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Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
Experientialism  - Atula Ahuja
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Experientialism - Atula Ahuja

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  • 1984
  • file:///C:/Users/Atula/Downloads/Piaget%20(5).swf
  • Transcript

    • 1. Experientialism By Atula Ahuja AN EMERGING THEORY
    • 2. Description and Background 1950s Behaviorism dominated the field of human learning, education and linguistics.  1960s- discontent with the inadequacies of Behaviorism due to reductionist view. 1970s- 80s Non-reductionist theories emerged. Focus: Mind
    • 3. John Dewey (1938) Learning cycle: 1. Review 2. Observe 3. Plan and proceed Plan Observe Review Kurt Lewin (1942) 1. 2. 3. 4. Experience Reflect Conclude and learn Act out your plan. Concrete Experience Observe/ Reflect Active Experiment ation Abstract concepts
    • 4. Jean Piaget (1970s) Piaget emphasized the role of biological maturation and environment on reorganization of mental processes. He believed that children construct the world around them by combining what they already know with what they discover in their environment. The experience of acquiring new knowledge leads to the development of 2 different kinds of knowledge: 1 2 Physical Experience Logico- mathematical Experience
    • 5. Concerns itself with properties of the objectsweight, volume, s ize etc Concerns itself with knowledge of actions with highest forms of abstract reasoning Final Principal of Piaget Intelligence is an action and education, a result of child’s natural curiosity to experience the world.
    • 6. Diagram by Rolf Pfeifer (Pfeifer & Bongard; 2007)
    • 7. Swedish Professor Roger Saljo (1979) theorized –the more the experiences, the better internalized is the learning. Thus rudiments of experiential theory come into play. Further advancement  Early 1980s- Mezirow, David Kolb, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson Kolb pointed that learning depends on how we process experience and reflect on it.  Learning is a cycle that begins with experience.  Continues with reflection  Leads to action
    • 8. Visibility With this Experientialism began to emerge as a philosophical theory which maintained that personal experience is the principal basis of knowledge.
    • 9. Cognitivism revisited During the 1980s Cognitivism gained importance in the field of Linguistics  David Kolb (proposed the Theory of Experiential Learning in his bookExperiential Learning in1984)  George Lakoff (1981- 87)  Mark Johnson (1981- 87)  Catherine Snow( currently professor at Harvard)
    • 10. Kolb’s conceptualization of Experiential Learning He suggests: Divergent quadrant: Practitioners of creative disciplines Assimilative quadrant: Pure scientists and mathematicians Convergent quadrant: Applied scientists and lawyers Accommodative quadrant: Professionals, such as teachers Kolb‟s Experiential Learning Cycle (1984)based on Lewin‟s research “Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through transformation of experience. “
    • 11. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson In Metaphors We Live By (1980), Lakoff and Johnson based Experientialism on the principles of cognitive linguistics. “Thought is the disembodied manipulation of abstract symbols; that concepts are internal representations of external reality; that symbols have meaning by virtue of their correspondence to real objects.” Key ideas:  Thought and meaning are disembodied.  Meaning depends on how we frame experience.  The mind is shaped by bodily and social experience.  Image schemas arise from bodily functions.
    • 12. Schemas Theory: Piaget, Lakoff & Johnson, R.C Anderson The term „schema‟ was first used by Piaget in 1926. Schema has 2 categories: 1. that of knowledge itself 2. process of obtaining that knowledge 1. Abstract concepts are understood well only after concrete information has been acquired. 2. This knowledge establishes the framework into which new knowledge can be assimilated.
    • 13. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson jointly introduced the notion of “image schema” as one of experientialism‟s major foundational pillars in the book „The Body in the Mind‟ (1987) A dog is a „prototypical member‟ in the category „ANIMAL‟, will have more attributes with an animal as compared to a bird and will have more attributes with the category „MAMALS‟ than to „REPTILES‟. Click to Play Animation created by Daurice Grossniklaus and Bob Rodes (03/2002) http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
    • 14. Characteristics of schemata Anderson (1977) Schemas  are organized meaningfully.  change with new knowledge.  reorganize and restructure themselves if concept changes.
