divisions Develop 1791: National Assembly creates a new constitution ◦ Creates a limited constitutional monarchy  Strips king of most authority  Creates a Legislative Assembly  King Louis XVI agrees (no choice!) Old problems still exist ◦ Food shortages ◦ Government debt ◦ Poverty Factions split revolutionaries ◦ Radicals/Left: get rid of king, redo government ◦ Moderates/Center: wanted some changes in government ◦ Conservatives/Right: wanted to keep a limited monarchy with few changes in government 13
  14. 14. Divisions Develop… Émigrés (the rich who fled France during the revolution) took actions to try to undo the revolution to get back their land Sans-culottes (the lower-class in Paris) wanted even more radical change ◦ They had no power in the assembly (but that didn’t stop them!) Movie poster for A Tale of Two Cities, based on  Two illustrations of sans-culottes the novel by Charles Dickens about the French Revolution and an émigré 14
  15. 15. War and Execution  Austria and Prussia fear revolution will spread. ◦ They pressure France to restore monarchy. ◦ 1792: France responds by declaring war.  Prussian commander warns that he will destroy Paris if royal family is harmed.  August 10, 1792: Parisians furious at threat. ◦ They storm the Tuileries (place where the royals were under arrest).  Mobs massacre royal guard, takes royal family prisoners Storming of the Tuileries Palace, Paris 15
  16. 16. War and Execution… Rumor: King’s supporters in Paris prisons are going to break out and retake Paris ◦ Mobs raid prisons, and murder over 1,000 nobles  = September Massacres Radicals force ◦ Legislative Assembly to set aside the 1791 Constitution ◦ Creation of a new government, National Convention New government ◦ Abolishes monarchy ◦ Declares France a republic ◦ Adult males given right to vote  Illustration by Armand Fouquier of the September Massacres 16
  17. 17. War and Execution… National Convention, led by radical Jacobians put Louis XVI on trial and sentence him to death ◦ January 21, 1793: Louis beheaded by guillotine. War with Prussia continues. ◦ Prussia and Austria are joined by  England  Holland  Spain ◦ National Convention takes extreme step of ordering a draft of men and women  Illustration of the execution of Louis XVI 17
  18. 18. Reign of Terror Many groups in France fighting for power ◦ Peasants loyal to Catholic Church and/or king ◦ Clergy resisting government control ◦ Rival leaders in different regions of France 1793: Maximilien Robespierre gains power ◦ Vowed to build a “republic of virtue” by erasing France’s past.  Changed calendar ◦ Eliminated Sundays  Closed churches Reign of Terror = Robespierre = leader of Committee of Public Safety and virtual dictator ◦ Goal = protect revolution from its enemies  Bogus arrests, trials  Lots of torture and death ◦ Many “enemies of the revolution” = personal enemies of Robespierre because of their challenges to his power ◦ Apprx. 40,000 killed  Top: Robespierre  Bottom: Poster for ◦ 85% = peasants or middle class, those movie version of the who were supposed to benefit from the Scarlet Pimpernel, a revolution story of intrigues and love during the Reign of Terror 18
  19. 19. End of Terror 1794: Fearing for own safety, members of National Convention turn on Robespierre ◦ Demand his arrest and execution  Reign of Terror ends on July 28, 1794 with Robespierre’s execution ◦ Public opinion shifts  Tired of terror  Tired of inflation for necessities ◦ 1795: National Convention creates third government since 1789  Gives more power to upper middle class  Creates two-house legislature (like U.S. Congress)  Created Directory = five men acting as executive body (like U.S. president) Directorygives command of France’s armies to Napoleon Bonaparte  Top: Illustration of the execution of Robespierre  Bottom: Painting of Napoleon Bonaparte 19
  20. 20. Review Ideas are powerful! ◦ The scientific revolution shattered long-held views about the universe.  Enlightenment questioned society and government: ◦ Locke (contract between government and governed) ◦ Montesquieu (checks and balances) ◦ Rousseau (individual freedom and civilization corrupts) ◦ Voltaire (freedom of thought and expression) ◦ Their radical beliefs in the natural rights of man inspired the American and French Revolutions. Scientific New thinking New thinking leads to revolutions revolution encouraged in America and France 20