Active Socialization•Variations in attitudes, dispositions, and convictions produce a rangeof behaviours, and come about because individuals do not passivelyadopt values and norms, and the circumstances of their socializationare varied. Socialization is an active process where an individualbrings his or her own dispositions and attitudes to bear on decisionmaking – sometimes deliberately, sometimes unconsciously.•Learning a set of values through socialization - from home, the media,school, peer group, and the church, does not necessarily mean thatthese values will remain intact throughout ones life. Persons can re-socialize themselves and learn other values. This is an example ofactive socialization.
Hierarchy of Values• Another variation apparent in society and culture is the different ways in which individuals rank values. Patriotism, for example, may be very highly valued, but for some individuals or groups other values may be ranked higher. For example:• Uppermost in other peoples hierarchy of values will be the development of an overall national consciousness where patriotism becomes more important than small group affiliation.• Others value the personal highly.• Directly opposite to such a value position, will be a Gandhi, a Mandela, or a Martin Luther King, where what is good for mankind takes precedence
Latent and Manifest Acts• According to the sociologist there is a myriad of possible effects to each action in the society and culture• Latent functions refer to the unintended, hidden or unexpected consequences of an act.• Manifest functions, on the other hand, refer to the anticipated, open or stated goals of an act.
Status and Roles• All members of society occupy a number of social positions known as statuses. In society an individual may have several statuses - occupational, family, gender. Statuses are culturally defined despite the fact that they may be based on biological factors such as sex.• Each status in society is accompanied by a number of norms that defines how an individual occupying a particular status is expected to act. This group of norms is known as role. Social roles regulate and organize behaviour. In particular they provide means for accomplishing certain tasks.
Cultural Renewal, Retention and Erasure as a part of values• Cultural Erasure• The erasure of cultural practices is often a gradual process and usually stems from an on- going conflict between traditional ways of accomplishing tasks in the society and newer methods. The latter may be more efficient and cost-effective and may save time and energy. The adoption of appliances such as refrigerators, washing machines, dishwashers, and microwaves, has contributed to the loss of cultural practices.
Cultural Renewal, Retention and Erasure as a part of values• Cultural retention results from a deliberate desire to keep traditions alive so that some groups would be able to preserve their sense of identity. Small groups especially, within larger communities, tend to feel alienated. You may be able to think of distinct social groups in your country where retention of cultural practices is emphasized because it is thought that the very existence of the group depends on these practices.
Cultural Renewal, Retention and Erasure as a part of values• Cultural renewal refers to efforts to salvage parts of our past by fashioning new practices based on the old. Such efforts stem from a feeling that there is much value in what we have neglected. Also, in incorporating new values and norms into our society and culture we find that traditional practices are re- cast and appear in different forms. In many Caribbean countries traditional food preparations which are time consuming and labour intensive are now speeded up and made easier to produce for the tourist market and working persons using modern techniques such as refrigeration and food processing.