    • 15. Catherine Snow Prof of Education at Harvard Social Interactionist Interaction with adults plays an important part in children's language acquisition. “Children who are fearful, anxious or disengaged from others, loose out on countless opportunities to learn. “ According to her parents to child in, „mother‟s speech.‟ These are short, simple sentences with exaggerated inflections and musical speech. (1977)
    • 16. Experientialism in a nutshell         We learn best from our own experiences and reviews. Doing is far more important knowing. Experience moves beyond knowledge- into skill building. To make learning permanent, the learning process should be made enjoyable, motivating and rewarding. Respects the individuals ideas and choices. Space for reflection Process gets privilege over result. Effective learning requires controlled steps outside comfort zones.
    • 17. References          Kolb, A. and Kolb, D.A. (2001) Experiential Learning Theory Bibliography 1971 – 2001, Boston, McBer and Co. http://www.digitalschool.net/edu/Exp_learn_Kolb.html http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learni ng%20Theories http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm http://www.units.muohio.edu/servicelearning/sites/edu.servicelearning/fil es/images/kolb_cycle.jpg http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919565/Learni ng%20Theories http://books.google.co.th/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qBgHYkS23tMC&oi=fnd& pg=PR9&dq=catherine+snow+and+theory+of+experiential+learning&ots= FuHfOD8NEy&sig=vtgsfxnSDDtCibmkJDu3MRTnQw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www.rhetcomp.gsu.edu/~gpullman/3080/articles/Women,%20Fire,%20and%2 0other%20dangerous%20things%20--%20George%20Lakoff.pdf http://web.archive.org/web/20001120004600/http://www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/Learnin g/instructionaldesign/styles.htm
    • 18. Strengths and Weaknesses of Experientialism Theory
    • 19. Strengths
    • 20. Experientialism creates more meaningful knowledge  Knowledge is more meaningful when children construct it themselves rather than having it imposed upon them.  When knowledge is not based on temporary memorization, it is not easily forgotten.
    • 21. Experientialism produces creative minds  Children become critical, creative, and inventive because the major part of their learning relies on active experimentation and discovery.  Multiple teaching/learning methods can be integrated to maximize creativity.
    • 22. Experientialism builds self-esteem  The process of “discovery” of knowledge and solutions builds competence and confidence.  Children will be more willing to explore new ideas.
    • 23. Experientialism encourages cooperation  When children need to learn through interaction, cooperative work is encouraged.  Language is developed at the same time as cooperative skills.
    • 24. Experientialism does not depend on rewards and punishments    Children learn automatically while they are exposed to new experiences (or even the repeated ones). Parents or instructors do not need to present them with rewards to stimulate learning. In the same way, punishments are discouraged as they would make children afraid to try different things.
    • 25. Experientialism does not concentrate on academic outcomes  Learning outcomes are not measured by traditional standardized tests.  Language development is observed on practical usage.  Therefore, children are not pressured or forced to learn. Learning is more fun!
    • 26. Weaknesses
    • 27. Readiness is essential  Children need to be “ready” to assimilate the new experience to current ones. They must know how to make connection between old and new information.  They need to be able to make sense of it; otherwise, it will not be useful. Learning cannot occur.
    • 28. Motivation is needed    Children must be open to learn. If they don‟t pay attention or don‟t participate, then learning won‟t take place. Educational content that is either too simple or too advanced might not be interesting. Instructors then need to adjust, but it is difficult to support everyone at the same time since each child has different potential.
    • 29. Repetition of usage can create wrong understanding  One-time experience may not be enough to learn some contents.  BUT if not explained, children can repeat things without actual understanding.
    • 30. Frequency determines knowledge construction  Frequency determines creative possibilities or productivity of the construction.
    • 31. Limitation obstructs knowledge  If children are not exposed to a variety of language use, they cannot learn new things.  When linguistic experience is limited, their knowledge tend to be constricted.  Therefore, learning by experientialism depends too much on external factors.
    • 32. Reoccurrence of mistakes without corrections  Children say what they hear. The more they hear it, the more it seems to them that this is the only way it can be said.  When adults imitate children‟s mistakes instead of correcting them, children won‟t realize their own mistakes and keep saying them the same way.
