2. What is Waste??.... Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Waste from oil Factory </li></ul><ul><li>E-Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Food Processing Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-Medical Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Waste </li></ul>
3. Problem <ul><li>The amount of waste generated per day per person increases as urbanization increases </li></ul><ul><li>Open air burning of municipal waste which is practiced in many parts of the country </li></ul><ul><li>It not only increases the CO2 and CO levels but also has a health hazard to the sweepers and the waste-pickers </li></ul><ul><li>No Indian policy document examines waste as component of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Have resulted in several health and environmental hazards </li></ul>
4. Effects of wastes if not managed <ul><li>Affects our health </li></ul><ul><li>Affects our socio-economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Affects our coastal and marine environment </li></ul><ul><li>Affects our climate </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in global temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in sea levels </li></ul>
5. Sources of Wastes <ul><li>Domestic Wastes – Eg) paper, plastic glass, ceramics, vegetable </li></ul><ul><li>waste </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Wastes – Eg) printer paper, meat remnants </li></ul><ul><li>Ashes – Eg) coal, wood and coke </li></ul><ul><li>- Open burning of wastes also generates ashes </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Wastes – Eg) dung of animals, rejected feed </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Wastes – Eg) expired drugs, plastic syringes, surgical </li></ul><ul><li>dressings </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Wastes – Eg) metal rods, bricks, cement, concrete, </li></ul><ul><li>roofing materials </li></ul><ul><li>- Digging activities Eg) telephone, electricity, drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Solid Wastes – Eg) garment factory would dump </li></ul><ul><li>textiles of various kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer – removed from sewerage – left on roadside </li></ul>
6. Sources of Wastes <ul><li>Hazardous Wastes – potentially dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>- react explosively with air or water </li></ul><ul><li>- change in the genetic structure of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>E- Wastes – electronics disposed Eg) secondary computers, </li></ul><ul><li>electronics, mobile phones, television sets & refrigerator </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Wastes – containing radioactive material </li></ul><ul><li>- product of nuclear fission </li></ul>
7. The Opportunity <ul><li>Only 10-15 % of waste is handled and about more than 80% of the waste is not handled </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the Government in SWM is changing- facilitator and allowed the private and NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Economic prospective of the SWM sector has gone overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Most the non-biodegradable waste such as plastics, paper, glass have a huge market potential </li></ul>
8. Our Approach/ Solution <ul><li>Be Responsible, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle </li></ul><ul><li>segregation of waste at source </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration - Citizen Groups/ communities, </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Corporations, NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>The NGOs/waste-picker associations would be involved in providing employment and a better working condition to waste-pickers population </li></ul><ul><li>Socially, Ecologically and Economically Sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Waste Handling Units </li></ul>
9. Our Approach <ul><li>1) A large scale Bio Gas plant- highly efficient Biogas Plant (Researched and developed by BARC, Mumbai) to handle the entire wet waste (Biodegradable Waste). A 5 tonne plant will output about 400 Cu Metre of Biogas and 400Kg of manure every day. A large scale Bio Gas plant gives economies of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>2) A small scale Bio Gas plant which can be used to handle waste in small capacity. </li></ul>
10. Our Approach <ul><li>3) A secondary segregation unit for handling the dry wastes (Non Biodegradable Wastes) which will be later sold to recycling units. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Based on need, a unit for converting of biogas into electricity </li></ul>
11. Business Models <ul><li>Model 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up Waste handling units for handling SWM along with Municipal Corporations in a Public-Private-Partnership model. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up Smaller Waste handling units in Apartments, or cluster of apartments, Colleges, Schools, Campuses, Townships, and other privately owned colonies </li></ul></ul>
12. Target market and total addressable market <ul><li>target market consists of houses (in the form of cluster of houses), institutions like residential schools and colleges, townships </li></ul><ul><li>local informal market could also be formalized or the rag-pickers could be engaged with the help of NGO’s and a new platform for the recycled waste trading </li></ul>
13. Financial Viability /Highlights
14. Financial Viability /Highlights
15. Financial Viability /Highlights