    • 33. Pedagogical Application EXPERIENTIALISM
    • 34. Fold in half again horizontally, and unfold right away. Fold the two corners down from the top of the crease in the middle of the paper. Let’s make Dog Origami! Fold the paper in half downwards to make a triangle. Fold the top and bottom corners to the back. Draw a dog face and you‟re done!
    • 35. Learning by Doing: experience is the best teacher
    • 36. Experiential Learning: Kolb (1984) defines learning as the "process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience
    • 37. Learning by Doing Five basic steps of learning process by Diem (2004):
    • 38. Learning by Doing in EFL classroom
    • 39. What kind of learning is it?
    • 40. Active Learning
    • 41. Active Learning
    • 42. Active Learning Process
    • 43. Tips: Approaches that promote Learning by Doing and Active Learning Cooperative Language Learning Group learning activity Learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and others.
    • 44. Activities in Active Learning • a thinkpair-share • work on the board a class game an effective response Role-playing a class discussio n a short written exercise: a daily journal brainstorming • flash cards Mind mapping case study • note comparison /sharing
    • 45. Confucius’s saying:
    • 46. Experientialism as Opposed to Other Perspectives by Mr. Apichat Khamboonruang
    • 47. Issues on Language Acquisition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Origin of Language Knowledge The Nature of Innate Ability The Role of Environment How Languages are Learned The Primary Focus of Study
    • 48. 1. The Origin of Language Knowledge  Experientialism holds that language is learned through environment with some help of innateness.  Behaviourism holds that language is learned solely through environment with some help of innateness.  Nativism holds that language is acquired solely through innateness (species-specific LAD/LF) with some help of environment.
    • 49. 1. The Origin of Language Knowledge  Functionalism holds that language knowledge is learned through environment with some help of innateness.  Cognitivism holds that language is learned through environment with some help of innateness.  Constructivism holds that language is learned through environment with some help of innateness.
    • 50. 2. The Nature of Innate Capacity  Experientialism holds that general cognitive capacity plays a partial role in learning process by strengthening experiential association between stimuli and responses.  Behaviourism holds that general cognitive capacity plays a partial role in language learning.  Nativism holds that specific cognitive capacities plays the most important role in language acquisition.
    • 51. 2. The Nature of Innate Capacity  Functionalism holds that general cognitive capacity plays a partial role in language learning  Cognitivism holds that general cognitive capacity plays a major role in language learning  Constructivism holds that general cognitive capacity plays a major role in language learning
    • 52. 3. The Role of Environment  Experientialism holds that frequency of language experience play a major role in learning process.  Behaviourism holds that language experience play a major role in language learning.  Nativism holds that language experience basically contributes to language development.
    • 53. 3. The Role of Environment  Cognitivism holds that language interactive experience just triggers cognitive development, in turn playing a major role in language learning.  Functionalism holds that language communicative experience (linguistic function) plays a major role in language learning.  Constructivism holds that language interactive experience in social context is foundational in cognitive development and play a major role in language learning.
    • 54. 4. How Languages are Learned  Experientialism holds that children learn language through mentally constructing language knowledge based on strengthened personal language experience .  Behaviourism holds that children learn language primarily through a process of S-R-R concept. Nativism holds that children acquire language through specific cognitive capacities or language-specific capacity with basic support from Language experience .
    • 55. 4. How Languages are Learned  Functionalism holds that children learn language hugely by a process of mapping relations between linguistic functions and forms, motivated by communicative need.  Cognitivism holds that children learn language by mentally constructing language knowledge from surrounding language experience.  Constructivism holds that children learn language by mentally constructing language knowledge from interactive language experience.
    • 56. 5. The Primary Focus of Study  Experientialists focus study primarily on mind and learning processing  Behaviourists focus study primarily on empirical Linguistics behaviour.  Nativists focus study primarily on an internal structure of language.
    • 57. 57 5. The Primary Focus of Study  Functionalists focus study primarily on language form and particularly language function (linguistic function/pragmatic meaning).  Cognitivists focus study primarily on underlying motivation and deeper structure of linguistic behaviour.  Constructivists focus study primarily on social interaction and learning processing.

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