16. Ecological Benefits <ul><li>Reduction of vehicular CO2 emissions, as decentralized units reduces everyday transportation of waste to dumping ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse the faeces, urine, grey water and rain water and help reduce environment damage </li></ul><ul><li>Help in improve agricultural productivity and food security. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the Green House Gases – GHGs and mitigate Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Methane as cooking gas and saving LPG- If used thermally it has the potential to reduce the usage of LPG/other natural fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of environmentally harmful Urea as manure will be the replacement. </li></ul>
17. Social Benefits <ul><li>Better hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Provides employment to large number of economically weaker sections or unskilled laborers /rag pickers with better and hygienic working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Brings in increased awareness and environment consciousness in the society </li></ul>
18. Public Health and Life Quality <ul><li>Waste will be handled in a hygienic and scientific manner, so no pollution is caused at any stage </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage on the roads is tremendously reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Drains are no longer clogged with garbage – no smell, no breeding site for malaria spreading mosquitoes, no meeting place for pigs and other stray animals </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life improves as the whole city looks clean and aesthetic. </li></ul>
19. Project Evaluation/Planning Phase Step One – Information collection In order to draw up a plan of action for community based SWM- Solid Waste Management, in an area, it is essential to know the exact number of houses, institutions and commercial establishments to determine the types and amounts of waste generated in the area. For developing the SWM plan of the GP/Block, the following information may be collected following rapid rural survey of the community • No. of Households • Total Population • Details about shops, marriage halls, market, commercial establishments, etc • Community map of the area • Existing system and practice of waste management • Quantum of solid and liquid waste generated per day • Local body’s approach and future plans for SWM • Details of vacant spaces available in the local body • Details and activities of CBOs, e.g. Women Self help Groups etc available in the area.
20. Project Evaluation/Planning Phase Step Two – Participatory planning • The data collected is to be analyzed along with the representatives of the community • The community should be informed about various technology options for SWM both at household as well as community level and accordingly technology options should be decided • Based on the discussions with the community, SWM action plan should be prepared.
21. Project Evaluation/Planning Phase Step Two – Preparation of ward level action plan Ward action plan should broadly contain the following: • Social mobilization and awareness generation: It should focus on inter personal communication, focused group discussion, technology demonstration and exposure visits to successful sites • Technology options: Household and community level technological options with approximate cost estimates should be worked out • Operation and maintenance: Success of a technology depends upon proper O&M at the household and community level. This aspect should be discussed in detail during planning process and incorporated in the action plan.
22. Steps for Effective Management of Solid Waste Management of Household Level Solid Waste As far as possible, solid waste should be managed at the household level so that zero or minimum community waste is generated. This may involve the following steps: A) Sorting out or segregation at household level: • Household waste should be sorted out or segregated at the source i.e. at the household level • This is to be done by generating awareness to sort out waste at the household level by keeping bio degradable and non bio degradable waste in separate colour bins of 5 to 10 liters capacity each (e.g. green color bin for bio degradable waste and blue bin for non bio degradable waste) • Reusable segregated non biodegradable waste may be reutilized at household level. B) Treatment/management of biodegradable household level waste: Efforts should be made to treat the segregated bio degradable waste at the household level by adopting any one of the following technologies and reuse the treated products: • Composting • Vermi composting • Biogas plant. The details of all the above technology options have been discussed separately. C) Treatment/management of household level non biodegradable waste: Some of the sorted out non bio degradable waste will be of recyclable type. Households may be encouraged to keep such waste separately and sell to the rag pickers and keep the non-recyclable products for subsequent transportation for community level management.
23. Steps for Effective Management of Solid Waste Management of Community Level Solid Waste In those places where all the waste cannot be managed at household level, segregated and non-managed household waste need to be transported either to the community bins at the village level or to the treatment plant sites at community level where household level bio degradable waste can be treated by community treatment plant and recyclable and non bio degradable waste can be sorted out and sold. Waste which cannot be composted, reused or recycled may be disposed at community level at the landfill sites following appropriate procedure: Collection and transportation: For Collection and Transportation of solid waste in rural areas the following strategy may be followed: • Self Help Groups (SHGs) or group of unemployed youth in the village may be identified for collection and transportation of household waste to community storage/treatment site. Each member may be responsible for collection of waste for about 75-100 households • SHG members may be given suitable number of carts or tricycles for collection and transportation of waste to community storage bins.